進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2401201322231100
論文名稱(中文) 以能力方法架構分析人類與社會發展–以越南為例
論文名稱(英文) A CAPABILITY APPROACH-INSPIRED FRAMEWORK FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT – A CASE OF VIETNAM
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 政治經濟學研究所
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Political Economy
學年度 101
學期 1
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 阮克義
研究生(英文) Nguyen Khac Nghia
學號 U18967036
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 373頁
口試委員 指導教授-宋鎮照
口試委員-李佩珊
口試委員-陳佩修
口試委員-顧長永
口試委員-宋興洲
口試委員-蔡群立
中文關鍵字 經濟發展  社會政治發展  生活運作能力  人類實現  自由  越南 
英文關鍵字 Economic Development  Socio-Political Development  Living Functioning  Capability  Human Fulfillment  Freedom  Vietnam 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本篇論文試圖證明人類世界並非如我們常說的如此發展。雖然人類在發展歷史上已經取得了一些重要進展,但是這樣的成就似乎主要仍以非常有限的經濟成長指標來衡量。因著「發展」超越了經濟的概念,故經濟的成果還不能達到人類和社會的發展。為了回答發展的真正意義這個問題,本文第一個目的在於找到人性問題的答案,從本體論的角度分析各種不同學科的理論,確定人建立自身需求的基本人性,包括發展的需求。發現到人類應該是自由的、理性的、自主的、道德的、平等的、群居的、有尊嚴的。如果不能滿足人性的這些最終需求,社會安排以及社會和人類的發展對於人們是沒有任何意義的,這些人性的需求不僅僅決定了發展成果的合法性,也決定了發展的過程。這個標準是用來評估所有的主流方法,並發現功利主義強調人的需求所帶來的幸福和快樂,沒有顧及過程中如何達到這樣的成果。功利主義誘導的經濟無法探討人類原有的本性,其假設人的本性是自私的,與社會隔絕,快樂和自我利益為中心的,已經扭曲人的本性、人與社會的發展。自由主義和個人主義的重點主要是,在追求個人利益上,要求人的消極自由從別人的干擾中被釋放。主流經濟學利用上述理論先解釋發展的意涵,以收入、財富和消費的增長來完成自由市場制度。羅爾斯主義進一步要求人的平等,以更全面之資源和機會的觀點,不僅包括經濟資源,還包含人類的政治和公民權利。然而,羅爾斯的平等正義理論完全背離了個人使用現有資源以實現他們慾望的觀點,忽略人類在身體、心理、智力能力、自然情境因素、社會和文化元素等之多樣性,這樣因素對於人們有很大的影響,它是如何改變他們即將到來的生活成為實際的生活(這是唯一的終極意義。從邏輯上來說, 能力方法論被提出並證明了其優於主流經濟學,同時可以填補還被遺留在其他理論的不利差距。它可以更人性化、更原汁原味地探討人類、及其需求與發展,並可以幫助保證他們以個人和社會發展的觀點進而實際發展。基於從能力方法來分析這些理論的優勢劣勢,為這篇論文作出了重要貢獻。這是整合框架的建構,考慮到所有社會、經濟的、政治的因素, 這些因素可以對人類和社會發展產生重要影響。該框架有助於回答這個問題:「人類的發展是什麼,應該做些什麼來實現它呢?」它提出,發展要求各種必要的資源類別,從經濟方面的收入和消費到 社會和政治方面的人權。它聲稱,所有經濟、社會、政治政策方面的社會安排,必須採取這樣的工具資源,來實現人類真實生活中的最終目標,此由實際的生活活動所構成,如長期生活和健康、有足夠的教育、自尊感、能夠參與社區生活等。這樣的安排也有採取適當的個人和環境因素(社會、文化、階級、性別)的觀察,使資源轉化過程中,其各自的成果有別於從人到人、地方到地方、群體到群體、文化到文化等。此框架使人們更可能看到,多數窮人所受到的痛苦,不僅從經濟(收入)不平等和貧困,而是社會和政治權利被剝奪了。這將導致嚴重剝奪重要的生活權利,如:無法長壽和健康、有沒有足夠的教育、無法參與政治生活、在公共生活中沒有發言權,因此,無力保護他們和他們的家人免於污染、失業、犯罪,無法保存自己想要的文化和傳統價值觀,受到性別和階級偏見對待等。當人們無法從所有被剝奪中獲得釋放,發展就會失去意義。該框架應用於分析和解釋越南的發展情況。這個實際的應用提供兩個目的:實際測試理論和實踐框架的合法性,並證明越南在以真實的生活功能和能力或自由擴展到了越南人民的觀點來看,在帶來真正和高品質的發展之前,越南的發展還有很長的路要走。
英文摘要 This thesis proves that human world is not that much developed as we often say about it. Although human beings have made some important progresses in their history of development, such achievements seem to be measured in the very limited term of economic growth mainly. As DEVELOPMENT transcends the economic notions, economic efforts only fail to achieve human and social developments. In order to answer the question of the real meaning of development, the thesis aims first at finding the answer to the question of human nature by analyzing various theories of different disciplines from an ontological perspective to identify the basic human nature on which human build their needs including the development ones. The finding is that human is and should be free, rational, autonomous, moral, equal, social, dignified. Social arrangements and development of society and humans would be of no meaning to people if they cannot meet this ultimate requirement of human nature, which determines not only the legitimacy of the development outcomes but also the development process. This criterion is used to assess all mainstream approaches to find that, Utilitarianism emphasizes the need to bring pleasure and happiness to people without taking care of the procedural perspective of how to achieve such outcomes. Utilitarian inspired economics fails to treat humans as they should be, and its assumptions of human nature to be selfish, socially isolated, pleasure and self-interest centered have distorted human nature, human and social development. Libertarianism and individualism focus on mainly on asking for people’s negative freedom to be freed from others’ interference in his pursuit of personal interests. Mainstream economics takes advantages of the above theories to be preoccupied with development in term of increase of income, wealth, and consumption through free market system. Rawlsianism goes further to ask for people’s equality in more comprehensive terms of resources and opportunities which include not only economic resources but also human’s political and civil rights. However, Rawlsian theory of justice leaves it totally for individuals to use available resources to achieve what they desire without taking note of human’s diversity in physical, mental, intellectual ability, and the contextual factors of natural, social and cultural elements which altogether have great influence on how people change what they have at hand into their actual life (which is the only thing of ultimate significance). Logically forwarding, the Capability Approach is presented and proved to be of advantage over the mainstream economics and at the same time can fill in the disadvantage gaps still left by other theories. It can treat humans, their needs, their development in a much more humanistic and authentic manner, which can help to guarantee their real development in term of both individual and social development. Basing on advantage-disadvantage analyses of these theories with main inspiration from the Capability Approach, comes the important contribution of this thesis. That is its construction of an integrated frame-work which allows to take account of all social, economic, political factors that can have crucial impacts on both human and social development. The framework help to answer the question: “what is human development and what should be done to achieve it?” It puts that development ask for all kinds of necessary resources ranging from economic ones of income and consumptions to social and political ones of human rights. It claims that all social arrangements in terms of economic, social, political policies must take such resources as instruments to achieve the ultimate end of people’s authentic living life which is constituted by actual living activities like living long and healthily, having sufficient education, feeling of self esteem, being able to participate in communal life, etc. Such arrangements also have to take adequate scrutiny of personal and contextual factors (social, cultural, class, gender) which make the resources transforming process and its respective outcomes different from man to man, place to place, group to group, culture to culture, etc. This framework makes it possible to see that the majority poor people are suffering not only from economic (income) inequality and deprivation but social and political rights to be deprived too. This leads to the serious deprivations of important living activities like: unable to live long and healthily, having no adequate education; unable to participate in political life, no voice in communal life, thus, unable to protect them and their family from pollutions, unemployment, crimes; unable to preserve their desired cultural and traditional values; suffering from gender and class biased treatments, etc. Development would lose its meaning when people cannot get themselves freed from all of such deprivations. The framework in its turn is applied in analyzing and explaining the Vietnam development case. This practical application serves two purposes: to actually test the theoretical and practical legitimacy of the framework and to prove that Vietnam development has a long way to go before it can bring real and high quality development in term of authentic living functioning and capability or freedom expansion to the Vietnamese people.
論文目次 Abstract I
Acknowledgement VI
Table of Contents VII
List of Figures XII
List of Tables XIII
Abbreviation and Acronyms XIV
Part A – Introduction and Research Methodology

