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系統識別號 U0026-2406201913534600
論文名稱(中文) 影響長青教育選擇之決定性因素
論文名稱(英文) The decisive factors of choosing elder education institution
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 黃木秀
研究生(英文) Mu-Xiu Huang
學號 R46061235
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 104頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃瀞瑩
口試委員-方世杰
口試委員-李憲達
中文關鍵字 高齡化  長期照顧模式  計畫行為理論  長青教育 
英文關鍵字 ging  Long-term care  Theory of Planned Behavior  elder education 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在少子化的趨勢下各級教育機構面對到缺乏生源的窘境,而高齡化的社會則是帶給台灣嚴峻的長照問題。在這樣的背景下,本研究期許找出得以為這個兩難的困境找出解決方法,在少子化的情況下藉由發展長青教育來尋求正規教育機構生源的突破口,並以此提供現行長照政策未服務到的高齡者更多協助。
本研究探討的對象為55歲以上之高齡者,將以涉入理論了解高齡者做決策前的態度、問題尋求、認知,佐以計畫行為理論中社會主觀規範、知覺行為控制以及行為意圖等構面去研究高齡者之消費者行為模式,並將研究結果代入高齡者選擇參與長青教育機構時的決策行為。本研究共回收580份有效問卷,實證結果發現如下:

(1) 正規教育機構發展長青教育具有高度可行性
(2) 正規教育機構應借鑑宗教機構之發展方式
(3) 高齡者願意遠道參與長青教育
(4) 社會主觀規範對高齡者的影響不如預期
英文摘要 SUMMARY
Under the trend of the declining birthrate, education institutions at all levels face the situation of lack of students. While at the same time, Taiwan face a serious issue caused by the aging society. In this context, we hope to find a way to figure out a solution to this dilemma. In the case of declining birthrate, developing elder education system will be a way for formal education institutions to survive. Also, these education institutions can take care of those elder who are not served by the long-term care policy.

In this study, we will use the product involvement theory to understand the attitudes, problem-seeking and cognition methods of elders before their decision-making. Also, we use the Theory of Planned Behavior to discuss whether the elders’ behavior will be influence by social subjective norms and perceptual behavior control. A total of 580 valid questionnaires were collected in this study. The empirical results were as follows:

(1) The development of elder-education in formal educational institutions is highly feasible.
(2) Formal education institutions should learn from the development experience of religious institutions.
(3) Elder people are willing to participate in the elder education from far away.
(4) The subjective norms of society havs less impact on the elderly than expected.

INTRODUCTION
In 1993, Taiwan’s elderly population ratio exceeded 7% and entered an aging society. The Ministry of the Interior announced at the end of March 2018 that Taiwan officially entered the aged Society, and the proportion of the elderly population over 65 years old reached 14.05% and gradually increased.

Compared with major Asian countries, Taiwan's elderly population is second only to Japan, and the growth rate of the elderly population is several times that of other countries. It is estimated that it will take only 8 years to enter a super-age society. The phenomenon of aging is bound to bring to society. In 1996, the Government promoted the " Ten-Year Long-Term Care Plan 1.0" to develop and popularize many long-term resources for home and community. The basic objective of this project is to "construct a complete care system to ensure that people with physical and mental dysfunction can have appropriate services, enhance their independent living ability and enhance their quality of life, and maintain their dignity and autonomy".

In 2017, it has promoted the "Long-Term Care Decade Program 2.0", established a user-based service system and developed a community-based multi-functional integrated service center, and provided diverse and continuous health and social services. It not only expands the target of acceptable services, but also increases the threshold for service projects and reduction of write-off subsidies.While the above-mentioned policies for the long-term needs are still mainly focused on social welfare and medical and health issues.

Another issue related to the aging population is the issue of declining birthrate. According to the "Recommendation of Taiwan Population (2018-2065)" published by the National Development Association in 2018, Taiwan's crude birth rate and crude mortality curve are expected to cross in 2019. In 2017, the total fertility rate dropped to 1.13, and the fertility rate was estimated by 1.2. The total population of Taiwan will reach a peak of 23.61 million in 2021. The population will grow negatively in 2022. By 2065, it is estimated that the number of young people under the age of 15 in Taiwan will be reduced by 1.46 million or 48%. The situation of declining birthrate will make Taiwan's dependency ratio increase year by year, and it will have a huge burden on the young and middle-aged population. In 2015, the ratio of support for the elderly in Taiwan was 16.9. Every 5.9 young and middle-aged people will have to pay for an elderly person. However, it is estimated that the old-age ratio will increase to 36.9 by 2030, and every 2.7 young and middle-aged adults will have to pay for an elderly person. It is estimated that by 2065, the population of 0-14 will only account for 9.1% of the total population, and the population of 65 or more will increase to 41.2% of the total population. The old-fashion ratio will double to 82.9, in other words, every 1.2 young adults need to support an old man.

This rapid change in population structure will seriously impact the overall national economy. What is worth pondering is how the future educational institutions should face the phenomenon of a large decrease in the number of students due to aging and declining birth.
In the previous study, the academic research on the participation of the elder people in elder education program is still insufficient.In this study, different types of educational institutions are considered as different brands to explore, and the advantages and disadvantages of different educational institutions in Taiwan's current elder education and the future development direction are considered from the perspective of the Theory of Product Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Based on the literature, this study implement a questionnaire on elder people over the age of 55, and use the basic demographic variables of age, gender, living area, education level, religious belief, and economic status as the interval variable of the elders , combined with Zaichkowsky (1994) “The Theory of Product Involvement ”and Ajzen (1989) " the Theory of Planned Behavior " to figure out whether the preference behavior will be influenced by our assumptions.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
From the following table, we can see the preference behavior of each kind of institution will be influenced by different variables. It is known that for the educational institutions in Taiwan, the behavioral intention and perceptual behavior control cannot find a law applicable to the whole system, but it can still be analyzed independently by each educational institution. Therefore, the results of this study tend to explore behavioral intentions with the degree of involvement, perceptual behavior control, and social subjective norms. However, with regard to the preferred behaviors of elder educational institutions, the sample structure of the subjects is better used for discussion.

CONCLUSION
The empirical results were as follows:
(1) The development of elder-education in formal educational institutions is highly feasible.
(2) Formal education institutions should learn from the development experience of religious institutions.
(3) Elder people are willing to participate in the elder education from far away.
(4) The subjective norm of society has less impact on the elderly than expected.
論文目次 摘要 II
Abstract III
誌謝 VIII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 12
第二章 文獻探討 14
第一節 老化相關理論 14
一、 撤退理論(Disengagement Theory): 14
二、 活動理論(Activity Theory): 14
三、 持續理論(Continuity Theory): 15
四、 角色存在理論(Role Exist Theory): 15
五、 成功老化理論(Successful Aging): 16
六、 活躍老化理論(Active Aging): 17
第二節 品牌的意涵 18
第三節 教育機構之產品與品牌 22
一、 教育機構品牌 22
二、 選擇教育機構的因素討論 24
第四節 消費者涉入模式 28
第五節 消費者購買決策理論 32
一、 S-O-R模型 32
二、 Kotler行為選擇模型 33
三、 Nicosia模型 33
四、 EKB模型(Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model) 34
五、 Howard-Sheth模型 36
六、 CDM模型(Consumer Decision Model) 38
七、 小結: 38
第五節 計畫行為理論 39
一、 態度(Attitude toward the Behavior, AT): 40
二、 主觀規範(Subjective Norm, SN): 41
三、 知覺行為控制(Perceived Behavioral Control, PBC): 42
第六節 小結 44
第三章 研究方法 45
第一節 研究架構 45
第二節 研究變數與假設 46
一、 研究變數: 46
二、 研究假設: 47
三、 變數衡量: 47
四、 抽樣調查: 52
第四章 研究結果 53
第一節 樣本結構 53
第二節 因素分析 57
第三節 可靠度分析 58
一、 收斂效度(Construct reliability, CR): 58
二、 區別效度: 58
三、 違犯估計: 59
四、 多元常態檢定: 60
五、 模型配適度檢驗結果: 61
第四節 單變數分析 62
一、 人口統計變項對涉入程度的顯著性分析: 62
二、 人口統計變項對主觀規範的顯著性分析: 63
三、 人口統計變項對控制信念的顯著性分析: 63
四、 人口統計變項對知覺便利的顯著性分析: 63
五、 人口統計變項對行為意圖的顯著性分析: 64
第五節 假說檢定 65
一、 研究假說H1~H3 65
二、 長青教育機構偏好行為 66
(一) 社政部門偏好行為與行為意圖、知覺行為控制和人口統計變項關係: 66
(二) 社區活動中心偏好行為與行為意圖、知覺行為控制和人口統計變項關係: 71
(三) 宗教機構偏好行為與行為意圖、知覺行為控制和人口統計變項關係: 74
(四) 正規教育機構偏好行為與行為意圖、知覺行為控制和人口統計變項關係: 77
(五) 小結: 80
將上述結果整理如下表4-34。 80
第五章 結果討論 81
第一節 預期結果與實驗結果之落差 81
一、 H2研究假說之預期結果與實驗結果落差討論: 81
二、 H4、H5研究假說之預期結果與實驗結果落差討論: 83
第二節 人口統計變數對各構面的影響 84
一、 曾參與或正在參與長青教育者各構面表現: 84
二、 曾參與或正在參與的長青教育機構類型對各構面影響: 84
三、 宗教信仰對各構面表現的影響: 85
四、 性別對各構面表現的影響: 85
五、 年齡區間對各構面表現的影響: 86
六、 居住地對各構面表現的影響: 86
七、 教育程度對各構面表現的影響: 86
八、 經濟狀況對各構面表現的影響: 86
九、 心理狀態對各構面表現的影響: 87
十、 小結: 87
第三節 長青教育機偏好受人口統計變數的影響 87
一、 影響社政部門偏好之因素: 87
二、 影響正規教育機構偏好之因素: 88
三、 影響宗教機構偏好之因素: 88
四、 影響社區活動中心偏好之因素: 88
五、 小結: 88
第六章 結論 89
第一節 正規教育機構發展長青教育具有高度可行性 89
第二節 正規教育機構應借鑑宗教機構之發展方式 90
第三節 高齡者願意遠道參與長青教育 92
第四節 社會主觀規範對高齡者的影響不如預期 93
第七章 研究限制 94
參考文獻 95
中文Reference 95
英文Reference 96
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網路資源引用:
1. CNN, See the 'super-aged' nations (https://money.cnn.com/interactive/news/aging-countries/?iid=EL)
2. Stamats (2007). Higher education marketing: Strategy and Planning. Retrieved December 10, 2007 from the World Wide Web:
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