||Secure and Efficient Data Dissemination Techniques for Opportunistic Clouds
||Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering
Cognitive Radio Networks
Network Security Evaluation
Opportunistic Cloud is a kind of mobile cloud systems used in opportunistic networks. Recently, with the development and popularization of mobile devices, the mobile cloud becomes an emerging network service model. Mobile devices can form mobile clouds by assembling and cooperating with each other to provide various network services. Moreover, exploiting opportunistic contacts of users, mobile clouds can establish an opportunistic network to disseminate data. Generally, because opportunistic clouds are disconnected, data dissemination in this system can be divided into two types, intra-cloud data dissemination and inter-cloud data dissemination. When delivering data inside a cloud, traditional single-hop or multi-hop communication is usually adopted. However, since users might be concentrated and moving fast which will lead to conflict and interruption in spectrum access, the delivery bandwidth is always limited. In this dissertation, applying the concept of Dynamic Spectrum Access, the cognitive radio network technique can utilize the licensed spectrums efficiently to alleviate the spectrum access problem. When disseminating data between clouds, the store-carry-forward-based methods are usually used due to the lacks of stable connections in opportunistic networks. This kind of methods can achieve high data delivery rate but suffers from heavy burdens. In this dissertation, the methods which consider the information of data locality and data time-sensitiveness are demonstrated having better performance in data delivery. Furthermore, network security is another concerned issue in the opportunistic clouds. In this dissertation, we would like to provide users a secure routing path to achieve secure data dissemination. Generally, protecting network security costs a lot. Since different services might demand diverse security requirements, providing proper security protection according to the demanded security requirements is essential. To this end, this dissertation first evaluates the protection capability of security algorithms. Then, an appropriate set of security algorithms can be derived to protect network security of a link. After that, the security levels of all links will be derived. Referring to the security levels of links, the proposed secure dynamic routing protocol can derive a secure routing path for users. Finally, the simulation results show that the methods proposed in the dissertation can be used to securely and efficiently disseminate data in opportunistic clouds.
List of Tables IX
List of Figures X
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Motivation 2
1.2. Organization of this Dissertation 4
Chapter 2. Background 5
2.1. Background of Dynamic Spectrum Access 5
2.1.1. Survey of Blind Rendezvous Methods 7
2.2. Background of Inter-Cloud Data Dissemination 10
2.2.1. Dissemination-based Schemes 11
2.2.2. Context-based Schemes 11
2.2.3. Cooperative Caching Techniques 12
2.3. Background of Secure Routing 12
2.3.1. Protection Capability of Security Algorithms 14
2.3.2. Security Requirements 15
2.3.3. Threat Analysis 15
2.3.4. Secure Dynamic Routing 16
Chapter 3. Dynamic Spectrum Access Techniques 18
3.1. Alternate Hop-and-Wait Channel Hopping Method 18
3.1.1. System Model 18
3.1.2. Problem Formulation 18
3.1.3. Basic Concept 20
3.1.4. Method for Two-user Scenario under the Symmetric Model 21
3.1.5. Method for Two-user Scenario under the Asymmetric Model 35
3.1.6. Method for Multi-user/multi-hop Scenario 36
3.1.7. Comparison and Simulation 37
3.2. Fast Blind Rendezvous Method 41
3.2.1. System Model 41
3.2.2. Problem Formulation 41
3.2.3. Basic Concept 43
3.2.4. Channel Hopping Subsequence 45
3.2.5. Elementary Channel Hopping Sequence 45
3.2.6. ID Sequences of Secondary Users 46
3.2.7. Inner Alternate Channel Hopping Sequence 47
3.2.8. Alternate Channel Hopping Sequence 56
3.2.9. Performance Analysis 59
3.2.10. Simulation 64
Chapter 4. Inter-Cloud Data Dissemination Techniques 75
4.1. Community-based Data Dissemination Scheme 75
4.1.1. Basic Concept 75
4.1.2. System Model 76
4.1.3. Definitions and Assumptions 77
4.1.4. System Description 79
4.1.5. Simulation 82
4.2. Time-sensitive Data Dissemination Scheme 85
4.2.1. Basic Concept 85
4.2.2. System Description 86
4.2.3. Node Location Prediction (NLP) 87
4.2.4. Relay Node Selection (RNS) 88
4.2.5. Successor Selection (SS) 93
4.2.6. Simulation 94
Chapter 5. Secure Routing Techniques 99
5.1. Cross-Layer Design Network Security Evaluation 99
5.1.1. Security Dimensions 100
5.1.2. Cracking Year Metric 101
5.1.3. Cross-layer Design Network Security Management 101
5.1.4. Simulation 103
5.2. Secure Dynamic Routing Protocols 105
5.2.1. Threat-based Link Security Evaluation 106
5.2.2. Secure Dynamic Routing Protocol 113
5.2.3. Simulation 115
Chapter 6. Conclusion and Future Work 119
Appendix I 129
Appendix II 134
Appendix III 137
Appendix IV 138
Appendix V 143
Appendix VI 144
Glossary of Terms 145
Author’s Publications 148
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