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系統識別號 U0026-2404201916393400
論文名稱(中文) 可靠度研究及失效分析於微電子封裝中的銅-鋁鍵合系統
論文名稱(英文) Reliability Studies and Failure Analysis for Fine Cu-Al Bonding System in Microelectronic Packaging
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 微電子工程研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Microelectronics
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 劉建邦
研究生(英文) Chien-Pan Liu
學號 Q18011124
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 235頁
口試委員 口試委員-陳英忠
口試委員-姬梁文
召集委員-林建德
口試委員-黃柏仁
口試委員-陳緯守
口試委員-邱裕中
口試委員-許正良
口試委員-洪飛義
指導教授-張守進
中文關鍵字 銅打線  開蓋  雷射開蓋  Cu-Al合金  高溫儲存測試(HTS)  高溫高濕測試(HAST)  咖凡尼腐蝕  可靠度  失效分析(FA) 
英文關鍵字 Cu wire bonding  Decapsulation  Laser Ablation  Cu–Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs)  High Temperature Storage (HTS)  Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST)  Galvanic Corrosion  Reliability  Failure Analysis (FA) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於銅的材料具備多種優異的物理性質且比目前成熟應用的金引線還便宜,於是在熱超聲波銅引線接合於鋁金屬化墊片上的技術目前被廣泛大量應用於各種數位微電子裝置。
一種新的封裝材料之開蓋技巧用於銅鋁鍵結系統的失效分析應用被開發出來,包含去除環氧模壓樹脂(EMCs)和鋁墊上的聚醯亞胺(PI)膜。這蝕刻的過程亦同時併用了物理的雷射和化學的濕蝕刻來解決過蝕刻的腐蝕問題,特別是在極端的球柵陣列封裝(BGA)封裝系統。而在剝層的技巧上搭配運用乙二胺的鹼性液和留有之前環氧模壓樹脂開蓋的混合酸液(硝酸:硫酸=2:1)能成功地去除聚醯亞胺膜於不同的封裝結構和不同厚度的幾何結構。
銅打線的逆向工程被使用在微電子封裝元件來檢視銅−鋁合金相。銅球接合部分在高溫儲存的封填狀可靠度測試和銅−鋁合金覆蓋率計算方法,大大增加了量產效率和確保改善打線流程的品質。在經過150 °C及2000小時的熱處理後,其結果顯示出微觀層疊狀的不同合金結構,包含CuAl2, CuAl和Cu9Al4。另外在銅鋁的合金層上發現了一些散布不均小孔洞,然而由於太微小並未構成產品可靠度的疑慮。此外在鋁墊的部分也浮現出類似碎裂狀的結構,這也被證實是在銅打線的過程由於超聲波震盪和下壓力而產生,並使銅跟鋁能有效結合更穩固的合金結構。在熱處理的過程中,銅−鋁合金之動力學成長方面也被同步地被測試,從阿瑞尼士方程式可知,合金成長速率(k)於三個不同的成長溫度下,可被求得,並且計算出活化能為76.13 kJ/mol,成長速率常數為k0=46.47 μm2/s。最後得出來的合金成長厚度之統馭方程式可被運用來預估在高溫的過程下,銅−鋁介面合金的行為模式,此在實際工程應用上可大為降低銅−鋁製成過程中的失效率。未封蓋的可靠度測試包含銅−鋁合金覆蓋率觀測和銅球的推力測試,工業上的規格大多訂於合金覆蓋率需大於80%且最小推力值為6.67 g/mil2 (=10.34 Kg/ mm2)。
高溫高濕加速測試用於檢驗銅鋁介面的腐蝕問題在銅球打線流程上以及評估選擇不同模塑料的影響(與環氧模壓樹脂裡的氫含量和氯離子等離子捕捉手有關)。腐蝕現象引發銅第二焊線的毀壞將被使用電化學分析法來全盤了解證實其實際銅打線半導體製程元件的失效機制。為了符合廣泛銅打線技術的應用,確認腐蝕區域和腐蝕產物在電子元件和組件上也將被討論,以確保一個高可靠度的電子元件系統被安裝在汽車的組件上或甚至安裝在航空硬體設備上。
英文摘要 Copper thermosonic wire-bonding on aluminum metallization pad applied in high-volume digital microelectronic devices have developed as a mainstream since Cu is a much cheaper material alternative and it also offers several physical advantages as compared to more mature technology of gold wire-bonding. In decapsulation technique of Cu-Al binary system in FA analysis, a new strategy has been developed for discovering a novel/facile way of etching epoxy molding compounds (IMCs) and polyimide (PI) film. It successfully developed a process both including laser and wet treatments of optimum recipe to solve the over-etching and corrosion problems for critical package geometries of ball grid array (BGA) packages. The deprocessing technique (drenched alkaline aqueous solution of ethylenediamine and then instantaneously combined with mix acid (2:1 Nitric 90% fuming to Sulfuric mix at 40 °C)) could be extended to remove polyimide in different package geometry and different thickness of film.
Reverse engineering techniques of Cu wire bonding process used in manufacturing microelectronic packing components are proposed for evaluating Cu-Al intermetallic phases. The High Thermal Storage (HTS) in the molded bond reliability test and Cu-Al IMC coverage estimation method on Cu ball-bonded parts contribute to increased production efficiency and improved bonding process quality. The results show that distinct intermetallics of microscopic lamellar structures were identified as CuAl2, CuAl and Cu9Al4 after thermal annealing to 2000 h at 150 °C. After post annealing process, voids appear here are too small to pose a threat to reliability concern and Al fragments emerge during bonding process accompanied with smaller diffusion voids are highly connected to create more robust intermetallics. The growth kinetics of Cu-Al intermetallic compound was determined simultaneously during annealing tests. From Arrhenius equation, the growth rate of intermetallic formation (k) has been obtained under three different annealing temperatures and calculated its activation energy of 76.13 kJ/mol and the growth rate constant of k0=46.47 μm2/s. The obtained universal equation of layer thickness can be acted as the prediction model for the guideline of intermetallic growth behavior under thermal effect which diminished the Cu-Al interface failures for practical field application. Cu-Al intermetallics coverage inspection and ball shear test was investigated in the unmolded bake reliability test, which addressed the specification of IMC coverage>80% and typical minimum shear strength of 6.67 g/mil2 (=10.34 Kg/ mm2).
The corrosion issue in the copper ball bonding process and evaluating the selection of the device molding compound (depends on the amount of hydrogen and chloride ions in EMC with ion catcher) for the impact in the Cu-Al interface during bias HAST (highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress test) has addressed. Corrosion-induced-degradation issue in Cu stitch bond will also be implemented by electrochemical analysis and validated by practical case study for a comprehensive understanding of the failure mechanisms involved with copper wire bonded semiconductor devices. To meet the extensive application in copper wire bond technology, identification of corrosion sites and corrosion products on electronic components and devices will be discussed for ensuring a high degree of reliability of the electronic systems where such components or devices are installed in automotive components or even in spaceflight hardware.
論文目次 Contents
摘要 .................................................I
Abstract .......................................III
Acknowledgements ................................VI
Contents ........................................IX
List of Tables ......................................XIII
List of Figures ........................................XV
Chapter 1 Introduction and Background .................1
1-1 Semiconductor Failure Analysis .................1
1-1-1 Failure Analysis (FA) Techniques .................2
1-1-2 Failure Analysis Technique for Cu Wire-Bonding Package .................................................8
1-2 Semiconductor Reliability Engineering ........11
1-2-1 Cu Wire Reliability Tests in JEDEC Standard 13
1-2-2 Cu Wire Reliability Tests in Automotive Device 16
1-3 Overview of Wire-Bonding History and Process Technology ........................................................18
1-3-1 Capillary Wire Bonding History [14] ........18
1-3-2 Wire Bonding Process [16] ........................21
1-4 Pros and Cons of Cu-Wire Bonding ................25
1-4-1 Benefits of wire bonding using copper wire [18] 25
1-4-2 Challenges in wire bonding using copper wire [18] 26
1-5 Influence of Cu-Al Wire-Bonding Process Parameters on Bond Reliability [13] ................................29
1-5-1 Factors Affecting Al Splash/Crack, Si Cratering and Bond Strength [13] ................................29
1-5-2 Process-Related Concerns [13] ................32
1-5-3 Fine Pitch/Low-k Dielectrics/Overhang Die/ Ball Stitch on Ball [13] ................................34
1-5-4 Mold Compound Composition/Chemical Deprocessing 36
1-5-5 Other Concerns ................................37
1-6 Failure Mechanisms Related to Copper Wire and Causes/Risk Factors [AEC - Q006] ................39
1-7 Objective and Thesis Outline ................40
