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系統識別號 U0026-2407201202425000
論文名稱(中文) 福建天鵝洞石筍記錄顯示中國東南部地區中-晚全新世的氣候與環境變化
論文名稱(英文) Climate and Environmental Changes in the Southeastern China During Mid-to-Late Holocene Reflected by a Stalagmite Record From Swan Cave in Fujian
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 張育綺
研究生(英文) Yu-Chi Chang
學號 L46991011
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 85頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳銘志
共同指導教授-李紅春
口試委員-羅尚德
口試委員-張詠斌
中文關鍵字 福建天鵝洞  石筍  鈾釷定年  碳氧同位素  Mg/Sr比值 
英文關鍵字 Fujian Swan Cave  Stalagmite  230Th/U Dating  δ18O andδ13C Isotopic Composition  Mg/Sr Ratio 
學科別分類
中文摘要 福建省寧化縣天鵝洞( 26°18'N,116°49'E,海拔高度505公尺),在氣候上主要受到東亞季風的影響。2010年從天鵝洞採集石筍GC-2,長8.7cm。石筍樣品連續生長,未發現生長間斷,但在50.9~54.7mm和74.3~78.9mm存在滴水點位移現象,因此生長軸方向分為三段。經由鈾釷定年,顯示上部5cm以上為過去全新世晚期4000~3500年的沉積,5~8.7cm為全新世中期7500~4000年的沉積。為了重建當地古氣候環境變遷的影響,我們沿著石筍生長軸鑽取樣品,取樣間距為0.1~0.2mm,共取得485個樣品,所有樣品都進行了碳氧同位素分析。然後,將5~10個樣品合併,以滿足微量元素測量的需要,利用ICP-OES測得65筆Mg、Sr含量數據。
石筍的氧同位素變化範圍為-7.10‰~-5.22‰(PDB),平均值為-6.05±0.30‰;碳同位素變化範圍為-9.88‰~-4.00‰(PDB),平均值為-7.11±1.16‰。碳氧同位素都有從7500年前向3500年前逐漸變輕的趨勢。根據天鵝洞的滴水δ18O值-5.8‰(SMOW)和洞穴溫度19℃,計算洞穴方解石沉澱時的氧同位素平衡值為-6.2‰(PDB),與石筍GC-2頂部的δ18O值一致,配合Hendy Test結果我們確定石筍生長具有同位素平衡分餾。石筍的δ18O和δ13C基本上呈同步變化,氧同位素比碳同位素變化較早,顯示了氣候是控制植被生長的主要因素。
本研究首次用石筍記錄揭示了福建地區中全新世至晚全新世的高分辨古氣候變化:在距今3700~3850,3950~4050,4150~4250,4300~4400,4700~4800,4900~5200,5700~5900,6200~6300和6700~6900年前,這些時段的δ18O和δ13C值較重,指示氣候比較乾旱,植被發育較差;而在這些時段間隔中的其它時段的δ18O和δ13C值則較輕,說明氣候較濕潤,植被發育較好。我們將石筍GC-2的δ18O記錄對比中國東部貴州董歌洞與湖北和尚洞的石筍δ18O記錄,結果顯示在千年尺度上,天鵝洞石筍氧同位素從全新世中期到晚期變輕,與董歌洞與和尚洞石筍氧同位素記錄的趨勢相反,可能說明東亞季風的水汽來源與印度季風的水汽來源比例在不同地區的變化。這一發現說明中國東部的石筍δ18O記錄在全新世長時間尺度的變化上並不都是與太陽輻射的變化相吻合,我們需要對石筍δ18O記錄在不同時間尺度上的變化解釋做更多的瞭解。
英文摘要 Swan(Tien-En) Cave(26°18'N,116°49'E,505m above sea level) is located at Ninghua County of Fujian,China where is under the influence of the East Asian Monsoon. We collected a 87-mm-long stalagmite (GC-2) in 2010. The growth axis of the sample shifted three times, with dripping displacement changed at 50.9~54.7mm and 74.3~78.9mm depths. Through ICP-MS 230Th/U dating (including isochron dating method), the results show that the upper 50mm part was deposited from 4000 to 3500 yr during the late Holocene, and 50~87mm grew from 7500 to 4000 yr during middle Holocene. For reconstruction of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment of the region,we have generated high-resolutionδ18O andδ13C records (485 measurements) and 65 pairs of Mg and Sr concentrations。
Theδ18O of the stalagmite varies between -7.10‰ and -5.22‰ (PDB), with a mean value of -6.05±0.30‰. Theδ13C varies between -9.88‰ and -4.00‰ (PDB),with an average of -7.11±1.16‰. Bothδ18O andδ13C records show a decreasing trend from 7500 to 3500 years. Using theδ18O value of dripping water from Swan Cave being -5.8‰ (SMOW) and cave temperature which is 19℃, we calculate the δ18O of cave calcite which precipitates in isotopic equilibrium value, being -6.2‰ (PDB) that is close to the δ18O value of the top sample in Stalagmite GC-2. This calculation and the Hendy test allow us to prove the stalagmite grown under isotope equilibrium. There is a generally positive correlation betweenδ18O andδ13C,indicating that climate change was the main factor to influence the surface vegetation.
