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系統識別號 U0026-2406201202194300
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區1990-2010年間社會經濟因子與老人自殺死亡率之研究
論文名稱(英文) Socioeconomic Factors and Elderly Suicide Mortality in Taiwan between 1990 and 2010
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 政治經濟學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Political Economy
學年度 100
學期 2
出版年 101
研究生(中文) 吳祉易
研究生(英文) Jhih-Yi Wu
學號 U16981092
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 77頁
口試委員 指導教授-呂宗學
口試委員-謝文真
口試委員-楊永年
中文關鍵字 固定效果模型  老人自殺率  失業率變量  離婚率 
英文關鍵字 fixed effects model  elderly suicide mortality  change in unemployment rate  divorce rate 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣高齡人口之老人自殺率居各年齡層之冠,本文以台灣1990-2010年社會經濟因子與老人自殺率為研究,探討老人自殺之原因。利用縣市政府使用資料為23縣市共21年的追蹤資料,而研究對象分為男女別65歲以上、65-74歲、75歲以上,選取的變數有粗離婚率、失業率的變量、女性勞動參與率、人均實質可支配所得的變量、喪偶率、一般生育率、高齡扶養比,經單根檢定為定態後,運用固定效果模型進行迴歸分析。
實證結果發現在經濟因素方面: (i)失業率的變量僅有男性65-74歲為顯著正相關,或許是因其較擔心縣市環境的景氣波動影響生活; (ii)在人均實質可支配所得的變量則在女性65歲以上、女性75歲以上、整體75歲以上為顯著負相關,代表不同的經濟因素對於男女有不同的影響;在社會因素方面,粗離婚率和高齡扶養比對於老人自殺率影響為顯著正相關。另外,在一般生育率方面,整體75歲以上與女性75歲以上為顯著正相關,與原先預期方向相反,可能係因養兒育女的成本太高,因而排擠對老人之照顧,而間接導致老人自殺。
實證顯示老人會受到社會經濟因素的影響而自殺,其中,粗離婚率、高齡扶養比、一般生育率皆對老人自殺有正向影響。同時,性別因素的影響也很重要,在失業率的變量主要是影響男性65-74歲,人均實質可支配所得的變量主要是影響女性65歲以上。為了降低老人自殺率,本文建議政府應強化老人的社會福利。此外,家人方面也應多關心、陪伴老人,以防止自殺發生。
英文摘要 The suicide rates among the elderly aged 65 and over have been the highest, compared to other age groups in Taiwan. This study investigates the effects of socioeconomic factors on the suicide rate of the elderly in Taiwan during the period of 1990-2010. The panel data of 21 years are collected from 23 counties/cities. The elderly are further divided into three age groups: age 65 and over, 65-74, and 75 and over, in both sexes. The explanatory variables are divorce rate, change of unemployment rate, female labor participation rate, change in real per capita disposable income, rate of widows/widowers, total fertility rate, dependency ratio of the elderly. To avoid spurious results, LLC unit root tests are performed, and all the variables are stationary.
The regression results of the fixed effects model suggest, in the economic factors: (i) change in unemployment rate is positively associated with the male aged 65-74, who could be concerned about economic fluctuations in he/she situated county or city; (ii) change in real per capita disposable income is negatively associated with the female aged 65 and above, and 75 and over, and both sexes aged 75 and above, and clearly shown gender differences in economic impacts. As for social factors, there are significantly positive influences on elderly suicide rate, from crude divorce rate, dependency ratio of the elderly. In addition, total fertility rate may also have positive effects on the suicide rates of the group of age 75 and over and the female subset. The estimated directions of influence are contrary to the expectations, which could be related to the child bearing and rearing and thereby crowd out the limited resources and indirectly cause suicide among the elderly.
The estimated results indicate that the rates of suicide among the elderly are subjected to impacts from the economic and social determinants. Among them, crude divorce rate, dependency ratio of the elderly and total fertility rate may all have positive effects on the suicide rate. Meanwhile, gender factor may also play a significant role in changes of unemployment rates for the male aged 65-74, and changes in real per capita disposable income for the female aged 65 and above. To mitigate the suicide among the elderly, the empirical results suggest that government should enhance the social welfare of the elderly. Furthermore, the family should also pay more attention to take care of the elders as an effective preventive measure from the suicide.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與架構 5
第二章 自殺原因之理論與文獻分析 6
第一節 自殺原因之理論 6
第二節 國外自殺相關文獻分析 7
第三節 台灣自殺相關文獻分析 18
第四節 文獻彙整 29
第三章 研究變數探討 31
第四章 實證研究 34
第一節 變數定義與資料來源說明 34
第二節 實證方法 37
第三節 自殺率迴歸模型 39
第五章 實證結果 40
第一節 敘述統計 40
第二節 實證結果 47
第六章 結論與建議 70
參考文獻 72

參考文獻 一、中文部分
林佳瑩與蔡毓智:〈台灣地區自殺趨勢研究:1976-2001〉,《家醫研究》,第3卷第1期(2005),頁28-38。
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游舒涵等:〈台北市1991-2004年間社會經濟因子與自殺死亡率趨勢〉,《台灣衛誌》,第26卷第1期 (2007),頁66-74。

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三、專書
Damodar N. Gujarati著,費劍平、孫春霞譯,《計量經濟學(上)》(臺北市:縱橫圖書出版股份有限公司,第四版,2008年10月)。

四、網路部份
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