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系統識別號 U0026-2308201723502600
論文名稱(中文) 同性家庭收養子女權利之研究
論文名稱(英文) The Research on the Right of Child Adoption by Same-Sex Families
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 法律學系
系所名稱(英) Graduate Institute of Legal Sciences
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 陳婕妤
研究生(英文) Chieh-Yu Chen
學號 U26031166
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 276頁
口試委員 指導教授-林易典
口試委員-王海南
口試委員-林秀雄
中文關鍵字 同性家庭  同性戀  同性婚姻  同性登記伴侶  親子關係  收養  適格雙親  子女最佳利益  性傾向 
英文關鍵字 Same-sex families  Gay  Lesbian  Homosexuality  Same-sex marriage  Same-sex registered partnership  parent/child relationship  Adoption  Qualified/Suitable parents  The best interests of the child  Sexual orientation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來隨著我國同性權利運動蓬勃發展與婚姻平權草案之提出,社會各界對於同性家庭應設有何等法律保障一直有相當熱烈之討論,但多數討論聚焦於同性結合彼此間法律關係與權利義務之規範,如應開放同性婚姻或另設同性登記伴侶制度,較少著墨於同性家庭親子關係之爭議。在同性家庭不具有生殖功能之限制下,收養為其養育子女之重要途徑,而收養之立法目的雖在於子女最佳利益之保障,但我國現行收養規範將收養聲請人資格限制於單身個人與異性已婚夫妻,且實務上認為由同性戀者單獨收養子女不符合子女最佳利益而否定之,導致某些已存在事實上親子關係或欲養育子女之同性家庭無法循收養之途徑與子女建立親子關係,此適用結果反而致該同性家庭子女之法律上權利保障與異性家庭子女形成差別待遇,有悖於收養制度冀求子女最佳利益原則之立法精神。
隨著現代社會變遷,家庭之概念逐漸轉變為偏重實質與功能取向,同性家庭在此概念之轉型下亦受到家庭法同等之保障。而就同性家庭是否享有收養子女之權利,國外許多實證科學研究與醫學組織聲明均已得出子女發展之差異主要源自於親子關係之品質與雙親養育之方式與態度,故雙親性傾向為何對於其養育子女之親職能力與被收養子女之身心適當健全發展並無影響。而在外國立法例上,許多歐美先進國家就同性家庭收養子女權利之發展也已逐漸朝向開放並賦予其與異性家庭同等之收養法律地位。由此可知,同性家庭與異性家庭在事務本質上並不存在差異,基於憲法收養自由權與平等權之保障,我國收養制度亦應賦予其享有與異性家庭同等之收養子女權利。
而我國近十年來雖持續提出保障同性家庭收養子女權利之立法修正草案,但迄今均未通過施行,且法院在實務判決上趨於保守,屢次駁回其收養之聲請,使得我國同性家庭無法享有法律上收養子女之權利。而在近期司法院大法官釋字第748號解釋通過後,依該號解釋意旨,我國應立法促進同性結合與異性結合於婚姻之平等法律地位,此不僅落實在婚姻雙方之權利義務保障上,也應體現在強化其平等收養子女之權利。而我國未來之改革方向則應以平等賦予同性家庭收養子女之權利,使其享有與異性家庭同等之收養權利義務保障為重心。而在收養認可之審查上,也應促進法院與收出養媒合服務者在收養個案中依據適格雙親與子女最佳利益原則之相關考量因素綜合評估,以作成實質審查並為非歧視之認定,希冀能確保同性家庭與異性家庭在收養子女之權利上達成實質平等,並平等保障同性家庭與異性家庭子女法律上親子權利與利益。
英文摘要 For lacking procreative function, adoption is an important access for same-sex families to nourish their children, but the existing law of adoption in Taiwan is only for single person and married couples, judicial decisions also rejected adoption applications for the motive of going against the best interests of the child, which excluded gay men, lesbians and same-sex couples from adopting children.

