||Operation optimization of methane partial oxidation in a Swiss-roll reactor and methanol partial oxidation using ultrasonic sprays
||International Master Degree Program on Energy Engineering
h-BN-Pt / Al2O3觸媒
Catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)
Spiral Swiss-roll reactor
Response surface methodology (RSM)
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Partial oxidation of methanol (POM)
Ultrasonic sprays system
氫能是一種具備高比能與高效率的清潔能源技術。在本研究中，綜合分析在不同反應器對甲烷催化部分氧化 (Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane, CPOM)或甲醇的部分氧化 (Partial Oxidation of Methanol, POM)機制下產氫之探討，並最佳化了化學反應中的操作條件。因此，在該研究分為兩部分。
在第一部分研究銠觸媒在螺旋狀瑞士捲反應器中進行CPOM的特性。使用最佳化工具田口法 (Taguchi method)和反應曲面法 (Response Surface Methodology, RSM)探討合成氣的產率，以及空氣時速 (Gas Hourly Space Velocity, GHSV)、氧氣與甲烷比 (O2/C ratio)和二氧化碳與氧氣比 (CO2/O2 ratio)三個操作條件的最佳組合。在第一階段使用田口法進行最佳化，結果顯示，其中操作因子對合成氣產率的影響依序為O2/C比 > CO2/O2比 > GHSV。根據田口法最佳化結果顯示，最大氫氣產率為2.24 mol (mol CH4)-1。第二階段最佳化中，基於第一階段最佳化範圍所得知，縮小參數範圍的同時獲得更準確的合成氣產率。在RSM與變異數分析(ANOVA)結果顯示反應曲面回歸模型，並指出因子GHSV和因子GHSV和O2/C比的回歸係數較為顯著。根據第二階段RSM最佳化的Box-Behnken實驗設計顯示，合成氣產量在2.31 mol (mol CH4)-1為最佳情況。研究結果顯示，兩階段最佳化(田口法和反應曲面法)的合成氣產率優於僅有一階段(田口法)的最佳化，且能將合成氣產量提升至5.15％最佳情況。因此，建議進行兩階段最佳化能夠得出最好合成氣產率與組合。
在本研究的第二部分，使用超音噴霧系統並使用POM機制來探索氫氣的生產。冷啟動可以觸發POM機制並使用具有超低Pt含量(0.2 wt%)的h-BN-Pt / Al2O3觸媒進行實驗。透過反應曲面法（RSM)找出最佳氫氣產量，以找出O2/C比，甲醇流速和GHSV的最佳控制參數組合。可以發現與傳統的噴霧系統相比，超音噴霧系統可以均勻地噴灑甲醇並提高製氫產率。結果可以得出，在較高的O2/C比能提高甲醇轉化率和反應溫度。然而，較高的O2/C比 (0.8)導致更多的氧氣在化學反應中進行甲醇燃燒。造成較低的CO和CH4濃度產生。而CO2濃度受到GHSV和甲醇流速的影響。因較高的GHSV導致觸媒床中反應物在更快的時間通過。本研究之17組反應中，最佳操作條件為O2/C比為 0.7，甲醇流速為0.7 mL min-1、GHSV = 10,000 h-1，且最大氫氣產率為1.604 mol (mol CH3OH)-1。從RSM預測的角度來看，最具影響組合是GHSV和甲醇流量。
Hydrogen energy is a high energy and high efficiency promising technology for clean energy. In this study, a comprehensive analysis on the different reactor with CPOM or POM mechanism explore hydrogen production, and optimize the operating conditions for chemical reaction. Therefore, the study is divided into two parts.
In the first part of this research, the characteristics of catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM) over rhodium-based catalyst bed in a spiral Swiss-roll reactor are studied numerically. The production of syngas is probed by using the Taguchi method and response surface methodology (RSM) to find the best combination of control parameters including GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity), O2/C ratio and CO2/O2 ratio. In the first stage of optimization for Taguchi method, the results recommend that the influences of the factors on the syngas yield are ranked by O2/C ratio > CO2/O2 ratio > GHSV. According to the optimal operation suggested by the Taguchi approach, the maximum H2 yield is 2.24 mol (mol CH4)-1. Thereafter, based on the range told by the first stage optimization, while narrowing the parameter range get more accurate syngas yield. The RSM and ANOVA results display the quadratic response surface regression model and the significance of the regression coefficients indicating the factor of GHSV and best combination of GHSV and O2/C ratio are significant. In the light of the Box-Behnken experimental design used for the second stage of optimization of RSM, the best case of the syngas yield is obtained for 2.31 mol (mol CH4)-1. The validation results show that the best combination parameter of GHSV and O2/C ratio is the same in ANOVA. These evidences reveal that the syngas yield from two stage optimization (Taguchi method "+" RSM) is better than the one from only one stage (Taguchi method). Comparing to the first-stage optimization for Taguchi method, the two-stage optimization has ability to increase 5.15% to the syngas yield for the best case.
