||Development of an Injection Assistant System with 3D Ultrasound
||Institute of Computer Science and Information Engineering
three dimensional ultrasound images
injection assistant system
Percutaneous diagnosis and local therapies are implemented in many modern clinical practices (biopsies, intravenous injection, regional anesthesia, catheter insertion, neurosurgery). Medical personnel should use thin tubular devices to inject deep into soft tissue. Taking intravenous injection or blood withdraw as an example, they are frequently employed by tiring down the patient’s arm with a tourniquet so the medical personnel can easily find the vessel before injection. Under some special conditions like thick subcutaneous fat or small vessel, they not only increase the difficulty of inserting needle but also have the possibility of puncturing the vessel. For medical institutions, it’s likely to cause medical disputes because all these treatment procedures are depending on nurses’ experiences. As a result, this research attempts to reduce the probability of mistakes by developing an easy, stable, cheap and cross-platform ultrasound-guided needle system. Combined with all the features, this research built a supporting system for existing ultrasound systems. First of all, a probe holder that could fit the linear probes and put sensors on the holder was designed. Optical mouse sensor, 3-axis accelerometer and compass sensor were used for collecting space information so that 3D ultrasound images could be reconstructed from original 2D images. Besides, the rotation sensor was connected with inserting part of the holder to immediately transmit the injection angle to processing software that shows predicted injecting-line. Second, a cross-platform software was written by java language for showing 3D images, guiding line and analyzing the injection point. In this system, Arduino Nano was used to process space information and transmit to computer through Bluetooth. With gathering space information in this research, the mean error of tilt angle sensing was less than 1° and the highest error was not more than 3°. Error of azimuth was larger than 15°, but it could be compensated by a looked up table for each degree in space. Error of movement was less than 1mm when the total moving distance of probe is less than 167mm. The 3D printed probe holder could be combined with probe and Arduino platform firmly. The guided path could be generated each 22.5° which was recognized by rotation sensor and the injected part can be fixed by gear in rotation sensor to give a stable injection. The contribution of this research is providing a safer and more reliable way to employ injection also helps to improve the 2D ultrasound image system for reconstructing 3D images by a low-cost condition. For the entire medical or research organizations, using the result of this research is really a cost-effective investment to upgrade their existing ultrasound system. For the educational institutions, beginners can reduce the mistake when they practice injection to their partners.
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF TABLE X
LIST OF FIGURE XI
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND 1
1.2 LITERATURES REVIEW 2
1.2.1 Search needle position 2
1.2.2 Guide needle with suggesting path 6
1.2.3 Gather space information to construct 3D ultrasound 9
1.3 MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES 10
CHAPTER 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 12
2.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF ULTRASOUND 12
2.1.1 Fundamentals of acoustic propagation 12
2.1.2 Reflection and refraction 13
2.2 3D PRINTER 15
2.3 SENSORS AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS IN ARDUINO 18
2.3.1 Introduction of Arduino 18
2.3.2 Arduino Nano 19
2.3.3 Arduino serial port 19
2.3.4 I2C communication 20
2.3.5 Optical mouse sensor and SPI protocol 21
CHAPTER 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS 25
3.1 SYSTEM STRUCTURE 25
3.2 ICS MEASUREMENT 27
3.2.1 Accelerometer 27
3.2.2 Digital Compass IC 31
3.2.3 Optical Mouse Sensor 36
3.2.4 Rotation sensor 38
3.2.5 Bluetooth 39
3.3 HOLDER 40
3.4 SOFTWARE WORKING FLOW 43
3.4.1 Choose Image Source 43
3.4.2 Initialize Sensors and Create 3D space 44
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 45
4.1 ICS CALIBRATION 45
4.1.1 Tilt Angle Calibration 45
4.1.2 Azimuth Calibration 47
4.1.3 Movement Calibration 50
4.2 FINISHED HOLDER 52
4.3 SOFTWARE 54
4.4 DISCUSSION 56
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORKS 58
5.1 CONCLUSIONS 58
5.2 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS 60
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