According to empirical scientific researches, the development of adopted children is correlated to the quality of parent/child relationship and parenting approaches. Psychological adjustment, social functioning and sexual phychology of adopted children is not associated with the sexual orientation of their parents. It doesn’t affect their parenting ability either. Thus same-sex families should have equally access to child adoption as opposite-sex families under the constitution of the freedom to adopt children and the right of equality.

After the announcement of Judicial Yuan Interpretation No. 748, the honorable Justices required legislature to equally protect same-sex couples to get married. It’s not only for marital rights and obligations but also for the right of child adoption. We should ensure same-sex families and opposite-sex families having the same legal rights and obligations to child adoption, and promote courts to substantially consider all the factors about qualified/suitable parents and the best interests of the child, to prevent from discrimination when confer the right of child adoption.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍 4
第四節 研究方法 5
第五節 研究架構 6
第二章 同性家庭下之收養親子關係 9
第一節 家庭之內涵與擴張 10
第一項 家庭之概念 11
第一款 形式主義與實質主義之家庭概念 12
第二款 傳統家庭與非傳統家庭之概念 14
第一目 形式論 (Formalism) 15
第二目 功能論 (Functionalism) 16
第二項 家庭之功能 20
第三項 同性家庭之出現擴張家庭之概念 24
第一款 同性結合關係受法律承認之同性家庭 26
第一目 同性婚姻(Same-sex marriage) 26
第二目 同性登記伴侶(Registered partnership) 27
第三目 民事結合(Civil union)與家事伴侶(Domestic partnership) 28
第四目 同居(Cohabitation) 29
第二款 同性結合關係未受法律承認之同性家庭 30
第一目 同性結合關係不在法律保障範圍內 30
第二目 法律未規範同性結合關係 31
第二節 同性家庭下之收養親子關係 31
第一項 同性家庭收養子女之類型 32
第一款 單獨收養(Single-parent Adoption) 33
第二款 一方收養他方之子女(Stepchild Adoption, Second-parent Adoption) 33
第三款 共同收養(Joint Adoption) 35
第二項 同性家庭收養之法律上親子權利義務 36
第三節 小結 38
第三章 同性家庭收養子女權利之爭論 41
第一節 反對論點 41
第一項 同性戀為不道德的 42
第二項 同性戀者具有心理疾病與身體疾病 43
第三項 最適家庭圖像與雙親性別角色典範 44
第一款 最適家庭圖像 (Family Optimality) 46
第二款 雙親性別角色典範 (Parental Role Model) 47
第四項 同性雙親不具有養育子女之親職能力 48
第五項 對於子女健全發展產生不利影響 49
第一款 心理調適與社會功能 49
第二款 性心理發展 51
第六項 科學研究方法缺陷 53
第二節 肯定論點 54
第一項 憲法基本權之保障 54
第一款 收養自由權 54
第二款 平等權 56
第二項 社會收養需求 59
第三項 適格雙親(Qualified/Suitable Parents)論點 62
第一款 一般考量因素 64
第一目 收養聲請人之客觀條件 64
第二目 收養聲請人之意願與態度 65
第二款 特殊考量因素 66
第一目 收養聲請人之性傾向與性生活 66
第二目 性別角色典範之取得 70
第四項 子女最佳利益原則(The Best Interests of The Child) 71
第一款 子女最佳利益原則之內涵 75
第二款 子女最佳利益原則之考量因素 76
第一目 子女之客觀條件 76
第二目 子女之意願及人格發展之需要 77
第三目 子女與收養聲請人及其他家庭成員之情感連繫與環境適應狀況 78
第三節 綜合評析 80
第一項 反對論點 80
第一款 社會對於同性戀之傳統偏見與歧視 80
第二款 諸多假設並未獲實證科學研究支持 85
第一目 最適家庭圖像 85
第二目 雙親性別角色典範 87
第三目 同性雙親養育子女之親職能力 89
第四目 對子女健全發展之影響 90
第一次 心理調適與社會功能 90
第二次 性心理發展 94