1-8 References ........................................43
Chapter 2 A Novel Decapsulation Technique for Failure Analysis of Epoxy Molded IC Packages with Cu Wire Bonds 49
2-1 Introduction ................................49
2-2 Experimental Section ........................51
2-2-1 Materials ........................................51
2-2-2 Chemical decapsulation process ................51
2-2-3 Laser decapsulation process ................51
2-2-4 Surface characterization of EMCs ................52
2-2-5 Thermal analyses of EMCs ........................53
2-3 Results and Discussion ........................53
2-3-1 Chemical decapsulation and laser ablation ........53
2-3-2 Morphological analysis of EMCs ................56
2-3-3 Thermal analysis of EMCs ........................59
2-4 Summary ........................................62
2-5 References ........................................63
Chapter 3 Facile Chemical Method of Etching Polyimide Films for Failure Analysis (FA) Applications and its Etching Mechanism Studies ................................76
3-1 Introduction ................................76
3-2 Experimental Section ........................81
3-2-1 Materials ........................................81
3-2-2 Instrumentation for analysis ................81
3-2-3 Synthesis of polyimide film ................83
3-2-4 Procedure of etching dielectric PI film from microelectronic packaging ........................84
3-3 Results and Discussion ........................86
3-3-1 FTIR & GPC ................................86
3-3-2 Thermal property of synthetic PIs ................87
3-3-3 Simulation of etching polyimide film ........87
3-3-4 Effect of temperature on etching rate ........88
3-3-5 Effect of etchant on etching rate ................89
3-3-6 Effect of external bias voltage ................90
3-3-7 Etching dielectric PI film from microelectronic packaging ........................................92
3-4 Summary ........................................94
3-5 References ........................................96
Chapter 4 Interfacial Formation and Kinetic Growth Behavior of Cu–Al Intermetallic Compounds (IMCs) during High Temperature Storage (HTS) Reliability Test for Cu Wire-Bonding on Al Metallization Pad .......................118
4-1 Introduction ...............................118
4-2 Experimental Section .......................125
4-2-1 Materials 125
4-2-2 Cu-Al microstructural evolution ...............125
4-2-3 IMCs coverage estimation .......................126
4-2-4 Ball shear strength .......................127
4-3 Results and Discussion .......................128
4-3-1 IMCs morphological inspection and identification 128
4-3-2 Phenomenon of voids propagation and aluminum grain Growth ...............................................131
4-3-3 Intermetallic growth kinetics ...............134
4-3-4 General specifications for IMC coverage estimation in Cu-Al binary system ...............................140
4-3-5 Mechanical strength .......................142
4-4 Summary .......................................145
4-5 References .......................................147
Chapter 5 Corrosion mechanisms study and failure analysis of Cu-wire bonding in microelectronics packaging 172
5-1 Introduction ...............................172
5-2 Experimental Section .......................178
5-2-1 Materials .......................................178
5-2-2 Evaluation of EMCs selection during bHAST .......178
5-2-3 FA and simulation for broken stitch bond .......179
5-2-4 Electrochemical Test .......................180
5-3 Results and Discussion .......................182
5-3-1 Failure mechanism of Cu-Al interface during bHAST 182
5-3-2 Evaluation of EMCs selection during bHAST 186
5-3-3 Corrosion-induced broken stitch bond issue .....189
5-3-4 Simulation of broken stitch ...............191
5-3-5 Electrochemical study in chloride media .......192
5-4 Summary .......................................195
5-5 References .......................................197
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Further Recommendations .....221
6-1 Conclusions .......................................221
6-2 Further Recommendations .......................222
6-3 References .......................................230
Academic Performance List .......................232
C.V. of Chien-Pan Liu ...............................235
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