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系統識別號 U0026-2407201318104600
論文名稱(中文) 文化認知差異、轉換型領導風格與員工績效關係研究-以貨櫃航運業者為例
論文名稱(英文) An Evaluation of Perceived Cultural Differences, Transformational Leadership and Employees' Job Performance in Container Shipping Companies
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 林繼昌
研究生(英文) Chi-Chang Lin
學號 r58981019
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 221頁
口試委員 口試委員-蔡東峻
口試委員-廖俊雄
口試委員-鄭永祥
召集委員-張志清
口試委員-余坤東
口試委員-桑國忠
指導教授-呂錦山
中文關鍵字 國家文化  轉換型領導  工作績效  因素分析  階層迴歸  調節效果 
英文關鍵字 national culture  transformational leadership  job performance  factor analysis  hierarchical regression 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究以定期貨櫃航運業者海外分公司員工為研究對象,探討文化差異、轉換型領導與員工工作績效之間的關係。依Hofstede 國家文化理論架構,經由因素分析得出五個文化差異構面,分別為「權利距離」、「不確定避免」、「群體主義」、「男性主義」及「長期導向」。在轉換型領導部份則可區分為三個構面,分別為「魅力領導」、「個別關懷」及「智能激勵」。員工工作績效部份亦區分為兩個構面;「任務績效」及「情境績效」。
本研究經由單因子變異數分析(One-way ANOVA)得知,分公司員工與其外國主管之間在國家文化構面「權利距離」、「不確定避免」、「群體主義」、「男性主義」及「長期導向」間的確存在文化認知上的差異。
本研究採用階層迴歸方法,分析國家文化構面及轉換型領導對於員工個人績效的影響關係。研究結果顯示員工在「不確定避免」、「群體主義」及「長期導向」上和主管的認知差異愈大時,對於員工個人績效具有正向的影響。而對於「權利距離」及「男性主義」等構面認知程度愈大時,則會對個人績效產生負向的影響。另外本研究亦發現當員工認知到主管採用轉換型領導行為時,其對於個人績效亦會產生正向的影響效果。
此外,本研究檢視轉換型領導在文化差異及員工個人績效關係之間的調節效果。結果顯示當員工認知到主管的轉換型領導時,可增強其「不確定避免」、「群體主義」及「長期導向」對於員工個人績效的正向影響並減弱「權利距離」及「男性主義」等文化認知差異對於員工個人績效的負向影響。此研究結果可提供定期貨櫃航運業者在選派管理人員至海外分公司經營業務時的參考。
英文摘要 This study aims to evaluate the effects of perceived differences of national culture on employees' job performance based on Hofstede's national culture framework. Data are collected from employees worked in oversea branch offices or agents in the context of container shipping company. Based on factor analysis, five cultural difference dimensions are identified, namely, power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, long-term orientation, whereas three transformational leadership dimensions are also identified: Charisma-inspiration, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation. In addition, two individual related performance are also identified, namely, task and contextual performance in this study.
In addition, ANOVA results find that perceived cultural differences exist between employees and their foreign managing directors from the perception of employees. A hierarchical regression analysis is undertaken in this study. Results indicate that perceived cultural difference dimensions such as uncertainty avoidance and collectivism, and long-term orientation have a positive influence on job performance, whereas power distance and masculinity have a negative influence on job performance.
The study also investigates the moderating effects of transformational leadership. Results reveal that transformational leadership strengthen the positive effects of uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, and long-term orientation and weaken the negative effects of power distance and masculinity on job performance.
論文目次 ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGE III
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER 1Introduction 1
1.1Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2Objective of the Study 6
1.3Scope of the Study 7
1.4Organization of the Study 7
CHAPTER 2 Literature Review 10
2.1Introduction to Container Shipping 10
2.2Definition of Culture 19
2.3 Transformational Leadership 31
2.4 Job Performance 39
2.5 Summary 45
CHAPTER 3 Research Design and Methodology 46
3.1 The Conceptual Model 46
3.2 Research Hypotheses 48
3.3 Source and Collection of Data 58
3.4 Questionnaire Design 61
3.5 Reliability and Validity Test 69
3.6 Samples 70
3.7 Data Analysis Methods 72
3.8 Summary 79
CHAPTER 4 General Findings and Descriptive Statistics 82
4.1 Response Rate and Non-Response Bias Tests 82
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of Reponses 88
4.3 Respondents Perceived National Culture, Transformational Leadership, and Job Performance 91
4.4 Exploratory Factor Analysis 97
4.5 Correlated Item-Total Analysis and Reliability Test 106
4.6 Comparisons of National Culture, Transformational Leadership, and Job Performance 111
4.7 Summary 124
CHAPTER 5 Empirical Results of Analyses 127
5.1 Confirmatory Factor Analysis 127
5.2 Hierarchical Regression Analysis and Hypotheses Testing 165
5.3 Summary 175
CHAPTER 6 Conclusions and Implications 177
6.1 Conclusions 177
6.2 Contributions of this Study 183
6.3 Implications of the Study 185
6.4 Limitations and Directions for Future Research 188
REFERENCES 191
APPENDIX 212
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