進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2310201710524300
論文名稱(中文) 基於接收機率之室內定位系統
論文名稱(英文) Indoor Positioning System Based on Received Signal Probability
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 電機工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Electrical Engineering
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 謝旻昆
研究生(英文) Min-Kun Sie
學號 N26034930
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 64頁
口試委員 指導教授-郭致宏
口試委員-林建州
口試委員-張敏寬
口試委員-雷曉方
中文關鍵字 藍牙  藍芽低功率  室內定位 
英文關鍵字 Bluetooth  Bluetooth Low Energy  BLE  Indoor Positioning 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來因為智慧型手機的發展,室內定位越來越受重視。本論文提出一基於藍牙低功率 (Bluetooth Low Energy, BLE) Beacon 的室內定位方法,充份利用 BLE Beacon 高自訂性,高相容性和便宜的優勢,並利用硬體接收訊號時最低接收訊號強度 (Received Signal Strength, RSS) 的性質定位。先前的定位方法要達到最低的誤差,通常需要特殊硬體,或者單一節點的定位範圍受限,再不然就是計算資源要求較高。有時這些限制會和現代人對智慧型手機的期望相背,例如:有特殊硬體,手機就會變大。運算資源要求高,手機續航力就會減少。和先前的方法比較本論文提出的方法,有較少的的事前準備工作,無需特殊硬體,運算資源要求也不高,同時也達到不錯的定位精度。根據模擬的結果,本論文提出的定位方法,定位誤差可以小於 1.5公尺。
英文摘要 In this paper, we introduce an indoor location estimation method based on the Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacon. Beacons are advertised at low transmission power level to limit the estimation error. Each beacon point transmits with multiple power levels to increase the utilizing efficiency. We fully take advantage of BLE beacons that are cheap and controllable. Simulation results show that the estimation error of the proposed scheme is less than 1.5 meter.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
延伸英文摘要 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II
誌謝 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII
目錄 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX
圖目錄 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI
表目錄 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIV
1 緒論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-1 前言 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-2 研究動機 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1-3 研究貢獻 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1-4 論文架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 研究背景 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-1 路徑損失模型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-1-1 理論模型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2-1-2 ITU 室內路徑損失模型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2-1-3 短距離模型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2-2 Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2-2-1 網路拓樸 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2-2-2 封包的發射和接收 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3 相關研究 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-1 定位演算法 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-1-1 三角定位法 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3-1-2 分類演算法 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3-2 常用的定位系統 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3-3 比較 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4 基於接收機率之室內定位系統 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4-1 接收訊號機率 (Received Signal Probability, RSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
4-1-1 RSS 之缺點 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4-1-2 單一個 BLE Beacon 時的 RSP 模型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
4-1-3 RSP 量測分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4-2 使用 RSP 定位 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
4-2-1 由機率計算與 BLE Beacon 之距離 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4-2-2 由機率計算最有可能的位置 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4-3 簡化線上定位計算 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4-3-1 收集可能的旗標組合 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4-3-2 建立字典 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4-3-3 查表定位 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4-4 定位方法 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4-4-1 定位流程 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5 實驗及模擬 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5-1 量測 RSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5-1-1 實驗環境 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5-1-2 實驗結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
5-1-3 量測分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5-2 量測 RSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5-2-1 實驗環境 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5-2-2 量測結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5-3 定位模擬 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5-3-1 線下階段 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5-3-2 線上階段 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5-3-3 模擬結果分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5-3-4 比較 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6 結論與未來展望 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6-1 結論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6-2 未來展望 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
參考文獻 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

參考文獻 [1] C. Feng, W. S. A. Au, S. Valaee, and Z. Tan, “Received-signal-strength-based indoor positioning using compressive sensing,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 11, pp. 1983–1993, Dec 2012.
[2] J. Xiong and K. Jamieson, “Arraytrack: A fine-grained indoor location system,” in Proceedings of 10th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI 13), (Lombard, IL), pp. 71–84, USENIX, 2013.