Chapter I: Introduction: Development or Anti-development 1

1
1.1 Can We Call It “Development”? 1
1.2 It Is Not Only Economic Problems and Involving Not Only the Poor 4
1.3 Find the Reasons in Our Thoughts 7
1.4 Humans Are Not Just Homo Economicus 9
1.5 Humans with Freedom and Dignity 10
1.6 A New Hope for Our Development 11
1.7 The Need to Scrutinize the Problems Fundamentally and Ontologically 12
1.8 Vietnam and Its Development Issues 13

Chapter II: Research Methodology and Dissertation Structure 16
2.1 Research Methodology 16
2.2 Research Flow 30
2.3 Dissertation Structure
33
Part B – Theoretical Framework Building 42

Chapter III: In Search for an Alternative Development Paradigm 42
3.1 Human Nature and Their Social Embeddedness 42
3.1.1 Marx and Marxist Humanism on Human Nature 44
3.1.2 Modern Humanistic Humanism and Maslow’s on Human Nature 48
3.1.3 Human and Social Development in Humanistic Economics 52
3.1.4 Functionalism: Social Harmony as Prerequisites for Development 53
3.1.5 “The Great Transformation”: A Polanyi’s View of Human and Social
Development
57
3.1.6 Development from the Perspective of Human, Social Capital
Theory
64
3.1.7 Development Viewed from Rawls’s Theory of Justice 67
3.1.8 Adam Smith and His Conceptions of Human Nature 71
3.1.9 Human Nature and Their Development: Common View from
Different Perspectives

74
3.2 Mainstream Economics and Development Issues 76
3.2.1 Parsimonious Postulates in Neo-classical Economic Theory 78
3.2.2 Consumption and People’s Happiness 83
3.2.3 People’s Choices and Their Preferences 87
3.2.4 Material Wellbeing versus Human Welfare 88
3.2.5 Economic Development and the Concept of Zero-sum Game 89
3.2.6 Practical Assessments of Development Issues: A Policy
Making Perspectives
96
3.2.7 General Assessments on Utilitarianism and Mainstream Economics
103
3.3 An Alternative View of Human and Social Development 114
3.3.1 The Capability Approach: Foundation, Development and Basic
Conceptualizations
116
3.3.2 The Capability Approach versus Mainstream Development Theories
on Human, Social Development, and Social Justice
123
3.3.3 Means, Resources and Functionings Cannot Be Put on the Same Line 129
3.3.4 Achieved Functionings versus Capabilities 133
3.3.5 Well-being versus Agency Freedom 135
3.3.6 The Capability Approach with Individualism and Collectivism 138
3.3.7 Social Structures, Social Institutions with Human Capability
Formation and Expansion
141
3.3.8 Sen and Nussbaum with the Capability Approach 143
3.3.9 Sen’s and Nussbaum’s Combined: A Fuller Advantages of the
Capability Approach
150
3.3.10 General Assessments on the Capability Approach against
Normative Conceptions of Human Nature

152
Chapter IV: An Integrated Framework for Human Fulfillment and Social
Development
156
4.1 Heading forwards to an Integrated Framework for Human Fulfillment
and Social Development
161
4.2 The First and Foremost Principle 184
4.3 Social Opportunities and Equality: Women, Children, the Disable and the
Vulnerable
187
4.3.1 Universal and Basic Human Functionings or Artificial Economic
Excuses
187
4.3.2 Educated to Be Man, Not a Working Machine 189
4.4 Democracy and Freedom: Transparency and Openness 193
4.4.1 Freedom and Democracy for Not only a Decent but a
Dignified Life
193
4.4.2 Real Actions to Guarantee Real Opportunities and
Capabilities to Live Humanly
196
4.5 Family: Final Shelter of Man in Turbulent World 199
4.6 Economic Freedom and/or Anything Else 202
4.6.1 Economic Freedom and Equality: Physically, Materially and
Spiritually Viewed
202
4.6.2 Labor Assurance: Building a Decent Life with Flourishing Mind 204
4.6.3 Economic Freedom: Prosperity and Affluence versus
Starvations and Diseases
207
4.6.4 Actions Matter 210
4.7 Cultural Freedom 211
4.7.1 Cultural Liberty: Nondiscrimination Love and Respect 211
4.7.2 Challenges to Culture-Conscience Freedom 214
4.8 Freedom, Equality, Benevolence 217
4.9 To Live Harmoniously with the Nature: End-in-Itself Need 220
4.10 Better Integrated Framework for Human Fulfillment & Social Development
220

Part C - The Case of Vietnam Development
225
Chapter V – Vietnam and Development Issues 225
5.1 Vietnam’s Development: Gains or Pains 225
5.2 The Integrated Framework and Its Applicability in Vietnam 231
5.3 The Necessary Reassessments of Vietnam’s Development 234

Chapter VI – Government Responsibility and Vietnam’s Economic-Socio
Development
238
6.1 Unsound Economic Governance: Depravation of People’s Living
Functionings
238
6.1.1 Financing the Poor? 239
6.1.2 Biased Economic Policies and State Corruption: People’s Living
Resources Deprived
241
6.1.3 Deficient Economic Management: Consequences on People’s Living
Standards
249
6.1.4 Ineffective Investment 253
6.1.5 The Vietnamese State’s Economic Governance and Its People’s
Material Needs
255
6.2 The Environment Aspects of Development 258
6.2.1 Environment Crises Threatening All But the Poor Suffer More 259
6.2.2 Economic Development and Pollution: Threats on People’s
Functioning to Live Healthily
259
6.2.3 Government Responsibility and Environment Crises 261
6.3 Challenges to Vietnam’s Development 262
6.3.1 Equality Deterioration: Dark Clouds on Economic Picture 263
6.3.2 Urban-Rural Disparity: the Poor Poorer 266
6.3.3 Poverty and Inequality within Rich and Affluent Areas 267
6.3.4 Geographic Conditions Augmenting the Poor’s Suffering 268
6.3.5 Gender Discrimination 270
6.3.6 Ethnic Inequality 273
6.3.7 Government Responsibility on Inequality 274

Chapter VII – Development Of, For, and By the People
277
7.1 The State-Society Relation in Vietnam: Re-Understanding “Development For,
Of and By the People”
277
7.2 The Vietnamese State and the People’s Rights 283
7.3 Vietnam’s Political System with NGOs and Civilian Rights 285
7.4 Powerful State versus Obedient Civil Society: the Issues of People’s Right and
Interest Protection
292
7.5 Indispensible Trend of Democracy and Freedom 298
7.6 Cultural Freedom 301
7.7 Education Re-assessment 304
7.7.1 Inadequate and Unequal Access to Resources 304
7.7.2 A Lack of Guiding Philosophy in Education 305
7.7.3 Vietnam Education System: Low-Quality Products 307
7.7.4 Education as a Miniature of a Society in Value Crisis 308
7.8 Vietnam’s “Development Of, For and By the People”: Stay Poor or Better 309
7.9 Vietnam’s Development: Suggested Solutions 311

Part D – Conclusion 324

Chapter VIII - Concluding Remarks, Contributions and Future Research
Directions
324
8.1 We Are Not Humanly Developed as We Believe and Expect 324
8.2 The Answer Lies in Our Thoughts, Not in Our Consumptions and
Competitions
326
8.3 Human Nature Ontologically Defined and Real Human Development 327
8.4 Solutions for the Development and Progress Crises 331
8.5 Main Contributions of the Thesis 332
8.6 Limitations 338
8.7 Academic Challenges and Future Research Directions 340
References 342
參考文獻 Abrami, R. and Henaff, N. (2004). “The City and the Countryside: Economy, State and Socialist Legacies in the Vietnamese Labor Market”, in Beresford. M. and Tran. N. A. (eds.). Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Ackerman, F. (1997). Human Wellbeing and Economic Goals. Island Press: Washington D.C.

Agence France-Presse, (October 26, 2008). “UN Says Global Turmoil and High Prices
Threaten Vietnam's Poor”. Available at: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/385478/1/.html

Ahuja, V. B.; Ferreira, F. and Walton, M. (1997).Everyone’s Miracle? Revisiting
Poverty and Inequality in East Asia. Washington D.C: World Bank.

