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系統識別號 U0026-2407201313335200
論文名稱(中文) 高亮度氮化鎵發光二極體之光電表現改善
論文名稱(英文) The Improvement of Optical and Electrical Performance for High Brightness GaN-based Light Emitting Diodes
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 光電科學與工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Photonics
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 林予堯
研究生(英文) Yu-Yao Lin
學號 l78971110
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 103頁
口試委員 指導教授-張守進
召集委員-許進恭
口試委員-賴韋志
口試委員-管鴻
口試委員-郭浩中
口試委員-武東星
口試委員-許世昌
口試委員-柯淙凱
中文關鍵字 氮化鎵  發光二極體  效率方程式  掉落效應  模擬 
英文關鍵字 GaN  LED  Rate Equation  Droop Effect  Simulation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本論文主要是探討不同磊晶結構的高亮度氮化鎵發光二極體的光電特性。除了
提升氮化鎵發光二極體的亮度之外,在照明的應用上,發光二極體一直面臨著光電
轉換效率不佳的情形,也就是被稱為“掉落效應“的現象。該現象尤其嚴重發生於高
電流密度時,這樣的現象十分不利於發展照明用的高亮度氮化鎵發光二極體。一般
而言,載子結合率可由輻射結合機制與非輻射結合機制相互竸爭,因此有人認為非輻
射結合機制中的“歐傑效應“是造成掉落效應的主要因素,這種觀點也在現行的復合效
率模型中被考慮到。然而,現行的復合效率模型並不能很好的擬合實驗結果,因此必
然有部份的效率損失機制並未在傳統的復合效率模型被考慮到。為了提高模型的擬合
度,本研究亦針對復合效率模型進行了一些修正與推測以令其更為符合實驗結果。結
果發現,除了歐傑效應的影響之外,電子溢流與極化效應確實可能實際影響復合過
程。電子溢流的影響在於電子不能有效被侷限於量子井進而降低電子電洞的結合率,
尤其於高電流密度時,電子溢流之勢更趨嚴重。而極化效應則是探討材料本身,由於
晶格常數的不匹配,元件充滿著不均勻分佈的電場,因此能帶場被異常的拉扯,載
子的波函數也受到能帶的影響而分離,在高電流密度時,能帶的拉扯會更加嚴重,
因而減少電子電洞對復合的機會。因此本研究主要提出數種針對上述效率損失機制
作改善的結構來提升氮化鎵發光二極體的發光亮度與光電特性,包含磊晶結構的應
力調變、透過結構來減少載子溢流與提升量子井的內部發光效率。另外透過理論推
導,元件耗能也是影響發光效率很重要因素,因此,有效減少元件的順偏電壓必然
能改善整體的元件特性。為了提高氮化鎵發光二極體的發光效率,實驗上以各種具
有目的性的結構來比較其發光效益。具有高電子反射能力的“多重量子能障“結構被
放置於氮化鎵發光二極體用以減少電子溢流的現象。透過有效的提高電子反射率,
電子溢流減少,復合率增加且亮度提升,而由於多重量子能障結構的特殊性,整體結構之電阻值亦減少,明顯的掉落效應改善效果主要是歸因於復合率增加以及順偏
電壓減少的合併效應。除了實驗上的觀察,此實驗亦以數值模擬驗證以強化我們的論
點。另外一種方法是使用”階梯式電子注入層”來減速電子以達成減少電子溢流的效
果。在實驗的觀察上,階梯式電子注入層亦可以改善元件的光電特性,然而電子阻
擋層並不能被其取代,因為氮化鋁材料具有調節氮化鎵發光二極體應力的效果,失去
該層材料會使元件的光電特性受損。另外為了改善整體元件存在的不均勻應力,具
調節應力效果的結構也被導入以解決這個現象。由於應力影響最劇的部份在於主動
區的部份,主因就是來自於氮化銦鎵的晶格大於氮化鎵,故在其材料接面處產生異
常的電場。為了彌補這些變化,我們在其中放入了晶格較小的氮化鋁鎵來產生反向
的鍵結變化,因此預期可以減少原先異常電場的強度而減輕極化效應對元件的影
響。上述的各種實驗,其目的都是為了能讓高亮度氮化鎵發光二極體的光電特性更
加精進,尤其是改善掉落效應。
英文摘要 The different epitaxial structures of the high-brightness gallium nitride (GaN)
based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated in this dissertation. In addition
to enhancing the brightness of the devices in the lighting applications, LEDs face
the poor photoelectric conversion efficiency and this phenomenon is called "Droop
Effect". This phenomenon happens seriously at high current density, it goes against
the development of lighting for high brightness GaN-based LEDs. In general, the
recombination rate is composed of the radiative recombination mechanism and the
non-radiative recombination mechanism. Hence, some researches indicate that
Auger effect belongs to non-radiative recombination mechanism is the main root to
cause the efficiency droop effect. And this aspect is also included in current rate
equation. However, current rate equation does not agree well to experimental
results. Hence, there are must some efficiency loss mechanism not be considered
among traditional rate equation. For enhancing fitness results between model and
experimental data, we modify original rate equation and predict some physical
mechanisms to fit experimental data effectively. It is observed that in additional to
Auger effect, electrons overflow and polarization effect are also affect the carrier
recombination process actually. Electrons overflow may cause electrons not be
confined effectively in the quantum wells well thus reducing the electron-hole
recombination rate. Especially when devices are operated at high current density,
electrons overflow becomes severer. As for polarization effect is about the material
issue. Because of the lattice mismatch between the lattice constants, the device is
filled with non-uniform distribution electric field, so the energy band is bent
abnormally. Hence, wave function of carrier is separated by band bending affect. Especially at high current density, the separation will be more serious. Thus the
electron-hole recombination rate is reduced. For this reason, this research
proposes several epitaxial structures aiming at specific efficiency loss mechanism
to improve the brightness intensity and optical-electrical properties of GaN-based
LEDs. Including stress modulation for the epitaxial structure, mitigating electrons
overflow and enhancing the efficiency of internal quantum luminescing in the
quantum well. In addition, through theoretical deduction, energy consumption of
device was also a very important factor affects the luminous efficiency. Hence,
effectively reducing forward voltage of devices must be able to improve the overall
device characteristics. In order to improve the luminescing efficiency of GaN-based
LEDs that varies purposive comparisons among several experimental structures
has been achieved. “Multiple Quantum Barriers” (MQBs) structure with high
electron reflection capacity is placed in GaN-based LEDs for reducing the electron
overflow. Through effectively raising electron reflectance, the reducing electron
overflow and the increasing recombination rate enhance the brightness of the
device. On the other hand, special properties for MQBs structure causes lower
overall resistance of the device. Hence, obvious improvement for droop effect is
due to the combining effect of increasing recombination rate and reducing forward
voltage. In addition to the experimental observation, this experiment is also proofed
through theoretical analysis to enhance our arguments. Another way to reduce
electrons overflow effect is using “Staircase Electron Injector” (SEI) structure for
decelerating electrons. In the experimental observation, SEI is useful to enhance
improvement of electrical-optical properties for device. However, SEI can’t replace
electron blocking layer (EBL) in mitigating electrons overflow. Because of aluminum
gallium nitride (AlGaN) material may provide strain-compensation effect on GaN-based LEDs. Removing this material will damage electric and optical
properties of GaN-based devices. Further, in order to improve the non-uniform
stress distributed in whole device. The structure could modulate the stress is also
trying to solve this phenomenon. Because the most violent influence is present in
the active region, the main cause is attribute to the lattice constant of InGaN is
larger than which of GaN. So, abnormal electric field is present in the material
junction. In order to compensate those extra-electric fields, we put AlGaN with
smaller lattice constant in front of active region to produce the inverse change on
stress. It is expected that can reduce the abnormal electric field strength to alleviate
the polarization of GaN-based LEDs. Various experiments mention above all have
aim to achieve more sophisticated optical and electrical properties of
high-brightness GaN LEDs, in particular to improve droop effect.
論文目次 Abstract (Chinese)------------------------------------------------------------------I
Abstract (English)-----------------------------------------------------------------III
Acknowledge------------------------------------------------------------------------VI
Contents-----------------------------------------------------------------------------VII
Figure Captions---------------------------------------------------------------------X