第三款 科學研究方法缺陷 99
第二項 肯定論點 100
第一款 憲法基本權之保障 100
第二款 社會收養需求 102
第三款 適格雙親論點 103
第四款 子女最佳利益原則 104
第四節 小結 105
第四章 同性家庭收養子女之外國立法例 109
第一節 北歐國家 109
第一項 丹麥 110
第一款 制定同性登記伴侶法 110
第二款 通過性別中立婚姻法 112
第二項 瑞典 112
第一款 同居法之演變 112
第二款 制定同性登記伴侶法 113
第三款 通過性別中立婚姻法 114
第三項 挪威 115
第四項 冰島 116
第五項 芬蘭 117
第二節 西歐國家 118
第一項 荷蘭 118
第一款 同性家庭權益保障之立法 118
第一目 制定登記伴侶法 118
第二目 同性婚姻之通過 119
第三目 非正式之同居關係 119
第二款 同性家庭收養權利之演變 120
第一目 制定登記伴侶法 120
第二目 通過同性婚姻後 120
第二項 法國 122
第一款 同性家庭權益保障之立法 122
第一目 制定民事結合法(PACS) 122
第二目 同性婚姻之通過 123
第三目 非正式之同居關係 124
第二款 同性家庭收養權利之發展 125
第一目 制定民事結合法 125
第二目 通過同性婚姻後 126
第三項 德國 127
第一款 制定同性伴侶法 128
第一目 立法背景 128
第二目 立法內容 131
第三目 收養子女權利之發展 132
第二款 開放同性婚姻 136
第一目 立法背景 137
第二目 立法內容 138
第三目 收養子女權利之發展 139
第三節 美國 140
第一項 同性家庭權益保障之立法 140
第一款 同性婚姻 140
第二款 類似婚姻之其他法律承認關係 146
第二項 同性家庭收養子女權利之演變 149
第一款 同性家庭收養子女權利之發展背景 149
第一目 美國收養法之基本概述 150
第二目 同性家庭收養子女權利之歷史發展 153
第二款 同性家庭收養子女權利於傳統收養法下之解釋 156
第一目 形式解釋方法 157
第二目 功能解釋方法 161
第三款 同性家庭收養子女權利之各州發展 165
第一目 過去曾禁止同性家庭收養子女之州 166
第一次 透過法院判決禁止 166
第二次 透過收養法規範禁止 168
第二目 承認同性家庭收養子女之州 172
第一次 透過法院判決承認 172
第二次 透過收養法規範承認 174
第四節 小結 177
第五章 同性家庭收養子女權利於我國法之實現 183
第一節 我國同性家庭權益保障之發展 183
第二節 我國同性家庭收養子女權利之規範 188
第一項 現行收養規範 188
第一款 民法親屬編 189
第二款 兒童及少年福利與權益保障法 192
第二項 歷年來同性家庭收養之修正草案 193
第一款 西元2001年人權(保障)基本法草案 193
第二款 西元2004年臺北市兒童與少年寄養家庭自治條例修正草案 195
第三款 西元2006年蕭美琴立委同性婚姻法草案 196
第四款 西元2012年尤美女立委民法親屬編修正草案 197
第五款 西元2013年臺灣伴侶權益推動聯盟多元成家草案 198
第一目 婚姻平權草案 199
第二目 伴侶制度草案 203
第六款 西元2016年婚姻平權草案 205
第一目 各版本草案介紹 205
第一次 尤美女委員版本 205
第二次 許毓仁委員版本 206
第三次 時代力量黨團版本 207
第四次 蔡易餘委員版本 208
第二目 對同性家庭收養子女權利之影響 209
第三節 我國同性家庭收養子女權利之實務發展 210
第一項 同性戀者單獨收養案 210
第一款 案例事實 210
第二款 法院見解 212
第二項 同性戀者收養他方子女案 213
第一款 案例事實 213
第二款 法院見解 215
第三項 綜合評析 218
第一款 同性戀者單獨收養案 218
第二款 同性戀者收養他方子女案 219
第四節 我國同性家庭收養子女權利之探討 221
第一項 肯定同性家庭收養子女之權利 222
第一款 國際發展趨勢 222
第一目 國際專家對我國人權審查報告之意見與建議 222
第二目 外國立法例之經驗 223
第二款 國內立法歷程 225
第三款 憲法基本權之保障 226
第四款 社會收養需求 228
第五款 適格雙親論點 229
第六款 子女最佳利益原則 231
第二項 同性家庭收養於現行法下之適用與解釋 232
第一款 承認同性家庭得為收養聲請 233
第二款 法院收養認可之考量 234
第一目 適格雙親觀點 234
第二目 子女最佳利益原則 236
第三項 同性家庭收養之未來修正方向 237
第一款 賦予同性家庭收養聲請之資格 237
第二款 平等適用收養規範與權利義務關係 238
第三款 確立法院收養認可之標準 240
第一目 宣示法院收養認可之反歧視條款 240
第二目 實質審酌適格雙親與子女最佳利益原則 241
第四款 強化收養之後續追蹤機制 243
第五款 改善社會歧視環境 243
第五節 小結 245
第六章 結論 247
參考文獻 255
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13.鄧學仁,同性婚姻法制化之調查研究,月旦法學雜誌,第264期,2017年5月,頁70-84。
14.賴芳玉,從兒童福祉,談多元家庭收養評估,全國律師,第18卷第1期,2014年1月,頁33-40。
15.賴英照,多元家庭的憲法爭議──美國篇,月旦法學雜誌,第242期,2015年7月,頁63-91。
16.戴瑀如,由德國同性伴侶法的催生、影響與轉化檢視德國對同性人權之保障,月旦法學雜誌,第224期,2014年1月,頁38-56。
17.顧立雄、姜世明、吳煜宗、戴瑀如、官曉薇,「多元成家法制相關議題座談會」會議綜述,月旦法學雜誌,第228期,2014年5月,頁263-278。
(三)立法草案
1.立法院第6屆第4會期第4次會議議案關係文書,院總第244號,委員提案第7079號,2006年10月。
2.立法院第6屆第5會期第11次會議議案關係文書,院總字第1150號,2007年5月。