In the second part of this research, POM (Partial oxidation of methanol) uses ultrasonic spray system to explore hydrogen production in this study. The h-BN-Pt/Al2O3 catalyst with ultra-low Pt contents (0.2 wt%) are utilized here. The production of hydrogen is probed by using the RSM (Response Surface Methodology) to find the best combination of control parameters including O2/C ratio, methanol flow rate and GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity). The ultrasonic spray system can uniformly disperse methanol and enhance the hydrogen production efficiency when compared to conventional spray systems. The higher O2/C ratio (0.8) has more oxygen to carry out further methanol combustion in the chemical reactions which bring about higher CH3OH conversion and temperature rise. This leads to lower CO and CH4 production. The CO2 concentration is mainly affected by GHSV and CH3OH flow rate. A higher GHSV leads to shorter retention time for the reactants in the catalyst bed, and lower CH3OH flow rate deteriorates the CO2 concentration as well. The maximum H2 yield is 1.635 mol (mol CH3OH)-1 from the perspective of RSM prediction and it results from an O2/C ratio = 0.8, CH3OH flow rate = 0.7 mL min-1 with GHSV = 10,000 h-1. From experiment, the H2 yield is 1.646 mol (mol CH3OH)-1. This shows an error of less than 1%. Therefore, the RSM and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) results show the quadratic response surface regression model and the significance of the regression coefficients indicating the factor of GHSV is significant
Table of Contents
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Motivation and objectives 4
1.3. A schematics of experimental procedure 5
Chapter 2 Literature review 7
2.1. Reactor of Swiss roll and ultrasonic spray system 7
2.2. Optimization with Taguchi method and RSM 10
Chapter 3 Theory and methodology 14
3.1. Simulation of Swiss roll reactor establishes and two-stage of optimization analyze with CPOM mechanism 14
3.1.1. Physical description 14
3.1.2. Mathematical formulas 16
3.1.3. Numerical method and grid system 19
3.1.4. Operating conditions 20
3.1.5. Optimization of Taguchi method and Response surface methodology (RSM) 22
3.2. The experiment of ultrasonic spray system and optimization of RSM analyze with POM mechanism 24
3.2.1. Ultrasonic spray system 24
3.2.2. Reaction system 25
3.2.3. Experimental procedure 28
3.2.4. Response surface methodology (RSM) 30
Chapter 4 Results and discussion 31
4.1. Simulation of Swiss roll reactor establishes and two-stage of optimization analyze with CPOM mechanism 31
4.1.1. Yields in Taguchi approach 31
4.1.2. Factor analysis 35
4.1.3. ANOVA analysis 43
4.1.4. Effects of the process parameters on the syngas yield by RSM 48
4.2. The experiment of ultrasonic spray system and optimization of RSM analyze with POM mechanism 54
4.2.1. Gas concentrations 54
4.2.2. From steady-state hydrogen yield, reaction temperature, and methanol conversion 58
4.2.3. Transient temperature and gas formation 63
4.2.4. The effects of the process parameters on the hydrogen yield by RSM 65
4.2.5. Optimization case 72
Chapter 5 Conclusions and future works 74
5.1. Conclusions 74
5.2. Future works 77
List of Tables
Table 1 1 A list of indirect mechanism and kinetics of catalytic partial oxidation of methane. 3
Table 2 1 Literature review of Ultrasonic spray system. 9
Table 2 2 The related papers about two-stage optimization. 12
Table 3 1 A list of governing equations for Swiss roll simulation. 17
Table 3 2 Factors, control parameters, and levels in the adopted Taguchi approach. 21
Table 3 3 A list of ultrasonic spray system frequency corresponds to drop diameter 24
Table 3 4 Box-Behnken experimental design of the hydrogen yield with (a) three process parameters and three coded levels for each parameter (b) air and N2 flow rate correspond to each case. 29