Alessandrini, M. (2002). Is Civil Society an Adequate Theory? Orlando: The Dryden Press.

Alkire, S. (2002). Valuing Freedoms: Sen's Capability Approach and Poverty Reduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2005). Growth and Change in Asia and the Pacific:
Key Indicators 2005. New York: Oxford University Press.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2005). Participatory Poverty and Governance
Assessment: Central Coast and Highlands Region. Hanoi: ADB.

Associated Press. (May 12, 2005). “Agreement Reached after Vietnamese Workers Strike at
Plant That Makes McDonald’s Toys.” Available at: http://www.htrends.com/trends-detail-sid-16526-t-Vietnamese_Happy_Meal_Toy_Strike_Over.html. Accessed 2011, Jan, 15.

Atkinson, A and Stiglitz, J. (1987). Lectures in Public Economic. New York: McGraw-
Hill
Bach, T.S. (2004). “Institutional Challenges for Sustainable Development in Vietnam: the Case
of the Coal Mining Sector”, in Beresford. M. and Tran. N. A. (eds.). Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Bales, S. and Phung, D.T. and Ho, S.C. (2001). Sectoral Changes and Poverty, Hanoi:
UNDP & Statistical Publishing House.

Barnett, V. (2009). Marx. London: Routledge.

Basu, K. (1987). Achievements, Capabilities and the Concept of Wellbeing. Social Choice and Welfare. Vol. 4, pp. 69-76.

Baulch, B., Nguyen, T.M.H., Nguyen, T.T.P and T.H. Pham. (2011). Ethnic Minority Poverty
in Vietnam. Available at: http://www.chronicpoverty.org/publications/details/ethnic-minority-poverty-in-vietnam. Accessed 2012, April 24.

BBC Vietnamese. (2012, April 24). “Vụ Văn Giang: Chính quyền cưỡng chế,” Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/vietnamese/vietnam/2012/04/120424_van_giang_showdown.shtml. Accessed 2012, May 25.
BBC Vietnamese. (2012, Oct 9). “Dân Văn Giang 'dồn' Chính phủ,” Available at:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/vietnamese/vietnam/2012/10/121009_vangiang_new_petition.shtml, Accessed 2012, Oct 12.

Bee.net. (2011). “World Bank: Chính phủ Việt Nam đang đúng hướng” (World Bank: Vietnam
Government Is on the Right Path). Available at:
http://bee.net.vn/channel/2043/201103/WB-Chinh-phu-Viet-Nam-dang-dung-huong-1793859/. Accessed 2012, Jan 15.

Beneria, L. (2003). Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as if People
Mattered. London: Routledge.

Beresford, M. (2004). “Lessons from the Asian Crisis for the Sustainability of
Vietnamese Economic Development”, in Beresford, M. and Tran, N. A. (eds.). Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Beresford, M. and Tran, N. A (eds). (2004). Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of
Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Berlin, I. (1958). Two Concepts of Liberty. Oxford University. New York: Clarendon Press.

Bertram, C. (2003). Rousseau and The Social Contract. London: Routledge.

Bland, B. (March 7, 2011). “Vinashin: A Tough Lesson”. Beyondbrics. Available at:
http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2011/03/07/vinashin-a-lesson-for-investors-and-government/#axzz2CDmVgDqP. Accessed 2012, Feb 18.

Bland, B. (2011) “Vietnam Sees More Women Filing For Divorce,” Available at
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/60466878-d39a-11e0-bc6b-00144feab49a.html#axzz2C7IrKgE0. Accessed on 2012, Jun 12.

Blider, A.S. (1994). Economic principles and policy. Orlando: The Dryden Press.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). “The Forms of Capital”. Handbook for Theory and Research for the
Sociology of Education. Edited by Richardson, J.G. New York: Greenwood.

Breu, M., Dobbs, R., Remes, J., Skilling, D. and J. Kim. (2012). Sustaining Vietnam’s Growth:
The Productivity Challenge. Washington DC: McKinsey Global Institute.

Buchanan, J. M. (1954). Individual Choice in Voting and the Market. Journal of Political
Economy. Vol. 62, pp. 334–43.

Buchanan, J.M. (1976). “The Justice of Natural Liberty”. Journal of Legal Studies. Vol. 5, pp.
1–16.

Burawoy, M. (2003). “For a Sociological Marxism: The Complementary Convergence of
Antonio Gramsci and Karl Polanyi”. Politics and Society. Vol. 31, pp. 193 - 261.
Burawoy, M. (2000). “Marxism after Communism”. Theory and Society. Vol. 29, pp. 151 –
174.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 2007, “2006 Country Reports on Human
Rights Practices: Vietnam,” Washington D.C.: US Department of State.

Callan J.S. and Thomas J.M. (1995). Environmental Economics & Management. : Theory,
Policy and Applications. South-Western Publisher.

Cameron, G. (2001). The Economics of the Good Life. Oxford: Oxford University.

Central Institute of Economic Management (CIEM) and UNDP. (2001). Domestic
Private Sector Update. Improving Business Regulations and Regulatory Processes. Hanoi: Central Institute of Economic Management.

Central Institute of Economic Management (CIEM) and UNDP. (2002). The Role of the
Private Sector in Trade in Viet Nam: The Case of Textile and Garment Industries. Hanoi: CIEM

Chaudhry, P and Ruysschaert, G. (2007). Climate Change and Human Development in
Vietnam. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam, Human Development Report Office, 2007.
Chomsky, N. (1999). Profit over People: Neo-liberalism and Global Order. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Cochrane, P. (2006). Cultural Capital. Ecological Economics. Vol. 57, pp. 318-330.

Cohen, G. A. (1993). “Equality of What? On Welfare, Goods and Capabilities”. The Quality of
Life. Edited by Nussbaum, M. and Sen, A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 9-29.

Cohen, G. A. )1994). “Amartya Sen's Unequal World”. New Left Review. Vol. 203, pp. 117-29.

Coleman, J. (1988). “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital”. American Journal of
Sociology. Vol. 94, pp. 95-120.

Committee to Protect Vietnamese Workers. (January 25, 2009). “Vietnam Labor News
Summary for December 2008,” Available at: http://www.vitudoweb.com/read.asp?Fl=1/20090201141717.txt&lang=en . Accessed March 12, 2011.

Crocker, L. (1980). Positive Liberty. Martinus Nijhoff: The Hague.

Crocker, D.A. (1992). “Functioning and Capability: The Foundation of Sen’s and Nussbaum’s
Development Ethics”. Political Theory. Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 584-612.

Dang, P. (2004). “Stages on the Road to Renovation of the Vietnamese Economy: a Historical
Perspective”, in Beresford, M. and Tran, N. A. (eds.), Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Dang, N.V; Chu T.S., and Luu H. (1993). The Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam.
Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers.

Dang, N.V. (1998). Ethnological and religious problems in Vietnam. Hanoi: Social Sciences
Publishing House.

Dapice, D.O. (2003). “Vietnam’s Economy: Success Story or Weird Dualism? A SWOT
Analysis”. Prepared for United Nations Development Programs and Prime Minister’s Research Commission.

Dixon, C. (2003). “Developmental lessons of the Vietnamese transitional economy”. Progress
in Development Studies. Vol 3, 4 pp. 287–306.

Diwan, R. (2000). “Relational Wealth and the Quality of Life”. Journal of Socio-Economics.
Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 305-340.

Durkheim, E. (1964). The Rules of Sociological Method. [1895], Edited by George, EG. Catlin;
Translated by Sarah, A. Solovay & John, H. Mueller. New York: The Free Press of Glenco.

Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. [1893]. New York: Free Press.

Edwards, B. and Foley, M.W. (1998). Civil Society and Social Capital beyond Putnam. New
York: Free Press.

Einstein, A. (1949). “Why Socialism?”. Monthly Review. New York, May, 1949.

Etzioni, A. (1988). Economics and Human Nature: The Moral Dimension Towards a New
Economics. New York: Free Press.

Fforde, A. (2005a). “Vietnam in 2004: Popular Authority Seeking Power”, Asian Survey. Vol. 4
5:1 January/February 2005, pp. 146-152

Fforde, A. (2005b). Vietnam’s successful turnaround and the intentionality issue. Mimeo.