3.立法院第8屆第2會期第14次會議議案關係文書,院總第1150號,委員提案第 14506號,2012年12月。
4.立法院第8屆第4會期第7次會議議案關係文書,院總第1150號,委員提案第15359號,2013年10月。
5.立法院第9屆第2會期司法及法制委員會第24次全體委員會議紀錄,立法院公報,第106卷,第12期,2017年1月。
6.立法院第9屆第2會期第8次會議議案關係文書,院總第 1150 號,委員提案第19699號,2016年10月
7.立法院第9屆第2會期第9次會議議案關係文書,院總字第1150號,委員提案第19706 號,2016年11月。
8.立法院第9屆第2會期第9次會議議案關係文書,院總第 1150 號,委員提案第19730 號,2016年11月。
9.立法院第一屆第74會期第27次會議議案關係文書,院總字第1150499號,委員提案第353-1號,1984年12月。
10.法務部,人權保障基本法草案總說明,2001年4月, https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwipzcvL7ZbUAhUONpQKHWCdBawQFgg1MAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fslc.cge.vnu.edu.tw%2F100vnucge%2FHuman%2Fresultbox%2FDomestic_law%2F%25E4%25BA%25BA%25E6%25AC%258A%25E4%25BF%259D%25E9%259A%259C%25E5%259F%25BA%25E6%259C%25AC%25E6%25B3%2595%25E8%258D%2589%25E6%25A1%2588.doc&usg=AFQjCNEIr1xO8H9VgQrmIG9kMrbdhBW4jg&sig2=gMup0wpaG944uAJlE5ecKw。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
11.社團法人臺灣伴侶權益推動聯盟,民法親屬編、繼承編部分條文修正草案,伴侶制度草案,2013年10月,https://tapcpr.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/e4bcb4e4beb6e588b6e5baa61003rev.pdf。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
12.社團法人臺灣伴侶權益推動聯盟,民法親屬編、繼承編部分條文修正草案,家屬制度草案,2013年10月,https://tapcpr.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/e5aeb6e5b1ace588b6e5baa61003.pdf。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
13.社團法人臺灣伴侶權益推動聯盟,民法親屬編、繼承編部分條文修正草案,婚姻平權(含同性婚姻)草案,2013年10月,https://tapcpr.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/e5a99ae5a7bbe5b9b3e6ac8a-e4bfaee694b91079-1.pdf。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
14.總統府諮詢小組,人權基本法草案,第三年度第六次全體委員會通過,2003年7月,https://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/bitstream/140.119/38997/13/51041113.pdf。(最後瀏覽日: 2017/8/9)
(四)研究計畫
1.林昀嫺、黃詩淳主持,同性伴侶法制實施之社會影響與立法建議,國立清華大學科技研究所,法務部委託研究,2017年1月,https://www.moj.gov.tw/HitCounter.asp?xItem=461752&ixCuAttach=157908。 (最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
2.章英華、杜素豪、廖培珊主持,台灣社會變遷基本調查計畫第六期第三次調查計畫執行報告,中央研究院社會學研究所,2013年4月,https://srda.sinica.edu.tw/search/scidown/9574。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
(五) 碩士論文
王明郎,從比較法觀點論同性伴侶關係之法律保護,國防管理學院法律學研究所碩士論文,1998年5月。
(六)網路資料
1.中央通訊社,北高明年元旦起,合作辦理同性伴侶註記,2015年12月,http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201512285018-1.aspx。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
2.中央通訊社,全台失親兒增四萬人,給失親兒一個家請伸出援手,2013年10月,http://www.cna.com.tw/postwrite/Detail/134564.aspx#.WSbv0_mGNdg。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
3.中央通訊社,同性婚年齡,政院擬訂婚17歲結婚18歲,2017年6月14日,http://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201706140265-1.aspx。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