This study is the first attempt to reconstruct the high-resolution climatic variations in Fujian area during mid-to-late Holocene by speleothem record. Based on the δ18O andδ13C records of GC-2, the climatic conditions were relatively dry with less vegetation intensity during 3700~3850,3950~4050,4150~4250,4300~4400,4700~4800,4900~5200,5700~5900,6200~6300 and 6700~6900 yr; and those periods among the above intervals had relatively wet conditions and better vegetation coverage. We have compared the GC-2 δ18O record with the stalagmiteδ18O records from Dongge Cave in Guizhou and from Heshang Cave in Hubei. The comparison reveals that the GC-2δ18O record had a decreasing trend which is opposite to the trends of Dongge and Heshangδ18O records. Our interpretation for this discrepancy is that the moisture source from the Pacific and Indian Oceans had different ratios to different regions through time. We need to understand the physical meanings of speleothemδ18O on various time scales.
論文目次 摘要....................................................... Ⅰ
ABSTRACT.................................................. Ⅱ
誌謝...... ............................................... Ⅳ
目錄.......................................................Ⅴ
圖目錄.....................................................Ⅶ
表目錄.....................................................Ⅸ

第一章 前言................................................01
1.1研究背景................................................01
1.2前人研究................................................02
1.2.1氧同位素 .............................................02
1.2.2碳同位素..............................................04
1.2.3微量元素Mg/Sr;(鎂/鍶)比值..............................04
1.2.4天鵝洞概況............................................05
1.2.5龍硿洞概況............................................06
1.2.6中國東部石筍氧同位素紀錄.................................06
1.3研究目的................................................09
第二章 分析原理.............................................11
2.1石筍的形成..............................................11
2.2同位素分餾..............................................11
2.2.1氧同位素..............................................11
2.2.2碳同位素..............................................13
2.3定年...................................................13
2.3.1 210Pb定年...........................................13
2.3.2 230Th/U定年.........................................15
第三章 研究區域…............................................16
3.1喀斯特地形..............................................16
3.2採樣地點與氣候概論........................................17
第四章 研究方法與樣品介紹.....................................19
4.1研究方法................................................19
4.2儀器分析................................................21
4.2.1 IRMS同位素比值質譜儀...................................21
4.2.2 ICP-OES等離子體發射光譜儀..............................22
4.2.3 Keil Carbonate Device碳酸鹽進樣系統...................24
4.2.4 TC/EA高溫裂解元素分析儀................................25
4.2.5 MC-ICP-MS多通道式感應耦合電漿質譜儀.....................26
4.3樣品外觀................................................27
4.4樣品取樣位置.............................................29
第五章 分析結果與討論........................................32
5.1水樣元素分析與氫氧同位素...................................32
5.2 210Pb定年.............................................33
5.3 230Th/U定年...........................................34
5.4 碳氧同位素與Mg/Sr.......................................42
5.4.1石筍分段碳氧同位素的接和.................................42
5.4.2碳氧同位素對應定年結果...................................44
5.4.3碳氧同位素之間的關係....................................45
5.4.4碳氧同位素協變性........................................49
5.4.5前期沉澱作用對氣候影響...................................54
5.5中國東部氧同位素紀錄對比...................................56
第六章 結論與建議............................................58
6.1結論...................................................58
6.2建議...................................................59
參考文獻...................................................60
附錄......................................................66
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