Fforde, A and Nguyen, D.H. (2001). “Vietnamese Farmers’ Organizations”, Hanoi:
CERUDEV/NISTPASS, AARES Conference.

Fine, B. (2001). Social Capital versus Social Theory: Political Economy and Social Science at
the Turn of the Millennium. London: Routledge.

Fine, B. (2002). “Economics and Ethics: Amartya Sen as Starting-Point”. Paper presented at the
Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics.

Fleischacker, S. (2004). On Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations: A Philosophical Companion.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Foley, M.W. and Edwards, B. (1997). Escape from Politics?. New York: The Free Press.

Freud, S. (1987). Cái Tôi và Bản Năng (The Ego and the Id). [1923]. Hanoi: Science Publisher.
(Vietnamese version).

Fritzen, S. (2002). “Growth, inequality and the future of poverty reduction in Vietnam”, Public
Policy Program. Singapore: National University of Singapore.

Fukuda-Parr, S. and Shiva-Kumar, A.K. (2003). Readings in Human Development. Delhi:
Oxford University Press.
Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York:
Free Press.

Gasper, D. (2004). The Ethics of Development. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Gasper, D. and Staveren, I. (2003). “Development as Freedom - and as What Else?” Feminist
Economics. Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 137-161.

Gainsborough, D., N. D. Dang, and T. P. Tran. (2009). “Corruption, Public Administration
Reform and Development: Challenges and Opportunities as Vietnam Moves towards Middle-Income”. Public Administration Reform and Anti-Corruption – A Series of Policy Discussion Papers. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam, 2009.

General Statistical Office. (2000). Statistical Yearbook 1999, Hanoi: Statistical
Publishing House.

General Statistics Office. (2000). Viet Nam Living Standards Survey 1997-98, Hanoi:
Statistical Publishing House.

General Statistics Office. (2002). Viet Nam Living Standards Survey 2002. Hanoi:
Statistical Publishing House.

General Statistics Office. (2004). Viet Nam Living Standards Survey 2004. Hanoi:
Statistical Publishing House.

General Statistics Office(2006). Viet Nam Living Standards Survey 2006. Hanoi:
Statistical Publishing House.

General Statistical Office. (2008). Viet Nam Living Standards Survey 2008. Hanoi:
Statistical Publishing House.

General Statistics Office. (2004). Statistical Yearbook 2004. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2005). Statistical Yearbook 2005. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2006). Statistical Yearbook 2006. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2007). Statistical Yearbook 2007, Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2008). Statistical Yearbook 2008. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2009). Statistical Yearbook 2009. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2010). Statistical Yearbook 2010. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

General Statistics Office. (2011). Statistical Yearbook 2011. Hanoi: Statistical Publishing
House.

Goklany, I. (2002). “The Globalization of Human Wellbeing”. Policy Analysis. No. 477, pp. 1-
20.

Gorman. M. (2004). Age and Security. London: Help Age International.

Gore, C. (1997). “Irreducably Social Goods and the Informational Basis of Amartya Sen's
Capability Approach". Journal of International Development. Vol. 9, No.2, pp. 235-50.

Gore, C. (2000). “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as Paradigm for Developing
Countries”. World Development. Vol. 28, No.5, pp. 789-804.

Government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. (2000a). Viet Nam: Managing Public
Resources Better: Public Expenditure Review 2000, Hanoi: Joint Report of the Government of Viet Nam-Donor Working Group on Public Expenditure Review.

Government of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. (2000b). Public Investment Program
2001-2005. Hanoi: Government of Vietnam.

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: Free Press.

Green, A. (1997). On Private Madness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Griffiths, P.J. (1994). On Being Buddha. New York: State University of New York Press.

Hajer, M.A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and
the Policy Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hardy, A. (2003). Red Hills. Migrants and the State in the Highlands of Vietnam. Honolulu:
University of Hawaii Press.

Harriss, J. (2001). Depoliticizing Development: The World Bank and Social Capital. New
York: Viking Press.

Hausman, D.M & Michael, S.M. (1993). “Taking Ethics Seriously: Economics and
Contemporary Moral Philosophy.” Journal of Economics Literature. Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 671-731.

Herzberg, F; Mausner, B. and Snyderman, B.B. (1959). The Motivation to Work. (2nd Ed.)
New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hirschman, A.O. (1987). “Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some
Categories of Economic Discourse.” Rival View of Market Society and Other Recent Essays. New York: Viking Press. pp. 142-160.

Hoàng, T. (2012). “Cải Cách Hệ Thống Giáo Dục Phổ Thông và Dạy Nghề.” Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&CategoryID=6&News=5825. Accessed 2012, Nov 3.
Holler, M.J. (2006). Adam Smith's Model of Man and Why the Market Program Failed.
Helsinki: Acta Philosophica Fennica.

Hookway, J. (2011). “Faith in Vietnam Falls With Shipmaker.” The Wall Street Journal. 2011
May 16.

Hồ, N.Đ. (2008a). “Giải Pháp Phát Triển Giáo Dục: Từ Góc Nhìn Nghiệp Vụ Sư Phạm.”
Available at: http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&CategoryID=6&News=2302. Accessed 2011, May 24.

Hồ, N.Đ. (2008b). “Giải Pháp Phát Triển Giáo Dục: Bắt Đầu Như Thế Nào?”, Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=2200&CategoryID=6. Accessed 2012, Apr 15.

Human Rights Watch. (2002). Repression of Montagnards, Conflicts Over Land and Religion
in Vietnam’s Central Highlands. Washington D.C.: US Department of State.

Human Rights Watch. (2006). No sanctuary, Ongoing Threats to Indigenous Montagnards in
Vietnam’s Central Highlands. Washington D.C.: US Department of State.

Human Right Watch. (2008). “2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Vietnam.”
Washington D.C.: US Department of State.

Human Rights Watch. (2008). “The United States and Vietnam: Examining the Bilateral
Relationship.” Testimony before the Senate, Washington D.C: US Department of State.

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. (2007). “Vietnam: 2007 Annual Survey of
Violations of Trade Union Rights.”

International Monetary Fund. (1998). Vietnam: Selected Issues and Statistical Annex.
Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (1999). Viet Nam: Selected Issues, 1999. Washington: IMF.
International Monetary Fund. (2001). Viet Nam: Request for a Three-Year Arrangement
Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility. Washington: Asia and Pacific Department.
International Monetary Fund. (2004a). Viet Nam Second Review Under the Three Year
Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and Request for Waiver of Performance Criteria – Staff Report. Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (2004b). Viet Nam: Selected Issues and Statistical
Appendix. Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (2007). International Monetary Fund Annual Report.
Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (2008). International Monetary Fund Annual Report.
Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (2010). International Monetary Fund Annual Report.
Washington D.C.: IMF.

International Monetary Fund. (2011). International Monetary Fund Annual Report.
Washington D.C.: IMF.

James, B. and Agrawal, N. (2002). Eradicating Poverty and Hunger in Viet Nam:
Economic Growth, Balanced Regional Development and Targeted Assistance. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

Joint Development Partner Report to the Vietnam Consultative Group Meeting. (2010).
Vietnam Development Report 2011: Natural Resources Management. Hanoi: UNDP Viet Nam.

John, O.N. (1993). Nature, Intrinsic Values and Human Wellbeing. Ecology, Policy, and
Politics: Human Wellbeing and The Natural World. London: Routledge.

Kabeer, N. and Tran T.V.A. (2006). Globalisation, Gender and Work in the Context of
Economic Transition: The Case of Viet Nam. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

Kanbur, R. and Squire, L. (2001). “The Evolution of Thinking about Poverty.” Frontiers of
Development Economics: The Future in Perspective. Edited by Meier, G. and Stiglitz, J. New York: World Bank and Oxford University Press.

Karunarathne, V. (2003). “Methods of Marx, Kant and Buddha.” Lanka Daily News. 2003,
Aug 9.

Khan, M. H. (2003). Pro-Growth Anti-corruption and Governance Reforms for Viet Nam:
Lessons from East Asia, Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

Kim, J.Y. (2004). “Political Capital, Human Capital and Inter-generational Occupational
Mobility in Northern Vietnam” in Taylor. P. (eds.) Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Klump, R. (2007). “Pro-poor growth in Vietnam: Miracle or model?”, in T. Besley, L. Cord
(eds.). Delivering on The Promise of Pro-Poor Growth - Insights and Lessons from Country Experiences. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 124-149.