4.中央網路報,逾兩千位全國育幼院童與志工齊聚臺北,2008年11月,http://www.cdnews.com.tw/cdnews_site/docDetail.jsp?coluid=121&docid=100569445。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
5.今日新聞Now news,同性婚姻法制,行政院版下會期出爐,2017年5月25日,https://www.nownews.com/news/20170525/2537294。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
6.公益交流站,育幼院不是孤兒院,給孩子一個返家的可能,2016年2月,http://npost.tw/archives/23053。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
7.天下雜誌,追求婚姻平權,修民法、立專法一次看懂,2016年12月,http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5080131。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
8.天下雜誌,婚姻平權草案初審通過!漫漫長路的挑戰,2016年12月,http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5080134。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
9.天下雜誌,衝突高點,也是最接近婚姻平權的時刻,2016年11月,http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5079474。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
10.台灣同志諮詢熱線協會,同性伴侶註記,然後呢?──我和伴侶註記後,開刀還是擔心不已…,2016年3月,https://hotline.org.tw/blog/825。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
11.台灣伴侶權益推動聯盟,多元成家,平權之路(2010 – 2015 工作成果),https://tapcpr.wordpress.com/多元成家,平權之路(2010-2015-工作成果)/。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
12.台灣兒童青少年精神醫學會,性別平權立場聲明,2017年1月,http://www.tscap.org.tw/TW/News2/ugC_News_Detail.asp?hidNewsCatID=8&hidNewsID=131。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
13.台灣精神醫學會,支持多元性別/性傾向族群權益平等和同性婚姻平權之立場聲明,2016年12月26日,http://www.sop.org.tw/Official/official_27.asp。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
14.司法院,3月24日憲法法庭開庭言詞辯論,司法院網站同步直播新聞稿,2017年3月,http://jirs.judicial.gov.tw/GNNWS/download.asp?sdMsgId=51527。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
15.自由時報,4月1日愚人節,彰縣開放同性伴侶戶政註記,2016年3月,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/1635763。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
16.自由時報,家暴防治法,同居、同志納保護,2007年3月,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/118946。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
17.自由時報,畢安生墜樓背後有這樣的愛情故事...,2016年10月,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/society/breakingnews/1858280。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
18.行政院性別平等會,消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約(CEDAW)中華民國(臺灣)第2次國家報告審查委員會總結意見與建議,2014年8月,http://www.gec.ey.gov.tw/DL.ashx?u=%2fUpload%2fRelFile%2f2206%2f714977%2f85791e16-c564-4f84-b037-77eabbd372e2.pdf。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
19.巫緒樑投書,同志申請寄養家庭,蘋果日報,2004年10月,http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/headline/20041016/1310997/。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
