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系統識別號 U0026-2407201215505800
論文名稱(中文) Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶的熱溶合成及其性質研究
論文名稱(英文) Solvothermal synthesis and properties of Cu2CdSnSe4 nanocrystals
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 材料科學及工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Materials Science and Engineering
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 施政宏
研究生(英文) Jeng-Hung Shih
學號 N56991421
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 指導教授-林文台
口試委員-方炎坤
口試委員-方滄澤
口試委員-劉嘉吉
口試委員-傅耀賢
中文關鍵字 熱電材料  Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶  熱溶法  高壓釜 
英文關鍵字 Solvothermal synthesis  Cu2CdSnSe4 nanocrystals  autoclave 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本實驗利用兩種不同的熱溶法來合成Cu2CdSnSe4(CCTSe)奈米晶,並探討不同的溶劑、莫耳配比、溫度、時間對合成CCTSe的影響。同時分別對CCTSe和銅摻雜CCTSe進行光學、熱電性質研究。高壓釜中加入聯胺於乙二胺溶液在溫度190℃持溫72小時,可加速形成CCTSe與銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶。在相同條件下於無添加聯胺之乙二胺溶液中,其生成物之粉末會有CdSe,Cu2SnSe3之不純相存在。熱溶反應下聯胺具有使硫系金屬化合物產生降維度效應(dimensional reduction ),幫助形成CCTSe跟銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶。氮氣下用油胺作為溶液,在250℃持溫72小時,可生成CCTSe與銅參雜CCTSe奈米晶。藉由紫外/可見光光譜儀量測CCTSe與銅摻雜CCTSe的能隙約1.1eV,顯示銅摻雜對CCTSe能隙並無顯著效應。
英文摘要 In the present study, the synthesis of Cu2CdSnSe3 (CCTSe) nanocrystals by two solvotherml processes as a function of the solvent, the molar ratio of precursors, temperature and time were explored. Meanwhile, the optical and thermoelectric properties of CCTSe and Cu-doped CCTSe nanocrystals were also studied. On synthesis in an autoclave, the addition of hydrazine to the ethylenediamine solvent speeded up the formation of pure CCTSe and Cu-doped CCTSe nanocrystals at 190˚C for 72 h. Without addition of hydrazine, some impurity phases such as CdSe and Cu2SnSe3 still remained in the synthesized powders after growth at 190˚C for 72 h. The dimensional reduction of metal chalcogenides in the solvothermal reaction by hydrazine enhanced the growth of the CCTSe and Cu-doped CCTSe nanocrystals. On synthesis in the oleylamine solvent in N2 at 250˚C for 72 h, pure CCTSe and Cu-doped CCTSe nanocrystals could be acquired. The bandgaps of CCTSe and Cu-doped CCTSe nanocrystals were determined to be about 1.1 eV by UV-vis spectroscopy, revealing that the Cu doping had no significant effect on the bandgap of the CCTSe crystals.
