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系統識別號 U0026-2308201622390200
論文名稱(中文) 臺灣南部墾丁地區石灰岩洞穴內更新世晚期貓科化石之研究
論文名稱(英文) Study the Late Pleistocene Cat (Carnivora, Felidae) Fossils from a Limestone Cave within Kenting Area, Southern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 104
學期 2
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 甘怡
研究生(英文) Yi Gan
學號 L46031065
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 107頁
口試委員 指導教授-吳銘志
共同指導教授-張鈞翔
口試委員-鍾廣吉
口試委員-陶錫珍
口試委員-林良恭
中文關鍵字 墾丁  貓科  化石  形態學 
英文關鍵字 Kenting  Felidae  Fossil  Morphology 
學科別分類
中文摘要 臺灣南部恆春半島之墾丁地區,擁有分佈廣闊的生物礁石灰岩。龍蝦洞係位於墾丁國家森林遊樂區內的石灰岩洞穴,其洞穴內之沉積物中保存大量更新世陸生脊椎動物化石。於近期的發掘中,發現三顆罕見的貓科動物牙齒化石。由於此三顆牙齒位於同一水平,且鄰近挖掘點出土,並且在特徵上具有貓科動物下顎臼齒P3、P4、M1的特徵與相對應的尺寸相關差別,因此研判該三顆牙齒應屬於同一個體。此外,按其臼齒齒尖特徵符合貓科動物之下裂齒剪切形貌,依其尺寸可以推斷為中型貓科動物。
本研究採用傳統線性測量及牙齒咬合面之二維幾何形態分析,針對雲豹(Neofelis sp.)、虎(Panthera tigris)及豹(Panthera pardus)之前臼齒及臼齒,進行量測及統計分析比對,並加以齒尖形態特徵作為輔助鑑識之依據,希冀藉以區分出種別。爰此,對此貓科動物牙齒化石進行完整的形態描述及量測資料保存,並比較現生種與化石之差異。研究分析結果顯示,龍蝦洞出土之貓科動物化石,在牙齒形態特徵上,非常接近現生種豹,在尺寸上也落於現生種花豹之變化範圍內。然而,豹的存在,在臺灣未曾有任何紀錄,也未有史籍資料提及。因此,本研究推論豹於晚更新世時期存在於臺灣,為臺灣更新世肉食動物之多樣性增添一筆珍貴資料。
英文摘要 Lobster Cave, a limestone cave located in the Kenting area within Kenting National Park of Southern Taiwan, yields numerous Pleistocene mammalian fossils buried in the continental deposits. In this study, we examine the fossil cheek teeth of leopard (Panthera pardus) recovered from the same horizon within the cave. Two isolated felid lower premolars and one molar, respectively P3, P4 and M1, had a series of progressive increase in size, and are believed to belong to the same individual under the subfamily of Pantherinae. Traditional linear measurements and two-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis for the occlusal surface outlines have been conducted on the fossil teeth. Comparisons were made with the extant pantherine cats inhabited in Asia such as clouded leopard, leopard, and tiger. Results obtained show that the premolars and molar of the fossil leopard are similar in size and dental morphology to those of the extant leopards. Nevertheless, there has never been any historical document of leopards inhabited in Taiwan, and their existence has never been known before. This study reveals that leopards might have entered Taiwan in late Pleistocene through the land bridge connecting Taiwan and mainland China during the Quaternary glaciations.
論文目次 摘要 I
EXTENDED ABSTRACT II
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第 1 章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究目的 3
第 2 章 前人研究 4
2.1 生物命名與分類 4
2.1.1 豹亞科個論 5
2.1.2 臺灣豹亞科化石之紀錄與歷史軼事 11
2.1.3 貓科動物的牙齒 13
2.2 形態測量 17
2.2.1 傳統形態測量 18
2.2.2 幾何形態測量 18
2.3 統計分析 19
2.3.1 主成份分析 20
2.3.2 相對扭曲分析 20
第 3 章 研究區域 21
3.1 區域地理 21
3.2 區域地質 22
3.3 區域地質歷史 24
3.4 洞穴地質概況 26
第 4 章 研究方法 28
4.1 工作流程 28
4.2 野外洞穴挖掘工作 29
4.2.1 量測與定位 30
4.2.2 挖掘與採樣 31
4.2.3 篩洗 32
4.3 室內標本處理與分析 33
4.3.1 挑選與分類 33
4.3.2 編目入庫 33
4.4 研究目標與鑑定工作 34
4.4.1 標本形態觀察 37
4.4.2 標本傳統線性量測 38
4.4.3 標本幾何形態量測 41
第 5 章 結果與討論 43
5.1 形態描述與比對 43
5.1.1 雲豹 44
5.1.2 豹 45
5.1.3 老虎 45
5.1.4 形態特徵觀察結果 46
5.2 形質參數測量 48
5.2.1 傳統線性測量 48
5.2.2 幾何形態測量 58
5.3 化石標本描述與比對鑑定 67
5.3.1 物種鑑定 67
5.3.2 化石個體年齡推測與埋葬學分析 71
5.3.3 中國出土之豹化石比對與古環境推論 73
第 6 章 結論 78
參考文獻 79
附錄一、化石圖版與圖說 87
附錄二、標本基本資料 90
附錄三、現生標本頰齒相片 99
附錄四、龍蝦洞之挖掘工作相片 103
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