20.兒童福利聯盟,2014台灣收出養現況檢視調查報告,2014年10月,http://www.children.org.tw/news/advocacy_detail/1274。 (最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
21.兒童福利聯盟,收出養服務,https://www.children.org.tw/services/service_list/48/29。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
22.法務部,對中華民國(臺灣)政府落實國際人權公約初次報告之審查國際獨立專家通過的結論性意見與建議,2013年3月,http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/HitCounter.asp?xItem=328070&ixCuAttach=98905。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
23.法務部,對中華民國(臺灣)政府關於落實國際人權公約第二次報告之審查國際審查委員會通過的結論性意見與建議,2017年1月,http://www.humanrights.moj.gov.tw/HitCounter.asp?xItem=464124&ixCuAttach=158097。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
24.風傳媒,我的孩子不能認!同志雙親為親權抗告法院,2015年7月,http://www.storm.mg/article/59237。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
25.新頭殼Newtalk,談台首位出櫃者祈家威,楊索:社會正義終將臨,2015年6月,http://newtalk.tw/news/view/2015-06-27/61644。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
26.臺北市兒童及少年收出養服務資源中心,收養程序,http://www.tcadopt.org.tw/Content/Messagess/contents.aspx?SiteID=562753574625340444&MenuID=562753605554453552。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
27.臺灣立報,法務部研擬完成「人權保障基本法」草案,2001年6月,http://www.lihpao.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-57661。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
28.臺灣立報,寄養家庭,單親、同性戀可申請,2004年10月,http://www.lihpao.com/?action-viewnews-itemid-93673。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
29.臺灣伴侶權益推動聯盟,婚姻平權立法最新進度,https://tapcpr.org/marriage-equality/situation。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
30.衛生與福利部社會及家庭署,中華民國建國一百年社會福利政策綱領,邁向公平、包容與正義的新社會,行政院核定版,2012年1月,http://www.sfaa.gov.tw/SFAA/Pages/ashx/File.ashx?FilePath=~/File/Attach/1991/File_166152.pdf。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
31.聯合新聞網,政院:同婚法制化之前,先放寬同性伴侶適用條文,2017年6月7日,https://udn.com/news/story/6656/2509837。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
32.轉角國際,不再阻擋婚姻平權法案:一場同志晚餐,讓梅克爾對同婚改觀?,2017年6月30日,https://global.udn.com/global_vision/story/8662/2550980。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
33.蘋果日報,反同者嗆「不歧視同志 社會就絕種了」,2016年12月,http://www.appledaily.com.tw/realtimenews/article/new/20161204/1003960/。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
34.蘋果日報,北市明起可核發「同性伴侶證」,但仍無法律效力,2016年12月,http://www.appledaily.com.tw/realtimenews/article/new/20161225/1020571/。(最後瀏覽日:2017/8/9)
二、德文文獻(依作者姓氏字母排序)
(一)專書
1.Dethloff, Nina (2015), Familienrecht: ein Studienbuch, 31. Auflage: München: C. H. Beck.
2.Gernhuber, Joachim/Coester-Waltjen, Dagmar (2010), Familienrecht, 6. Auflage: München: C. H. Beck.