Chapter 1
Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Background----------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Organization of this dissertation-----------------------------------------3
Reference------------------------------------------------------------------------------5

Chapter 2
Experimental and measurement instrument ------------------------------7
2.1 Fabrication process of LEDs ----------------------------------------------7
2.1.1 Device epitaxy procedures --------------------------------------------------------7
2.1.2 Device process procedures -------------------------------------------------------9
2.2 Characterizations of LEDs------------------------------------------------14
2.2.1 Photoluminescence ----------------------------------------------------------------14
2.2.2 Electroluminescence---------------------------------------------------------------15
2.2.3 IS power measurement------------------------------------------------------------17
2.2.4 Atomic force microscopy---------------------------------------------------------18
2.2.5 Raman spectroscopy.--------------------------------------------------------------20
Reference----------------------------------------------------------------------------22

Chapter 3
Numerical analysis for optoelectronic efficiency of LEDs----------34
3.1 Rate equation------------------------------------------------------------------34
3.1.1 Normal Rate equation--------------------------------------------------------------34
3.1.2 Modified rate equation-------------------------------------------------------------38
3.2 Advanced Physical Models of Semiconductor Devices software------------------------------------------------------------------------40
3.2.1 Theory model-------------------------------------------------------------------------40
3.2.2 Drift-Diffusion model---------------------------------------------------------------42
3.2.3 Bandgap Energy---------------------------------------------------------------------44
3.3 Summary------------------------------------------------------------------------47
Reference----------------------------------------------------------------------------48

Chapter 4
Optical and electrical characteristics improvement by modulation
of epitaxy structures for GaN-based LEDs-------------------------------55
4.1 Multi-Quantum Barrier------------------------------------------------------55
4.1.1 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------55
4.1.2 Theory and simulation-------------------------------------------------------------56
4.1.3 Experiment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------60
4.2 LED with InGaN staircase electron injector-------------------------63
4.2.1 Theory of staircase electron injector -----------------------------------------63
4.2.2 Fabrication of devices-------------------------------------------------------------65
4.2.3 Electrical and Optical Properties-----------------------------------------------66
4.3 Strain compensation layer------------------------------------------------70
4.3.1 The fabrication of experimental ------------------------------------------------71
4.3.2 Results and discussion -----------------------------------------------------------72
4.4 Summary------------------------------------------------------------------------76
Reference----------------------------------------------------------------------------77

Chapter 5
Conclusion and future work-------------------------------------------------100
5.1 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------100
5.2 Future work------------------------------------------------------------------101
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