||A comparative corpus study of first person plural pronoun in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese: references, usage and collocation analysis
||Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
first person plural pronoun
language and culture
本文以研究華語與日語中的第一人稱複數代名詞「我們」，以「第一人稱複數指涉」(First person non-singular reference, Helmbrecht, 2002), 「人稱代詞用法」(Uses of person pronoun, Kitagawa and Lehrer, 1990, Biq, 1991 and Quirk et al., 1985)以及「集合名詞」(Radden and Dirven, 2007)為研究的理論基礎，比較華語與日語的「我們」的語意，語用以及搭配的名詞現象。研究的語料擷取分別來自「中央研究院現代漢語平衡語料庫」、「現代日語書寫語言均衡語料庫」。旨在討論以下三個層面: (一) 華語與日語的第一人稱複數在指涉範圍和論旨角色的分佈情形的不同之處 (二) 華語與日語的第一人稱複數在人稱代詞的用法中的使用頻率比較的不同之處。(三) 在華語與日語的第一人稱複數與名詞的搭配詞組中如何傳達文化的不同。
研究結果顯示: (一)日語在第一人稱複數的包括談話對方的雙數指涉百分比明顯高於多數指涉; 而華語在第一人稱複數的包括談話對方的指涉中，雙數(只包含說者和聽者)和多數(包含說者、聽者和其他多數第三者)呈現現同的百分比結果。另一方面，在不包括對話對方的單數與多數比中，華語與日語皆呈現出較多比例上的雙數指涉。而在論旨角色的比較中，研究發現華語的第一人稱複數在語料庫的例句中常作為主事者的角色; 然後日語的第一人稱複數則呈現出主事者與客體為同樣的百分比數字。(二) 命題用法的日語第一人稱複數呈現出比華語高的百分比; 然而非人稱用法在華語中卻比日語常用。而戲劇性用法在華語中的我們和日語中的おれたち都是常被發現用於假設性的情境。轉移用法除了發現從第一人稱複數轉移到第二人稱的用法之外，日語還比華語多了從第一人稱複數轉移到第三人稱和自稱的用法。(三) 在文化中，日語第一人稱複數與名詞的搭配詞可看見日系社會的階級和重視親疏遠近皆影嚮採用不同的人稱代詞，而對比中文的名詞搭配詞則呈現出整體性、團體的概念。
The purpose of this study was to compare and examine the reference, usage and collocation of the first person plural pronouns in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese wǒmen, zánmen, watashitachi, bokutachi and oretachi. The data in this study were retrieved from the Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Mandarin Chinese and Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese. Our data were examined by means of the referential values of the first person non-singular category (Helmbrecht, 2002), thematic roles (Andrews, 1985; and Radford, 1988), usage of personal pronoun (Kitagawa and Lehrer, 1990; Biq, 1991; and Quirk et al., 1985), and nominal collocation (Radden and Dirven, 2007).
The data were analyzed from three perspectives: (1) What are the differences of referential range and thematic roles distribution in the first person plural pronouns between Mandarin Chinese and Japanese? (2) What are the differences of frequency on the use of the first person plural pronouns between Mandarin Chinese and Japanese? (3) How does the collocation pattern in the use of the first person plural pronouns in Madanrin Chinese and Japanese reveal cultural differences? Results show that (1) the Japanese first person plural obtained higher proportions in dual inclusive interpretation, but equal proportions in inclusive plural readings in Mandarin Chinese. The exclusive dual and plural reference is proportionally different in usage for Mandarin Chinese and Japanese first person plural pronouns, respectively. In comparing the highest proportions, wǒmen obtained 40% on exclusive plural reference, which is contrary to bokutachi which received only 28% for the exclusive dual reference. Wǒmen and zánmen are frequently interpreted as having the thematic role of AGENT in sentences; nevertheless, only bokutachi featured a higher proportion in the thematic role of AGENT. The other two pronouns, watashitachi and oretachi reveal much more expositions on THEME among the other thematic roles. In addition, Mandarin Chinese has a higher subject hierarchy in thematic roles than Japanese based on our corpora analysis. Wǒmen and zánmen compared to watashitachi and oretachi are located at the frontal position as AGENT, while the latter two Japanese pronouns are located at the middle postion as THEME. (2) Japanese is prevalently used in propositional usage, while impersonal usage of wǒmen and zánmen was found to be in higher proportions than Japanese. Wǒmen and oretachi both received higher proportions in dramatic uses in hypothetical contexts (11% vs. 17%). This shifting usage is from the stance of first person to the second person. Japanese personal pronoun also demonstrates different topics of shifting usage. Shifting usage was found from first person to second person in both languages, but Japanese contains other ways of shifting. (3) Due to cultural differences in China and Japan, nominal collocation in wǒmen, zánmen reveal a strong tendency of person or group related noun combinations; however, watashitachi, bokutachi and oretachi display different choices of personal relation and topic based variation. Japanese social hierarchical differences manifest in the choice of pronoun collocation. Mandarin Chinese nominal collocation represents the characteristic of unity culture.
In sum, we provide a better understanding to curriculum planners of second language teaching of Japanese and Mandarin Chinese first person plural pronoun nominal collocations with multiple explanations. Through this thesis, we reveal the importance of corpus research and also bring us profound language and culture conservation.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
Convention and Abbreviation list ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation and purpose 1
1.2 Research questions 4
1.3 Thesis Structure 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Studies of person pronoun by corpus 7
2.2 Studies of reference and uses in personal pronouns 9
2.3 Studies of culture and power aspects in personal pronouns 11
2.4 Intern summary 14
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 15
3.1 Data collection and Analysis 15
3.1.1 Data source 15
3.1.2 Data analysis 16
3.2 Theoretical background 17
3.2.1 References and thematic roles 18
3.2.2. Uses of Personal Pronouns 20
3.2.3. Nominal Collocation 23
3.3 Intern Summary 25
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS 26
4.1 Semantic analysis of first person pronouns in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese 26
4.1.1 Referentiality 26
188.8.131.52 Inclusive we 27
184.108.40.206 Exclusive we 29
220.127.116.11 Distributive we 31
4.1.2 Thematic roles 34
4.2 Pragmatic usage of first person plural pronouns in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese… 37
4.2.1 Propositional use of we 37
4.2.2 Impersonal use of we 38
4.2.3 Dramatic use of we 40
4.2.4 Shifting uses of we 41
4.3 The syntactic phenomenon of first person plural pronouns in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese 45
4.3.1 Nominal collocation of we 45
4.3.2 Case comparison between Mandarin Chinese and Japanese 50
4.4 Summary 51
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSIONS 52
5.1 Cross comparison of references, usage and pronominal collocations of person pronoun 52
5.1.1 Inclusive or exclusive interpretation with pragmatic usage 53
5.1.2 The generic reference of pronoun shifting 57
5.1.3 Using nominal collocation patterns to elaborate pragmatic usage 62
5.2 Socio-cultural usage of personal pronouns 66
5.2.1 Social status representation in Japanese and Mandarin Chinese first person plural pronouns 66
5.2.2 Gender differences in the use of first person plural pronouns in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese 74
5.3 Linguistic categories of personal pronouns of different languages 79
5.3.1 Comparison of the reference and uses of first personal pronouns in Mandarin Chinese, Japanese and Spanish 80
5.3.2 Comparison of the strategies for the Peninsular Spanish first person plural pronoun nosotros and Mandarin Chinese wǒmen 87
5.4 Summary 91
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 93
6.1 Summary of the findings 93
6.2 The contributions and limitations of the thesis 96
6.3 Suggestions for future research 97
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