3.Schwab, Dieter (2015), Familienrecht, 23. Auflage: München: C. H. Beck.
4.Voppel, Reinhard (2010), Staudingers Kommentar zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch mit Einführungsgesetz und Nebengesetzen, Bearbeitung 2010: Berlin: Sellier-de Gruyter.
(二)官方資料
1.BT-Drucksache 18/6665, http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/18/066/1806665.pdf. (last visited: 2017/8/9)
2.Bundesgesetzblatt, 2017 Teil I Nr. 52, am 28. Juli 2017, S. 2787, https://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl#__bgbl__%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl117s2787.pdf%27%5D__1501229719327. (last visited: 2017/8/9)
(三)網路資源
Spiegel online (2017), Bundesrat gibt grünes Licht für Ehe für alle, , http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/ehe-fuer-alle-bundesrat-gibt-gruenes-licht-fuer-gleichstellung-von-homosexuellen-a-1156456.html. (last visited: 2017/8/9)
三、英文文獻(依作者姓氏字母排序)
(一) 專書
1.Abrams, Douglas E./Cahn, Naomi R./Ross, Catherina J./Meyer, David D./McClain, Linda C. (2015), Contemporary Family Law, 4th edn: St. Paul, Minnesota: West Academic Publishing.
2.Appell, Annette R. (2011), Legal Issues in Lesbian and Gay Adoption, in: David M. Brodzinsky/Adam Pertman (eds), Adoption by Lesbians and Gay Men: A New Dimension in Family Diversity, New York: Oxford University Press, at 36-61.
3.Ball, Carlos A. (2014), Same-Sex Marriage and Children: A Tale of History, Social Science, and Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
4.Beilfuss, Cristina González (2012), All or Nothing: The Dilemma of Southern Jurisdictions, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in Europe, 2nd edn: Cambridge: intersentia, at 41-53.
5.Bell, John/Boyron, Sophie/Whittaker, Simon (2008), Principles of French law, 2nd edn: Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6.Bermann, George A./Picard, Etienne (eds) (2008), Introduction to French law, Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer.
7.Berns, Roberta M. (2016), Child, Family, School, Community, Socialization and Support, 10th edn: Stamford: Cengage Learning.
8.Biller, Henry B. (1993), Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development, Westport, Conn.: Auburn House.
9.Bocken, Hubert/Bondt, Walter De (eds) (2001), Introduction to Belgian Law, Bruxelles: Kluwer Law International.
10.Boele-Woelki, Katharina (2003), Rigistered Partnership and Same-Sex Marriage in the Netherlands, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Couples in Europe, Antwerp: intersentia, at 41-53.
11.Byrd, A. Dean (2008), Conjugal Marriage Fosters Healthy Human and Societal Development, in: Lynn D. Wardle (ed.), What’s the Harm? Does Legalizing Same-sex Marriage Really Harm Individuals, Families or Society?, Lanham: University Press of America, at 3-25.
12.Chorus, J.M.J./Gerver, P.H.M./Hondius, E.H. (eds) (2006), Introduction to Dutch Law, 4th edn: Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.
13.Coester-Waltjen, Dagmar (2016), Family Forms and Parenthood in Germany, in: Andrea Büchler/Helen Keller (eds), Family Forms and Parenthood: Theory and Practice of Article 8 ECHR in Europe, Cambridge: intersentia, at 201-236.
14.Douglas, Gillian (2016), The changing concept of ‘family’ and challenges for family law in England and Wales, in: Jens M. Scherpe (ed.), European Family Law Volume II: The Changing Concept of ‘family’ and Challenges for Domestic Family Law, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, at 22-38.
15.Dworkin, R. (1978), Taking Rights Seriously, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
16.Fairfax, Jennifer (2011), The Adoption Law Handbook: Practice, Resources, and Forms for Family Law Professionals, Chicago: American Bar Association.
17.Francoz-Terminal, Laurence (2016), The changing concept of ‘family’ and challenges for family law in France, in: Jens M. Scherpe (ed.), European Family Law Volume II: The Changing Concept of ‘family’ and Challenges for Domestic Family Law, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, at 39-64.
18.Golombok, Susan/Tasker, Fiona (2010), Gay fathers, in: Michael E. Lamb, The Role of the Father: In Child Development, 5th edn: Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., at 319-340.
19.Gonsiorek, John C. (1991), The Empirical Basis for the Demise of the Illness Model of Homosexuality, in: John C. Gonsiorek/James D. Weinrich (eds), Homosexuality: Research Implications for Public Policy, Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Inc., at 115-136.
20.Gubbins, John Harington (1899), The Civil Code of Japan, Part 2, originally published: Tokio: Maruya, reprint: 2010: S. l.: Nabu Press.
21.Hasday, Jill Elaine (2014), Family Law Reimagined, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
22.Hozumi, Nobushige (1904), The New Japanese Civil Code: As Material for the Study of Comparative Jurisprudence, A paper read at the International Congress of Arts and Science at the Universal Exposition, originally published: Tokyo: Tokyo Printing Co., reprint: 2009: Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
23.Jänterä-Jareborg, Maarit (2012), Parenthood for Same-Sex Couples: Scandinavian Developments, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in Europe, 2nd edn: Cambridge: intersentia, at 91-122.
24.Lund-Andersen, Ingrid (2003), The Danish Registered Partnership Act, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Couples in Europe, Antwerp: intersentia, at 13-23.
25.Lund-Andersen, Ingrid (2012), The Nordic Countries: Same Direction - Different Speeds, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships in Europe, 2nd edn: Cambridge: intersentia, at 3-17.
26.Mabry, Cynthia R./Kelly, Lisa (2010), Adoption Law: Theory, Policy, and Practice, 2nd edn: Buffalo, New York: William S. Hein & Co., Inc.
27.Martiny, Dieter (2016), The changing concept of ‘family’ and challenges for family law in Germany, in: Jens M. Scherpe (ed.), European Family Law Volume II: The Changing Concept of ‘family’ and Challenges for Domestic Family Law, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, at 65-85.
28.Merin, Yuval (2002), Equality for Same-Sex Couples: The Legal Recognition of Gay Partnerships in Europe and the United States, Chicago: The University of Chicago.
29.Myers, John E.B./Krause, Harry D. (2007), Family Law in a Nutshell, 6th edn: St. Paul, Minnesota: West Academic Publishing.
30.O’Halloran, Kerry (2015), The Politics of Adoption: International Perspectives on Law, Policy and Practice, 3rd edn: Dordrecht: Springer.
31.Parke, Ross D. (2013), Gender Differences and Similarities in Parental Behavior, in: W. Bradford Wilcox/Kathleen Kovner Kline (eds), Gender and Parenthood: Biological and Social Scientific Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, at 120-163.
32.Patterson, Charlotte J. (1994), Children of the Lesbian Baby Boom: Behavioral Adjustment, Self-Concepts, and Sex Role Identity, in: Beverly Greene/Gregory M. Herek (eds), Lesbian and Gay Psychology: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications, Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, at 156-175.
33.Polikoff, Nancy D. (2001), Lesbian and Gay Couples Raising Children: The Law in the United States, in: Robert Wintemute/Mads Andenæs (eds), Legal Recognition of Same-sex Partnerships: A Study of National, European and International Law, Oxford: Hart Publishing, at 153-168.
34.Russett, Cynthia (2011), American Adoption, in: David M. Brodzinsky/Adam Pertman (eds), Adoption by Lesbians and Gay Men: A New Dimension in Family Diversity, New York: Oxford University Press, at 3-19.
35.Savolainen, Matti (2003), The Finnish and the Swedish Partnership Acts: Similarities and Divergencies, in: Katharina Boele-Woelki/Angelika Fuchs (ed.), Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Couples in Europe, Antwerp: intersentia, at 24-40.
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四、日文文獻
西村信雄(1978),戦後日本家族法の民主化(上卷),京都:法律文化社
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