Table 4 1. Syngas yields and S/N ratio with varied conditions for Taguchi method 33
Table 4 2. Three parameters with the effect factor and best combination for Taguchi method. 33
Table 4 3. ANOVA results for the quadratic response surface regression model. 44
Table 4 4. Box-Behnken experimental design of the syngas yield with (a) three process parameters and three coded levels for each parameter (b) three different parameter values for 17 cases. 45
Table 4 5.The plan of experiments along with Box-Behnken for operating condition and hydrogen production. 60
Table 4 6 ANOVA results for the quadratic response surface regression model. 67
List of Figures
Fig. 1 1. A schematics of two-stage optimization of Taguchi method and RSM for Swiss roll reactor with CPOM mechanism. 6
Fig. 1 2. A schematics of optimization of RSM combines to ultrasonic spray system by POM mechanism with a hydrogen yield analysis. 6
Fig. 3 1. Schematics of boundary conditions of a 2-turn spiral Swiss-roll reactor. 18
Fig. 3 2 A schematic of experimental system (A: N2; B: air; C: electric flow rate controller; D: controller readout; E: flow rate meter; F: syringe pump; G: reactor; H: ultrasonic system; I: power supply; J: refractory wool; K: temperature monitor; L: condenser; M: conical flask; N: dryer; O: gas analyzer; P: gas chromatography). 26
Fig. 3 3. A calibration curve of H2 yield for GC. 27
Fig. 4 1. The hydrogen, carbon monoxide and syngas yields for the 16 cases in orthogonal array design. 34
Fig. 4 2. The syngas S/ N ratio generated by Taguchi method. 34
Fig. 4 3 Profiles of (a) mean S/N ratio and (b) factor effect value in terms of syngas yield. 37
Fig. 4 4. (a) Maximum, (b) optimal combination, and (c) minimum temperature profile of Swiss roll. 39
Fig. 4 5. CO2 conversion for all the 17 cases of the Taguchi method. 41
Fig. 4 6. Interaction between parameters for (a) O2/C ratio and CO2/O2 ratio (b) CO2/O2 ratio and GHSV (c) GHSV and O2/C ratio. 42
Fig. 4 7.The relationship diagram of p value corresponding to F value. 46
Fig. 4 8. Comparison between simulate and predicated syngas yield. 47
Fig. 4 9. The syngas yield with varying GHSV and O2/C ratio while the CO2/O2 ratio is constant. 49
Fig. 4 10. The syngas yield with varying GHSV and CO2/O2 ratio while the O2/C ratio is constant. 51
Fig. 4 11. The syngas yield with varying O2/C ratio and CO2/O2 ratio while the GHSV is constant. 52
Fig. 4 12.The relationship diagram of F value and effect value for four different range. 53
Fig. 4 13. Profiles of the CO2 concentrations in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 55
Fig. 4 14. Profiles of the CO concentrations in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 55
Fig. 4 15. Profiles of the CH4 concentrations in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 57
Fig. 4 16. Profiles of the H2 concentrations in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 57
Fig. 4 17. Profiles of the H2 yield in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 61
Fig. 4 18. Profiles of the temperature for ultrasonic spray system. 61
Fig. 4 19. Profiles of the methanol conversion for ultrasonic spray system 62
Fig. 4 20. Profiles of the temporal distributions of (a) reaction temperature in ultrasonic spray system and (b) CO2, CO, CH4, and H2 concentration in product gases for ultrasonic spray system. 64
Fig. 4 21. The relationship diagram of p value corresponding to F value. 68
Fig. 4 22.The relationship diagram of F value and effect value for four different range. 69
Fig. 4 23. The hydrogen yield with varying O2/C ratio and CH3OH flow rate while the GHSV is constant. 70
Fig. 4 24. The hydrogen yield with varying O2/C ratio and GHSV while the CH3OH flow rate is constant. 70
Fig. 4 25. The hydrogen yield with varying CH3OH flow rate and GHSV while the O2/C ratio is constant. 71
Fig. 4 26. Optimization case for (a) gas concentration. (b) H2 yield and temperature. 73
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