[3] D. Vasisht, S. Kumar, and D. Katabi, “Sub-nanosecond time of flight on commercial wi-fi cards,” in Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Special Interest Group on Data Communication, SIGCOMM ’15, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 121–122, ACM, 2015.
[4] ITU-R, “Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of indoor radiocommunication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz,” ITU Recommendation P.1238-9, 2017.
[5] T. Singal, Wireless communications. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010.
[6] K. Borre, D. M. Akos, N. Bertelsen, P. Rinder, and S. H. Jensen, A software-defined GPS and Galileo receiver: a single-frequency approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2007.
[7] A. Dempster, “QZSS’s indoor messaging system, GNSS friend or foe?,” Inside GNSS, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 37–40, 2009.
[8] L. Pei, R. Chen, J. Liu, T. Tenhunen, H. Kuusniemi, and Y. Chen, “Inquiry-based bluetooth indoor positioning via RSSI probability distributions,” in Proceedings of 2010 Second International Conference on Advances in Satellite and Space Communications (SPACOMM),, pp. 151–156.
[9] Y. Itagaki, A. Suzuki, and T. Iyota, “Indoor positioning for moving objects using a hardware device with spread spectrum ultrasonic waves,” in Proceedings of 2012 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), pp. 1–6.
[10] Bluetooth SIG, “Bluetooth core specification version 4.0,” Specification of the Bluetooth System, 2010.
[11] C. Brignone, T. Connors, G. Lyon, and S. Pradhan, “SmartLOCUS: An autonomous, self-assembling sensor network for indoor asset and systems management,” Mobile Media Syst. Lab., HP Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA, Tech. Rep, 2003.
[12] S. Viswanathan and S. Srinivasan, “Improved path loss prediction model for short range indoor positioning using bluetooth low energy,” in Proceedings of 2015 IEEE SENSORS, pp. 1–4, Nov 2015.
[13] K. Townsend, C. Cufí, R. Davidson, et al., Getting started with Bluetooth low energy: tools and techniques for low-power networking. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2014.
[14] J. Wilson, N. Patwari, and O. G. Vasquez, “Regularization methods for radio tomographic imaging,” in Proceeding of 2009 Virginia Tech Symposium on Wireless Personal Communications, 2009.
[15] P. Bahl and V. N. Padmanabhan, “RADAR: an in-building rf-based user location and tracking system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM 2000 on 19th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. 2, pp. 775–784 vol.2, 2000.
[16] N. Patwari, J. N. Ash, S. Kyperountas, A. O. Hero, R. L. Moses, and N. S. Correal, “Locating the nodes: cooperative localization in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 22, pp. 54–69, July 2005.
[17] Y. Gwon and R. Jain, “Error characteristics and calibration-free techniques for wireless lan-based location estimation,” in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Mobility Management & Wireless Access Protocols, MobiWac ’04, (New York, NY, USA), pp. 2–9, ACM, 2004.
[18] Z. Weissman, “Indoor location,” White paper, Tadlys Ltd http://www.tadlys.co. il/media/downloads/Indoors_Location_Systems.pdf, 2004.
[19] J. Liu, “An IR-UWB indoor positioning based on TOA and band-gap modulations,” in Proceeding of 2017 International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium (ACES), pp. 1–2, Aug 2017.
[20] A. E. Cano-García, Y. P. Chacón, and J. L. L. Galilea, “Preliminary simulation for an optical-indoor positioning system based on cyclic-time difference of arrival,” in Proceeding of 2016 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), pp. 1–8, Oct 2016.
[21] M. Khalaf-Allah, “Differential ultra-wideband (DUWB) for accurate indoor position estimation: Basic concept and simulation results,” in Proceeding of 2013 Saudi International Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference, pp. 1–4, April 2013.
[22] E. Weisstein, CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Second Edition. CRC Press, 2002.
[23] T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning. Springer Series in Statistics, Springer New York Inc., 2001.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-02-06起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-02-06起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw