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系統識別號 U0026-2308201710375600
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣住宅室內外溫度相關性與差異之分布探討
論文名稱(英文) The relationship and difference between hourly indoor and ambient temperature in Taiwan households.
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 環境醫學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 林政宏
研究生(英文) Zheng-Hung Lin
學號 s76031025
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 90頁
口試委員 指導教授-蘇慧貞
口試委員-蔡耀賢
口試委員-郭炤裕
中文關鍵字 建築環境  室內  溫度 
英文關鍵字 Built environment  Indoor  temperature  ambient 
學科別分類
中文摘要 極端高溫與極端低溫事件頻傳,環境溫度的改變影響人們健康甚劇。有鑒於一般民眾每日處於室內環境之時間高達9成,釐清室內溫度變化與影響其變化之因子有助於建築室內溫度控制與民眾疾病的預防。本研究擬以每小時解析度的資料深入探討大氣溫度與室內溫度的差距分佈,並嘗試評估氣象因子、建築物特性及人員行為頻率等對於溫差(室內溫度減室外溫度)變化的影響程度。
研究團隊於2012年8月至2015年7月長期追蹤30間分布於臺灣11個縣市之一般住宅室內溫度變化、建築物特性、人員行為等,並且同步彙整與之對應的區域性大氣資料。本研究選取各住宅完整一年每小時溫度變化資料,依每月室外平均溫度分布趨勢將整年區分為冷月(10月至5月)及暖月(6月至9月),並依建築物特性及人員行為頻率進行分層分析,以T檢定 (T-test) 瞭解溫差在不同組別間的差異,接著使用混合效應模式 (Linear mixed effect model) 計算各變項對溫差的影響程度。
根據每小時室內外溫度分布可以發現,相較於冷月,暖月中午時段之室內溫度明顯低於室外溫度,接著,從溫差的部分可以發現,每日的夜間與凌晨時段的室內外溫度差距大,這樣的情況於冷月更是明顯,除此之外,冷暖月中午時段可以觀察到室內溫度幾乎維持定值;室外溫度不斷攀升,導致平均溫差超過1°C,對易感族群而言存在很高的健康風險。接下來,從混合效應模式的分析結果中發現大氣溫度、相對溼度、大氣壓力、風速、降雨量、日照時數、住宅窗口數、住宅朝北窗口數量、室內冷氣、風扇和暖氣使用頻率為影響溫差的主要因子。
本研究的結果顯示臺灣地區的一般住宅,室內外溫差不論在季節尺度或是每日尺度中均可以發現變化,其影響因子包含:大氣氣象因子、建築物特性和人員行為頻率。研究結果將有助於公共衛生領域建置一溫度暴露預警系統,也可以提供建築規劃領域在建築隔熱、通風設計上的參考。
英文摘要 As frequency of extreme temperature events is increasing, its subsequent health effects have also attracted rising concerns. Since people spend up to 90% of their time in built environments, to clarify the factors associated with the changes of indoor temperature is critical for forming indoor thermal control and public health strategies. In this study, we investigated the difference between indoor and ambient temperature with hourly interval, and further to examine the effects of meteorological factors, building characteristics and human behavior on the changes of temperature difference levels. Temperature difference (TD) is defined as the subtracted difference between the indoor temperature and ambient levels. The dataset of hourly indoor temperature and human behaviours over one year was recorded from 30 residences of 11 cities in Taiwan from August 2012 to July 2015. Simultaneous ambient levels were also collected from nearby weather stations. The T-test was applied to examine the difference of TD between groups, and we used the mixed effect model to characterize the effects of each factors under multivariable adjustment. Overall, the lowest TD level always occurs in the noon period. In addition to the period at midday, the levels of TD in the cool season (Oct. to May) are higher than that in the warm season (Jun. to Sep.). In Taiwan, the level of TD seems to vary by seasons and time periods. The important effect factors include meteorological factors, building characteristics and human behaviour. This study is aimed to serve as the reference for further establishment of temperature warning system as well as to support the building insulation design.
論文目次 摘要 II
EXTENDED ABSTRACT III
致謝 VII
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.1.1 全球溫度變化趨勢 1
1.1.2 溫度對健康之衝擊 2
1.1.3 探討溫度與健康之流行病學研究限制 4
1.1.4 影響室內外溫度變化之因子 4
1.2 研究問題 5
1.3 研究目的 5
1.4 研究重要性 5
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 溫度與健康效應 6
2.1.1 溫度在多個國家的影響 6
2.1.2 溫度與健康流行病學研究 7
2.1.3 熱疾病的生理機制 9
2.2 室內外溫度的分布情形與其影響因子 12
2.2.1 建築物材質與形狀 13
2.2.2 樓層高度 13
2.2.3 屋齡 14
2.2.4 方位 14
2.2.5 對外開口型式 14
2.2.6 人員行為 14
第三章 材料與方法 16
3.1 研究架構 16
3.2 研究住宅代表性和研究區域之選取 18
3.2.1 建築物代表性 18
3.2.2 研究區域選取 18
3.3 資料整理與分析 20
3.3.1 室內及室外環境因子 20
3.3.2 建築物特性 21
3.3.3 人員行為頻率 21
3.3.4 統計分析 21
第四章 結果 23
4.1 研究資料之分布狀況 23
4.1.1 建築物特性描述 23
4.1.2 人員行為頻率資料描述 25
4.1.3 室內外氣象條件因子描述 28
4.1.4 室內溫度與溫差在不同條件下分布情形 34
4.2 影響室內外溫差的可能因素 49
4.2.1 氣候條件因子對溫差的影響 49
4.2.2 建築物特性因子對溫差的影響 51
4.2.3 人員行為頻率因子對溫差的影響 53
4.3 變項與溫差之相關性 59
4.4 室內外溫差的可能因素綜合探討 62
第五章 討論 67
5.1 研究資料之分布狀況探討 67
5.2 變項之間相關性之探討 69
5.3 探討各變項對溫差的影響程度 70
5.3.1 濕度 70
5.3.2 氣壓 71
5.3.3 降雨量 72
5.3.4 風速 72
5.3.5 建築物特性 73
5.3.6 人員行為頻率 73
5.4 溫差與各變項之綜合性探討 74
5.5 應用層面 75
5.5.1 建築物設計 75
5.5.2 人員行為 77
5.6 研究限制 79
第六章 結論 80
第七章 參考文獻 82
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