Koh, D. (2004). “Vietnam’s Recent Political Developments”, in Taylor. P. (eds.), Social
Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Kohn, A. (1989). The Brighter Side of Human Nature (Altruism, Empathy in Everyday Life).
Cambridge: Basic Books.

Kolakowski, L. (1978). Main Currents of Marxism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Krishnamurti, J. (1928) [1986]. Life in Freedom. Harper San Francisco: Krishnamurti
Foundation Trust.

Krishnamurti, J. (1963). Life Ahead: On Learning and the Search for Meaning. Harper & Row:
New World Library.

Krishnamurti, J. (1972). Education and the Significance of Life. Harper San Francisco:
Krishnamurti Foundation Trust.

Kymlicka, W. (2002). Contemporary Political Philosophy- An Introduction. (2nd edition).
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lâm, Q.T. (2011). “Humboldt, Mỹ và Dại Học Việt Nam”, Kỷ Yếu Ðại học Humboldt 200 năm
(1810 – 2010) – Kinh Nghiệm Thế Giới và Việt Nam. Hà Nội: Tri Thức Publishing House.

Landau, I. (2004). “Re-organizing Labor: Workers, Trade Unions and the Party-State in
Transitional Vietnam.” Thesis: University of Melbourne, 2004.

Lane, R.E. (1991). The Market Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lane, R.E. (1994). “Quality of Life and Quality of Persons: A New Role for Government?”
Political Theory. Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 219-252.

Lane, R.E. (1998). “The Joyless Market Economy”. Economics, Values and Organization.
New York: New York University Press. pp. 461-488.

Le, D.D. (2005).” Market Economy with Socialist Orientation.” Available at:
http://www.bm.ust.hk/~ced/home.htm

Le H. Nghia; Le N. Tong. (2004). Globalization – Issues of Theory and Reality. Hanoi: The
National Political Publishing House.

Lin, C. (2001). Social Capital. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lux, K. (1990). Adam Smith’s Mistake-How a Moral Philosopher Invented Economics and
Ended Morality. Boston: Shambhala.

Maitland, E. (2003). “Corruption and the Outsider: Transitional Economy of Vietnam.” The
Singapore Economic Review. Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 63-82.

Manyin, M. (2002). “Vietnam’s Labor Rights Regime: An Assessment.” Congressional
Research Service, March 14, 2002.

Mankiw, N.G. (1997). Principles of economics. Orlando: The Dryden Press.
Manski, C.F. (2000). “Economic Analysis of Social Interactions.” Journal of Economic
Perspectives. Vol. 14, pp. 115-136.

Marx, K. (1844) [1995]. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts. New York: International
Publishers.

Marx, K. 1848 [1998]. The Communist Manifesto. Signet Classics: London.

Marx, K. (1867) [1992]. Capital. Vol. I. New York: International Publishers.
Marx, K. (1867) [1992]. Capital. Vol. II. New York: International Publishers.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1970). Selected Works. Volume 3. Moscow: Progress Publishers.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1992). Collected Works. Volume 2. New York: International
Publishers.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1992). Collected Works. Volume 4. New York: International
Publishers.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1992). Collected Works. Volume 9. New York: International
Publishers.

Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1992). Collected Works. Volume 12. New York: International
Publishers.

Maslow, A. (1973). The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Harmondworth: Penguin Books.

Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and Personality. Third Ed. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Mason, M. (2007). “4,500 Workers at South Korean Factory in Vietnam Go on Strike.”
Associated Press. 2007, February 2. Available at: 007http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/2/2/apworld/20070202195118&sec=apworld. Accessed 2010, June 16.

May, R. (1994). The Discovery of Being. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Mehring, F. (2003). Karl Marx: The Story of His Life. London: Routledge.

Mekong Economics Ltd. (2005). Vietnam Inequality Report 2005: Assessment and Policy
Choices. Synthesis Paper of the “DFID Drivers of Inequality in Vietnam” Project. Hanoi.

Minford, M., Quang, D., Nguyen, T.H., and Brooke, P. (2004). An Expenditure Tracking
Study of the Hunger Eradication and Poverty Reduction Program 135: Final Report. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

Ministry of Planning and Investment and General Statistics Office. (2009). Education in
Vietnam: An analysis of Key Indicators. Hanoi: General Statistics Office.

National Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities (NCSSH). (2001). National Human
Development Report: Doi Moi and Human Development in Vietnam. Hanoi: Political Publishing House.

Neuhouser, F. (2000). Foundations of Hegel's Social Theory – Actualizing Freedom.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Nghiem, L. H. (2004). “Female Garment Workers: the New Young Volunteers in Vietnam’s
Modernization”, in Taylor. P. (eds.) Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Nguyen, A. N. (2006). “State–Society Relations in Contemporary Vietnam: An Examination of
the Arena of Youth.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint. Vol. 47, No.3, December 2006, pp327-341.

Nguyen, D.T. (2004). A Conceptual Framework for the Good Life. Doctoral Dissertation. The
University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee

Nguyen, K. T. (2011). “Khái Niệm Thị Trường Giáo Dục và Vai Trò Các Tác Nhân”, Available
at: http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=4776&CategoryID=6. Accessed 2012, Feb 8.

Nguyen, K. T. (2012). “Vài Cảm Nghĩ Về Khoa Học Xă Hội Việt Nam”, Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=4783&CategoryID=6, Accessed 2012, Feb 8.
Nguyen, N. (2011). “Giáo Dục Trước Hết Là Một Công Tác Nhân Văn, Là Công Cuộc Dân
Chủ Hóa”, Available at: http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=4680&CategoryID=6
Acessed 2012, Feb 15.

Nguyễn, T. T. H. (2011). “Bài Giảng Bậc Đại Học Hay Hành Trình Suy Ngẫm”, Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=4749&CategoryID=6. Accessed 2012, Feb 8.

Nguyen, X. T. (2010). “Vietnam’s Infrastructure Constraints”, Series on Vietnam’s WTO
Accession and International Competitiveness Research. HCMC: UNDP Vietnam and Harvard Kennedy School-Vietnam Program.

Nussbaum, M. and Sen, A. (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Nussbaum, M. (1995). “Human Capabilities, Female Human Beings”. In Women, Culture and
Development. Edited by Nussbaum, M. and Glover, J. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Nussbaum, Martha C. (1999). Sex and Social Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nussbaum, M. (2000). Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Osberg, L. and Sharpe, A. (2003). “Human Wellbeing and Economic Wellbeing: What Values
Are Implicit in Current Indices?”. Paper to be Presented at WIDER Conference on Inequality, Poverty and Human Wellbeing. Helsinki, 30-31, May, 2003, pp. 1-57.

Parsons, T. (1951). The Social System. London: Routledge.

Parsons, T. (1967). Structure of Social Action. New York: Free Press.

Parsons, T. and Shils, A. (Ed.). (1976). Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press.

Parsons, T. (1961). Theories of Society: Foundations of Modern Sociological Theory. New
York: Free Press.

Paul, S. (1994). “Human Development: Means and Ends.” The American Economic Review.
Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 232-237.

Perkins, D. H and T. T. A. Vu. (2010). “Vietnam’s Industrial Policy Designing Policies for
Sustainable Development”, in Policy Dialogue Paper Number 3: Series on Vietnam’s WTO Accession and International Competitiveness Research, HCMC: UNDP – Harvard Kennedy School - Vietnam Program.

Pettit, P. (2001). “Capability and Freedom: A Defense of Sen.” Economics and Philosophy.
Vol. 17, pp. 1-20.

Phung, D. T. and Waibel, H. (2010). “Food Prices Crisis, Poverty and Welfare in Vietnam: an
Ex-Post Decomposition Analysis.” Working Paper. Leibniz Universität Hannover,
Institute of Development and Agricultural Economics, Germany. December, 2010.

Pham, H. (2011). “Lạm Phát Dang Khoét Sâu Vào Dói Nghèo” (Inflation Putting Its Tougher
Burden on The Poor). Available at: http://vef.vn/2011-05-15-lam-phat-dang-khoet-sau-vao-doi-ngheo. Accessed 2011/05/20.

Pham, P. V. (2006). “Violations of Basic Labor Rights.” Available at:
http://freedom4vietnam.org/eng/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=80&Itemid=43. Accessed April 15, 2009.