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 引言 1
第二章 熱電原理及熱電材料發展 3
2.1熱電效應原理及材料 3
2.1.1理論發展 3
2.1.2 熱電優值[8,18,19] 5
2.1.3奈米材料於熱電之應用 6
2.1.4奈米塊材對熱傳導係數之影響 7
2.1.5奈米塊材對Seebeck 係數之影響 7
2.2Cu2CdSnSe4的熱電理論 10
2.3Cu2CdSnSe4化合物製備 13
2.3.1固態燒結法[4] 13
2.3.2熱溶法(Solvothermal)[5,44] 14
2.4研究動機 15
第三章 實驗步驟與方法 16
3.1熱溶法在高壓釜中合成Cu2CdSnSe4 (CCTSe)奈米晶粉末 16
3.2熱溶法在氮氣中合成Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶粉末 17
3.3材料特性分析 18
3.3.1 掃描式電子顯微鏡[45] 18
3.3.2 X光繞射儀[45] 19
3.3.3 X光能量散佈分析儀[45] 20
3.3.4 穿透式電子顯微鏡[45] 21
3.3.5 紫外/可見光光譜儀[46] 22
3.3.6 拉曼光譜儀[47,48] 23
3.3.7 熱電性值分析 25
第四章 結果與討論 28
4.1熱溶法在高壓釜(autoclave)中合成CCTSe奈米晶 28
4.1.1聯胺對熱溶法在高壓中合成CCTSe奈米晶的影響 28
4.1.2熱溶法在高壓釜中合成CCTSe奈米晶之微結構及化學組成 30
4.1.3 銅摻雜對熱溶法在高壓釜中合成CCTSe的影響 31
4.1.4銅摻雜對高壓釜中合成CCTSe之紫外/可見光光譜 32
4.1.5銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結之相變化 33
4.1.6熱溶法在高壓釜之CCTSe奈米塊材熱電分析 34
4.2熱溶法在氮氣中合成CCTSe奈米晶 34
4.2.1 熱溶法之氮氣中製備Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶 34
4.2.2 氮氣下熱溶法合成CCTSe奈米晶之微結構及化學組成 36
4.2.3在氮氣下熱溶法做銅摻雜Cu2CdSnSe4 37
4.2.4銅摻雜對氮氣中合成CCTSe之紫外/可見光光譜 38
4.2.5銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結之相變化 38
第五章結論 39
參考文獻 40
附錄 108
JCPDS 01-070-8931 (Cu2CdSnSe4) 108
JCPDS 01-086-1239 (CuSe) 109
JCPDS 00-019-0191(CdSe) 110
JCPDS 01-072-8034 (Cu2SnSe3-1) 111
JCPDS 01-072-8034 (Cu2SnSe3-2) 112
JCPDS 00-048-1224 (SnSe) 113
JCPDS 01-072-7165 (Cu2Se) 114

表目錄
表1熱電材料之能隙比較 45
表2熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之SEE-EDS能譜 45
表3熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之TEM-EDS(A) 46
表4熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之TEM-EDS (B) 46
表5銅摻雜Cu2.1Cd0.95SnSe4之EDS成分分析 46
表6銅摻雜Cu2.1Cd0.8Sn0.8Se4之EDS成分分析 47
表7銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度300℃ 8小時之片狀EDS 47
表8銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度300℃ 8小時之小顆粒EDS 48
表9銅摻雜CCTSe燒結溫度530℃ 10小時之大顆粒EDS 48
表10銅摻雜CCTSe燒結溫度530℃ 10小時之小顆粒EDS 48
表11 CCTSe退火試片530℃、10小時磨去表面之EDS 49
表12熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之SEM-EDS能譜 49
表13熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之TEM-EDS(A) 49
表14熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之TEM-EDS(B) 50
表15 Cu2.1Cd0.9Sn1Se4成分分析 50


圖目錄
圖1 Seebeck效應示意圖 51
圖2 Peltier效應示意圖 51
圖3材料種類對優值之綜合影響 52
圖4載子通過晶界能障前後變化之示意圖 52
圖5熱端、冷端載子移動示意圖 53
圖6晶界散射前後Seebeck 係數、電導率和功率因子改變的比值 53
圖7黃銅礦(chalcopyrite)結構 54
圖8 CuAlS2有序四面體陣列 54
圖9閃鋅礦超晶格結構 55
圖10四面體[Cu2Q4]和四面體[SnMQ4] 版狀結構 55
圖11高壓下熱溶法實驗步驟 56
圖12氮氣下熱溶法實驗步驟 57
圖13高壓釜不鏽鋼外殼之照片 58
圖14高壓釜鐵氟龍內襯之照片 58
圖15高壓釜鎖緊後之照片 59
圖16架設迴流系統後之照片 59
圖17 Bragg's law 之繞射示意圖 60
圖18不同光子散射過程躍遷能階圖[60] 60
圖19 Seebeck量測示意圖 61
圖20四點探針量測示意圖 61
圖21熱傳導量試片裝置意圖 61
圖22熱溶法高壓釜未加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度190℃ XRD圖 62
圖23熱溶法高壓釜未加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度190℃ RA圖 62
圖24熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度180℃ XRD圖 63
圖25熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度180℃ RA圖 63
圖26熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間40小時 溫度190℃ XRD圖 64
圖27熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間40小時 溫度190℃ RA圖 64
圖28熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度190℃ XRD圖 65
圖29熱溶法高壓釜加聯胺-反應時間72小時 溫度190℃ RA圖 65
圖30聯胺降維度示意圖[61] 66
圖31熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之FE-SEM 67