Phung, H. H. (2009). “Để Thi Cử Có Ích Hơn”, Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&CategoryID=6&News=2768, Accessed 2011, Feb 18.
Phung, X. N. (2010). Adjusting FDI Policies into Vietnam in Economic Integration. Hanoi:
Vietnam National University’s Publishing House.

Polanyi, K. (2001). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our
Time. Boston: Beacon Press

Pogge, T. and Barry, C. (2006). Global Institutions and Responsibilities: Achieving Global
Justice. Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Portes, A. (1998). Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. New
York: Free Press.

Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Qizilbash, M. (1996). “Ethical Development.” World Development. Vol. 24, No.7, pp. 1209-21.

Qizilbash, M. (2002). “Development, Common Foes and Shared Values.” Review of Political
Economy. Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 463-480.

Rato, M. (2004). “Class, Nation, and Text: the Representation of Peasants in Vietnamese
Literature.” In Taylor. P. (eds.). Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Ravallion, M and Chen, S. C. (2003). Measuring Pro-Poor Growth. New York: Free
Press.

Rawls, J. (1968). “Distributive Justice: Some Addenda.” Natural Law Forum. Vol. 13, pp. 51-
71.

Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University
Press.

Rawls, J. (1980). “Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory”. Journal of Philosophy. Vol. 77,
No. 9, pp. 515-572.
Rawls, J. 1999. The Law of Peoples. Harvard University Press: Massachusetts.

Ranciere, J. (1991). The Ignorant Schoolmaster: Five Lessons in Intellectual Emancipation.
New York: Stanford University Press.

Redclift, M.G. (1997)(eds.) The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology,
Chletenham: Edward Elgar.

Reform and Development. (2010). “Vụ Vinashin Có Gây Khó Khăn Cho Nền Kinh Tế Việt
Nam?” Available at: http://www.doimoi.org/detailsnews/1087/338/vu-vinashin-co-
gay-kho-khan-cho-nen-kinh-te-viet-nam.html. Accessed 2010/12/28.

Reuters. (2009 April 7). “Vietnam to Raise Minimum Wage by 20 percent”.

Rhys, J. R. (2006). “Globalization, FDI and Employment in Viet Nam.” Transnational
Corporations. Vol. 15, No. 1, 2006, pp. 115-142.

Robeyns, I. (2000). An Unworkable Idea or a Promising Alternative? Sen's Capability
Approach Re-examined. Cambridge: Wolfson College.

Robeyns, I. (2003). The Capability Approach: an Interdisciplinary Introduction. Amsterdam:
Amsterdam School of Social Science Research

Robeyns, I.; Agarwal, B and Hamphries, J. (Ed.) (2005). Amartya Sen’s Work and Ideas. New
York: Routledge.

Rodriguez, H. (2004). “A ‘Long Walk to Freedom” and Democracy: Human Rights,
Globalization, and Social Injustice.” Social Forces. Vol. 83, pp. 391 - 412.

Roemer, J.E. (1988). Free to Lose. New York.: Harvard University Press.

Roemer, J.E. (1986b). Value, Exploitation and Class. London: Harwood Academic Publisher.

Rostow, W.W. (1992). Theorists of Economic Growth from David Hume to the Present: With a
Perspective on the Next Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sagoff, M. (1994).” Should Preferences Count?” Land Economics. Vol. 22. No1, pp. 127-145.
Saich, A., D. Perkins, D. Dapice, et al. (2008). Choosing Success: The Lessons of East and
Southeast Asia and Vietnam’s Future. Ho Chi Minh City: Harvard Vietnam Program - John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Saigon Liberation Daily. (September 4, 2008). “Workers Protest after Korean Boss Flees.”
Available at: http://www.saigon-gpdaily.com.vn/National/Society/2008/9/65054/ Accessed March 31, 2009.

Saigon Liberation Daily. (November 12, 2008). “More Korean Firms Violate Labor Laws,
Harass Workers.” Available at: http://www.saigongpdaily.com.vn/Hochiminhcity/2008/11/66450/ Accessed April 1, 2009.

Saigon Liberation Daily. (November 15, 2008). “Korean Bosses Abscond, Workers in Lurch”
Available at: http://www.saigon-gpdaily.com.vn/National/Society/2008/11/66532/, Accessed March 12, 2009.

Salemink, O. (2003). The Ethnography of Vietnam’s Central Highlanders. A Historical
Contextualization, 1850-1990. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Sanderson, S.K. (1999). Social Transformations: A General Theory of Historical Development.
Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Schwarz, A. (2003). Old Age Security and Social Pensions. Washington D. C: World
Bank.

Schwartz, B. (1986). The Battle for Human Nature (Science, Morality and Modern Life). New
York: W.W. Norton.

Scitovsky, T. (1951). “The State of Welfare Economics.” American Economic Review. Vol. 41
No.3, pp. 303-15.

Scott J. C. and Janet M. T. (1995). Environmental Economics and Management: Theory,
Policy, and Applications, London: Richard D Irwin.

Sen, A. 1982 (a). Choice, Welfare and Measurement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Sen, A. 1982 (b). “Rights and Agency.” Philosophy and Public Affairs. Vol. 11, No.1, pp. 3-
39.

Sen, A. (1985). “Well-Being, Agency and Freedom: The Dewey Lectures 1984.” The Journal
of Philosophy. Vol. 82, No.4, pp. 169-221.

Sen, A. (1987). Standards of Living. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sen, A. (1988). On Ethics and Economics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Sen, A. (1990). “Development as Capability Expansion.” Human Development and
International Development Strategy for the 1990. Edited by Griffin, K. and Knight, J. London: Macmillan in association with the United Nations.

Sen, A. (1992). Inequality Re-examined. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Sen, A. and Nussbaum, M. (1993a). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, A. (1993b). “Capability and Well-Being.” The Quality of Life. Edited by Nussbaum, M.
and Sen, A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 30-53.

Sen, A. (1993c). “Markets and Freedom: Achievements and Limitations of the Market Mechanism in Promoting Individual Freedoms”. Oxford Economic Papers. Vol. 45, No. 4. pp. 519-541.

Sen, A. (1997 a). Resources, Values and Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sen, A. (1997b). Resources, Values and Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Sen, A. (1997c). On Economic Inequality. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sen, A. (2001). “Symposium on Amartya Sen’s Philosophy: 4 Reply.” Economics and
Philosophy. Vol. 17, pp. 51-66.

Sen, A. (2002). Rationality and Freedom. Cambridge Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard
University Press.

Sepehri, A. (2006). User Fees, Financial Autonomy and Access to Social Services in Vietnam.
Hanoi: United Nations Discussion Paper.

Shlomo, A. (1968). The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Smith. A. (1759) [1976]. Theory of Moral Sentiments. Edited by Raphael, D. D. and Macfie, A.
L. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith. A. (1776) [1976]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
Edited by Campbell, R. H; Skinner, A. S & Todd, W. B. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Smith, W, (2004). “Financial Markets in Vietnam’s Northern Highlands”, in Beresford. M. and
Tran. N.A. (eds.). Reaching for the Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV). (2003). The Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and
Growth Strategy. Hanoi: Government Office.

Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV). (2010). National Development Report 2010. Hanoi:
Government Office.

State Bank of Viet Nam (SBV). (2005). Annual Report. Hanoi: State Bank of Viet Nam.

Stewart, F. (1995). Basic Needs, Capabilities and Human Development. Greek Economic
Review. Vol.17, No. 2, pp. 83-96.

Stigler, G.J. (1968). “The Development of Utility Theory.” Utility Theory: A Book of Readings.
Edited by Page, A. N. New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp 55-119.
Stiglitz, J.E. (1991). Information, Strategy and Public Policy. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell.
Stiglitz, J. and Charlton, A. (2005). Fair trade for all: How trade can promote development?,
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stiglitz, J. (2006). Making globalization work. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Singer, P. (2000). Marx: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sugden, R. (1993). “Welfare, Resources and Capabilities: A Review of Inequality Reexamined
by Amartya Sen”. Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 31, pp. 947-962.

Swift, A. (2001). Political Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide for Students and Politicians.
Cambridge: Polity Press.

Swinkels, R. and C. Turk. (2006). “Explaining Ethnic Minority Poverty in Vietnam: a summary
of recent trends and current challenges.” Hanoi: Draft Background paper for CEM/ MPI meeting on Ethnic Minority Poverty.

Taylor, C. (1979). “What's Wrong with Negative Liberty?” Philosophy and the Human
Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press. Vol. 2, pp. 211-29.
Taylor, P. (2004a). “Redressing Disadvantages or Re-arranging Inequality? Development
Interventions and Local Responses in the Mekong Delta.” in Taylor. P. (eds.). Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Taylor, P. (2004b). Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore:
Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Taylor, P. (2008). “Minorities at Large: New Approaches to Minority Ethnicity in Vietnam.”
Journal of Vietnamese Studies. Vol. 3, No. 3. pp. 3-43.

Thai, KL. (2006). Enlightenment. Available at:
http://www.thoidai.org/ThoiDai7/200607_TKLan.htm

Thai, T.N.D. (2001). “Governance and Participation in Vietnam.” Duisberg: Institute for East
Asian Studies.

Thanhniennews.com. (2012, Nov 5). “Vietnam Unemployment up Slightly to 2.29 pct,”
Available at: http://www.thanhniennews.com/index/pages/20120701-vietnam-jobless-rate-increases-to-2.29pct.aspx. Accessed 2012, Nov 6.

Thanh nien Daily. (2008, Jan 10). “Nguoi Dan Truoc Con Sot Gia Ca.”

Thanhnien Daily. (2008, Feb 20). “Vietnam Truoc Hiem Hoa Moi Truong Gia Tang”

Thanh nien Daily. (2008, May 15). “Chi So Gia Tieu Dung Bon Thang Dau Nam Da Vuot Chi
Tieu Ca Nam 2008.”

Thanh Nien Daily. (2012, Oct 15). “Nhom Loi Ich Va Moi Hiem Hoa Doi Voi Vietnam”,

Thanh Nien Daily. (2011, May 13). “Khởi Tố Và Bắt Tạm Giam Hai Nhà Báo Của Báo Thanh
Niên và Tuổi Trẻ.”

The Economist. (2003 Aug, 10). “Fat Pay But No Smiles.” Available at:
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/124420.cms

The Economist. (2004 April 29). “Why Phones Are Replacing Cars?”

The United Nations. (2001). Human Development Report 2000. New York: The United
Nations.

The United Nations. (2002). Human Development Report 2001. New York: The United
Nations.

The United Nations. (2003). Human Development Report 2002. New York: The United
Nations.

The United Nations. (2005). Human Development Report 2004. New York: The United
Nations.
The United Nations. (2006). Human Development Report 2005. New York: The United
Nations.

The World Bank. (2006). World Bank Development Report 2005: a Better Investment Climate
for Everyone. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Thoi, H. B. (2009). “Thật Đáng Buồn Cho Cách Dạy Của Chúng Ta.” Tap Chi Tia Sang.
Available at: http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&CategoryID=6&News=2302
Accessed 2010, June 10.

Thu Quynh. (2012). “Mô Hình Giáo Dục Phổ Thông Không Thi Cử.” Tap Chi Tia Sang.
Available at:
http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&CategoryID=6&News=5830, Accessed 2012, Nov 5.

Todaro, M. P. (2000). Economic Development. Essex: Pearson Education.

Tomer, J. F. (2002). “Human Wellbeing: A New Approach Based on Overall and Ordinary.”
Review of Social Economy. Vol. 50, No.1, pp. 1-23.

Tran, H. H. (2008). “Tăng trưởng “vì người nghèo”: World Bank và “câu chuyện thành công”
của Việt Nam » Tap chi Thoi dai. Available at:
http://tapchithoidai.org/ThoiDai14/200814_TranHaiHac.htm Accessed 2011, Nov 5.

Tran, N. A. (2004). “Linking Growth with Equity? The Vietnamese Textile and Garment
Industries since Doi Moi”, in Beresford. M. and Tran. N. A. (eds.), Reaching for the
Dream: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Vietnam, Copenhagen: Nordic
Institute of Asian Studies.

Tran N. K. (ed.). “Vietnam: Workers’ Rights in a Democratic Revolution.” Warsaw:
International Conference on Workers’ Rights in Vietnam.

Tran, Q. H. (2006). “Democracy and Development: Experiences from India and China”.
Available at: http://www.tapchithoidai.org/ThoiDai8/200608_TranQuocHung.htm, Accessed 2006/09/02

Tran, V. T. (2006). “Cộng đồng kinh tế Đông Á nhìn từ các nước đi sau.” Tap Chi Thoi Dai.
Available at: http://www.tapchithoidai.org/ThoiDai8/200608_TranVanTho.htm, Accessed 2006/09/05.

Tran, Q. V. (2004). Environment Theory. Tap Chi Tia Sang. 2004 Sep 28th

Travers, P. and Richardson, S. (1993). “Material Wellbeing and Human Wellbeing.” Living
Decently: Material Wellbeing in Australia. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 117-156.

Treasury. 2001. Towards an Inclusive Economy. New Zealand Treasury: Wellington.

TuanVietnam. (2008, Dec 03). “Nói Gì Về Sự Giả Dối Trong Giáo Dục?” Available at: http://tuanvietnam.vietnamnet.vn/noi-gi-ve-su-gia-doi-trong-giao-duc 03/12/2008 Accessed 2012, May 7.

TuanVietnam. (2008, Dec 05). “Ngành GD Có Thể Làm Gì để Cứu Vãn Nhân Cách Việt?”
Available at: http://tuanvietnam.vietnamnet.vn/nganh-gd-co-the-lam-gi-de-cuu-van-nhan-cach-viet 05/12/2008. Accessed 2012, May 22.

TuanVietnam. (2012). “Nguyên Phó Thủ tướng Vũ Khoan Lên Tiếng Về Tiên Lãng”.
Available at: http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/chinh-tri/tuanvietnam/59764/nguyen-pho-thu-tuong-vu-khoan-len-tieng-ve-tien-lang.html, Accessed 2012, Feb, 10.

Tuoitreonline. (2012, July 22). “Vụ Văn Giang: Khởi Tố, Bắt Tạm Giam 2 Bị Can,” Available
at:http://tuoitre.vn/Chinh-tri-Xa-hoi/503128/Vu-Van-Giang-khoi-to-bat-tam-giam-2-bi-can.html. Accessed 2012, Aug 25.

Tuong, L. (2012). “Cái Gốc Văn Hóa Của Đời Người.” Tap Chi Tia Sang. Availble at:

http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=5681&CategoryID=6. Accessed 2012, Oct 8.
Turner, J. (1985). Herbert Spencer: A Renewed Appreciation. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Turner, J. (1995). Macro-dynamics: Toward a Theory on the Organization of Human
Populations. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Turner, J. and Jan, S. (2005). The Sociology of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.

UNDP. (2005). Human Development Report 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse
World. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2004/. Accessed 2011 Aug, 16.

UNDP Vietnam. (2006a). Deepening Democracy and Increasing Popular Participation in Viet
Nam. Available at: http://www.undp.org.vn/undpLive/System/Outreach/Publications/Publication-Details?contentId=1818&categoryName=Policy-Research&CategoryConditionUse=Subject-Areas/Policy-Research. Accessed 2011, June 12

UNDP Vietnam. 2006 (b). The State as Investor: Equitisation, Privatisation and the
Transformation of SOEs in Viet Nam. Available at: http://www.undp.org.vn/undpLive/System/Outreach/Publications/Publication-Details?contentId=2079&categoryName=Policy-Research&CategoryConditionUse=Subject-Areas/Policy-Research. Accessed 2011, June 12.

UNDP Vietnam. (2007). How Progressive is Social Security in Viet Nam? Available at:
http://www.undp.org.vn/undpLive/System/Outreach/Publications/Publication-Details?contentId=2369&categoryName=Policy-Research&CategoryConditionUse=Subject-Areas/Policy-Research. Accessed 2011, June 12

United Nations Development Program and AuSAID. (2005). Regional Poverty
Assessment: Mekong River Region. Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

UNDP Vietnam. (2009). Public Financial Management: How to Deliver Better Value for
Money in Vietnam’s Public Administration System? Hanoi: UNDP, 2009.

UNDP Vietnam and the Ministry of Planning and Investment (2010a). Managing Risk and
Attaining Equitable Growth. Hanoi: The Asia Foundation.