圖32熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之TEM形貌分析 68
圖33熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之TEM影像圖 69
圖34熱溶法在高壓釜合成CCTSe之HADDF元素分布結果 70
圖35熱溶法在高壓釜合成Cu2Cd1Sn1Se4奈米晶繞射圖位置 71
圖36熱溶法在高壓釜合成Cu2Cd1Sn1Se4奈米晶繞射圖 71
圖37 Cu2Cd1Sn1Se4奈米晶繞射圖位置 72
圖38 Cu2Cd1Sn1Se4奈米晶繞射圖 72
圖39 Cu2Cd1Sn1Se4、Cu2.1Cd0.95Sn1Se4及Cu2.1Cd0.8Sn0.8Se4以矽基板校正之XRD 73
圖40各角度區間校正XRD圖 74
圖41高壓釜合成之銅摻雜CCTSe光學性質 75
圖42銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度300℃ 8小時之SEM 76
圖43銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度300℃ 8小時之XRD 77
圖44銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度350℃ 8小時之SEM 78
圖45銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度350℃ 8小時之XRD 79
圖46銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度380℃ 8小時之XRD 79
圖47銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度380℃ 8小時之SEM 80
圖48銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度430℃ 8小時之XRD 81
圖49銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度430℃ 8小時之SEM 82
圖50銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度460℃ 16小時之SEM 83
圖51銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度460℃ 16小時之XRD 84
圖52 銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度500℃ 15小時之SEM 85
圖53銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度500℃ 15小時之XRD 86
圖54銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度530℃ 10小時之SEM 87
圖55銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度530℃ 10小時之XRD 88
圖56 CCTSe退火試片530℃、10小時磨去表面Cu2Se等雜相之XRD 88
圖57 CCTSe之電導率 89
圖58 CCTSe之Seeback係數 89
圖59熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度200℃、時間72小時 XRD圖 90
圖60熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度200℃、時間72小時 RA圖 90
圖61熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度220℃、時間72小時 XRD圖 91
圖62熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度220℃、時間72小時 RA圖 91
圖63熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間15小時 XRD圖 92
圖64熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間15小時 RA圖 92
圖65熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間24小時 XRD圖 93
圖66熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間24小時 RA圖 93
圖67熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間72小時 XRD圖 94
圖68熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe-反應溫度250℃、時間72小時 RA圖 94
圖69熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之FE-SEM 95
圖70熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之TEM形貌分析 96
圖71熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之TEM-EDS分析 97
圖72熱溶法氮氣中合成CCTSe之HADDF元素分布結果 98
圖73 熱溶法氮氣中合成Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶繞射圖位置 99
圖74熱溶法氮氣中合成Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶繞射分析 99
圖75 熱溶法氮氣中合成Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶繞射圖位置 100
圖76熱溶法氮氣中合成Cu2CdSnSe4奈米晶繞射圖位置 100
圖77氮氣下熱溶法-反應溫度250℃反應時間72小時: 101
圖78氮氣下熱溶法矽基板校正XRD圖 101
圖79各角度區間校正XRD圖 102
圖80 CCTSe與銅摻雜CCTSe之光學性質 103
圖81銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度470℃ 24小時之SEM 104
圖82銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度470℃ 24小時之XRD 105
圖83銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度500℃ 5小時之SEM 106
圖84銅摻雜CCTSe奈米晶真空燒結、燒結溫度500℃ 5小時之XRD 107

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