UNDP and the Ministry of Planning and Investment (2010b). A Robust Harvest: Strategic
Choice for Agricultural and Rural Development in Vietnam. Hanoi: The Asia Foundation.

United Nations. (1945). Charter of the United Nations. Available at:
http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/. Accessed 2009 Feb 8.

United Nations Development Program. (2004). Human Development Report Human
Development Report 2004 ; Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2004/. Accessed 2008 Sep 9.

Van de Walle, D. (2003). “Testing Vietnam’s Public Safety Net”. Social Protection
Discussion Paper No. 0319, Social Protection Unit, Human Development Network, New York: The World Bank.

Vu, T. P. A. (2011). “Giáo Dục Nhân Văn Trong Thế Kỷ 21.” Tap Chi Tia Sang. Available at: http://tiasang.com.vn/Default.aspx?tabid=113&News=4797&CategoryID=6
Accessed 2012, May 7.

Vietnam Communist Party. (1998). Resolution of the 5th Congress of the Central Committee
Course 8th. Hanoi: The National Political Publishing House.

Vietnam Communist Party. (2001). Resolution of the 9th Congress of National Assembly.
Hanoi: The National Political Publishing House.

Vietnam Economy. (November 22, 2007 “Government to Increase Minimum Wage,” Available
at: ttp://www.vneconomy.com.vn/eng/?param=article&catid=01&id=71c3e6724e1220 Accessed December 12, 2007.

Vietnam News Agency. (2008, June 19). “Illegal Strikes Increase Following New Labor Law.”

Vietnam News Brief. (2008, January 21). “Wave of Labor Strikes Surge in Vietnam.”

Vietnam News Brief. (2008, November 11). “Investment: Headaches for Vietnam Top FDI
Investor-Media.”

Vietnam News Service. (2008, November 27). “Hundreds Queue for Unpaid Wages.”

Vietnam World Bank Partnership on Poverty Reduction. (2011). Soft Rain Penetrates Better
Than a Storm. Hanoi: World Bank Vietnam.

VNExpress. (2007 Nov 27). “Giá Dã Tăng Vượt Mục Tiêu Tăng Trưởng Kinh Tế” (CPI
Exceeds GDP). Available at: http://www.vnexpress.net/Vietnam/Kinh-doanh/2007/11/3B9FCB8C/, Accessed 2007, Nov 30.

VnExpress. (2008 May 9). “Vietnam Va Kha Nang Tro Thanh Nha Cung Cap Phan Mem Lon
Thu Ba Sau An do va Trung quoc.” Available at: http://www.vnexpress.net/Vietnam/Kinh-doanh/2008/05/43FC7DX9/”, Accessed 2008 May 19.

Vietnam Economy. (2007, November 22). “Government to Increase Minimum Wage,”
Available at: http://www.vneconomy.com.vn/eng/?param=article&catid=01&id=71c3e6724e1220. Accessed 2007 Dec12).

Vietnam Economy. (2010, Jan 19) “Quá Sớm Dể Xét Hiệu Quả Nhà Máy Lọc Dầu Dung
Quất?” Available at: http://vneconomy.vn/20101019122351906P0C9920/qua-som-de-xet-hieu-qua-nha-may-loc-dau-dung-quat.htm, Accessed 2010/11/08.

Vietnamnet. (2012, Feb 15). “Tiên Lãng Chỉ Là Phần Nổi Nhỏ Của Tảng Băng Chìm”.
Available at:http://vietnamnet.vn/vn/chinh-tri/tuanvietnam/60217/-tien-lang-chi-la-phan-noi-nho-cua-tang-bang-chim-.html, Accessed 2012, May 12).

VnnNews.Net. (2010 Dec, 25). “Vedan signs out-of-court compensation agreement”, Available
at: http://www.vnnnews.net/vedan-signs-out-of-court-compensation-agreement. Accessed 2011 Jan 12.

Vo, T. T and Pham, H. H. (2004). “Vietnam’s Recent Economic Reforms and Developments:
Achievements, Paradoxes and Challenges”, in Taylor. P. (eds.). Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

VOA News. (2010 November, 12). “Quốc Hội Việt Nam Bác Bỏ Yêu Cầu Diều Tra Vụ
Vinashin.”

Vu, Q. N. (2004). “Social Disparities in Vietnam: the Case of Poverty Reduction and
Educational Attainment”. In Taylor. P. (eds.). Social Inequality in Vietnam and the Challenges to Reform. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

Vu, T. T. A; Le, V. T; Vo, T. T. (2007). Provincial Extralegal Investment Incentives in the
Context of Decentralisation in Viet Nam: Mutually Beneficial or a Race to the Bottom? Hanoi: UNDP Vietnam.

Vũ, Q. V. (2005). Kinh Tế Thị Ttrường Và Xã Hội Công Dân Như Một Hệ Thống: TrườngHợp
Việt Nam. Available at: http://www.chungta.com/Desktop.aspx/ChungTa SuyNgam/HanhDong/KinhTe-ThiTruong-XaHoi-CongDan. Accessed 2008, May 16.

Wallace, P. A and Mund, A. L. (1977). Women, Minorities, and Employment Discrimination.
Lexington: Lexington Books.

Wang, C. B. (2003). The Scientific Outlook of Buddhism. Available at:
http://www.quangduc.com/English/science/13buddhismscience.html. Accessed 2008, Sep 20

Waring, M. (1996). Three Masquerades: Essays on Equality, Work and Human Rights,
Auckland: Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books.
Wilmore, L. (2001). “Universal Pensions in Low Income Countries”. Initiative for Policy
Dialogue. Discussion Paper IPD-01-05.

Wischermann, J. and Nguyen, Q. V, (2003a) “Vietnam In The Era of Doi Moi: Issue-Oriented
Organizations and Their Relationship With The Government.” Asian Survey. Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 867-889.

Wischermann, J and Nguyen, Q. V. (2003b), “The Relationship Between Civic Organizations
and Governmental Organizations in Vietnam: Selected Findings.” in Ed Ben Kerkvliet et al (eds.). Getting Organized in Vietnam: Moving in and Around The Socialist State., Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

World Bank. (2002a). Localizing MDGs for Poverty Reduction in Viet Nam: Reducing
Vulnerability and Providing Social Protection. Hanoi: Poverty Task Force, World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2002b). Taking Stock. Hanoi: World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2004). Viet Nam Development Report 2004: Poverty. Hanoi: World Bank
Vietnam.

World Bank. (2005a). Vietnam Development Report 2005: Implementing Reforms for
Faster Growth and Poverty Reduction. Hanoi: World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2005b). Development Report 2005:.Vietnam, Delivering on Its Promise.
Hanoi: Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region.

World Bank. (2008). Vietnam Development Report 2008: Social Protection. Hanoi:
World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2009a). Country social analysis: Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam. Social
Development Unit, Sustainable Development Department, East Asia and Pacific. Washington DC: World Bank.

World Bank. (2009b). Vietnam Development Report 2009: Capital Matters. Hanoi:
World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2010). Vietnam Development Report 2010: Modern Institutions. Hanoi:
World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2012). Vietnam Development Report 2012: Market Economy for A Middle-
Income Country. Hanoi: World Bank Vietnam.

World Bank. (2011). World Development Indicators 2011. Available at:
http://data.worldbank.org/datacatalog/world-development-indicators. Accessed 2012 June 25.

World Bank. (2011a). Vietnam Development Report (VDR) 2011: Natural Resources
Management. Hanoi: Vietnam Partnership Report.

World Bank. (2011b). “Securing the Present, Shaping the Future.” East Asia and Pacific
Economic Update 2011. Vol. 1. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPHALFYEARLYUPDATE/Resources/550192-1300567391916/EAP_Update_March2011_fullreport.pdf. Accessed 2012 Mar 15.

World Bank and the Aid Effectiveness Forum. (2010). Stabilizing the Macro-economy and
Focusing on Sustainable Development. Hanoi: Vietnam Partnership Report.

World Bank, UNDP and the Asian Development Bank. (2001). Vietnam Development
Report 2001: Viet Nam 2010- Entering the 21st Century. Hanoi: World Bank Vietnam.

Zeuner, L. (2001). Social Concepts between Construction and Revision. Copenhagen: Danish
National Institute for Social Research.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2028-12-31起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2028-12-31起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw