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系統識別號 U0026-2308201313070300
論文名稱(中文) 利用摩擦式阻尼設計降低頸椎傷害之汽車座椅
論文名稱(英文) Design of Automobile Seat with Friction Damper to Lessen Neck Whiplash Injury
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 吳俊翰
研究生(英文) Chun-Han Wu
學號 n16001448
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 112頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃才烱
口試委員-陳家豪
口試委員-詹魁元
中文關鍵字 頸部鞭甩傷害  安全座椅機構設計  後側碰撞  系統識別 
英文關鍵字 Whiplash Injury  Safety Seat Design  Rear Impact  System Identification 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究之主要目的,在於設計一新型的車輛安全座椅機構,對於駕駛者在後撞事故中容易引發的頸部傷害具有降低其風險的效果。頸部鞭甩傷害事後撞車禍事故中所引起各類傷害的其中一種,此種傷害對於乘客的致死率極低,但具有潛伏期長、併發症多的特性導致此種傷害耗費個人及社會成本甚鉅。在後撞車禍事故中,若座椅無法提供相關的保護措施會導致乘員頸部因為頸椎鞭甩傷害而受創,因此一個具有適當防護效果的車輛安全座椅對於防護頸椎鞭甩傷害有關鍵性的影響。

本研究主要利用摩擦式阻尼作為汽車安全座椅機構的主要減速及啟動機構,利用摩擦式阻尼及桿件外型設計來設計出一個新型具有防護頸部鞭甩效果之安全座椅,增加目前可供參考之安全座椅機構類型以供日後在相關的安全座椅設計進行參考。

本研究利用實際實驗針對設計出之摩擦式阻尼進行效果測試,並利用數學方法計算出摩擦式阻尼之效果,利用此效果做為參考依據利用機構模擬軟體建立新型機構模型,並以EuroNCAP中鞭甩測試準則建構測試方法,針對座椅機構進行測試並匯出新式座椅在後撞中之運動情形,得到座椅機構之運動情形後針對座椅機構進行改良並以同樣的測試對改良後之機構再度利用機構模擬軟體進行模擬,並使用系統識別的方法對改良過後之機構在後撞過程中之運動情形可能造成之傷害進行評估,討論新型座椅機構對於人體的頸部之保護效果。
英文摘要 The main objective of this study is to design a new vehicle seat mechanism to prevent from human whiplash injury due to low-speed rear impact. Whiplash injury is one kind of injuries which would occur in rear-end impact, which that has very low opportunity to lead to death but has long incubation and many kinds of complication. This characteristic let whiplash injury has a serious implication for society. Seat plays an important role in rear impact, if there isn’t safety device which can prevent the whiplash injury, there is a high opportunity that the whiplash injury would occur. Therefore, an appropriate automotive seat mechanism design might be a key to protect the occupant’s neck from whiplash injury.

This study use friction damper as the main mechanism which could provide both the deceleration and trigger of safety device. The characteristic of friction damper and the shape design of the connection link is the most important in the new type of whiplash protecting mechanism. This would provide other studies a relative reference which is focus on anti-whiplash seat mechanism design.

In this study there is an experiment to get the characteristic of friction damper which has designed, and use physic model to compute the result of the experiment. And a mechanism model was built in mechanism analysis program base on the friction damper mechanism. EuroNCAP’s whiplash test procedure was used in the mechanism analysis program to get the relative dynamic reaction of the new mechanism. With the result of the simulation, the shape of the connection link was redesigned to avoid the rebound which would happen in maximum extension of new mechanism. System identification was used to assess the injury of the result which was produced by the simulation of the improved new mechanism. By analyzing the data with the available neck injury criterion like NIC values can verified the effects of the new safety seat mechanism.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
名詞解釋 XII
符號說明 XIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究目的與動機 4
1.3 文獻回顧 6
1.4 論文架構 9
第二章 理論基礎 11
2.1 後撞過程的描述及分析 11
2.1.1 爬升(Ramping) 12
2.1.2 鞭甩(Whiplash) 12
2.1.3 回彈(Rebounding) 13
2.1.4 脫位(Out of Position) 13
2.2 鞭甩效應及傷害探討 16
2.2.1 頸椎構造及運動簡介 16
2.2.2 頸椎鞭甩傷害 18
2.2.3 頸椎傷害量化指標 22
2.3 BioRID II人偶簡介 25
2.3.1 人偶發展簡史 25
2.3.2 BioRID II人偶構造 26
第三章 座椅設計 34
3.1 座椅在後撞中之重要性 34
3.1.1 椅背傾斜角與頭枕位置 35
3.1.2 目前已有之改良式座椅簡介 35
3.2 前人葉座椅機構設計 40
3.2.1 啟動機構 40
3.2.2 插銷機構 43
3.2.3 剛體導引機構 44
3.3 摩擦式阻尼機構 46
3.3.1 摩擦式阻尼簡介 46
3.3.2 摩擦式阻尼機構設計 48
第四章 摩擦式阻尼測試及討論 50
4.1 實驗目的及方法 50
4.2 實驗設備及流程 51
4.2.1 實驗儀器簡介 51
4.2.2 摩擦式阻尼及測試機台 53
4.3 實驗結果與分析 57
第五章 摩擦式阻尼機構模擬及改良 64
5.1 座椅後撞測試規範 64
5.1.1 座椅與人偶位置設定 65
5.1.2 撞擊速度設定 67
5.2 摩擦式阻尼測試及改良 75
5.2.1 摩擦式阻尼機構建模 75
5.2.2 摩擦式阻尼機構模擬結果 76
5.2.3 摩擦式阻尼機構改進設計 79
5.2.4 改進式摩擦式阻尼機構模擬結果 81
5.2.5 小結 83
第六章 傷害評估 84
6.1 傷害評估方法 84
6.1.1 自願者實驗及數據 84
6.1.2 傷害評估方法概述 87
6.2 摩擦式阻尼機構效果 89
6.2.1 T1之X方向加速度 89
6.2.2 頭部質心X方向加速度 93
6.2.3 NIC值 99
6.3 小結 103
第七章 結果與討論 104
7.1 結論 104
7.2 改進方向與未來發展 105
參考文獻 107
附錄A Labview訊號擷取程式圖 111
附錄B 測試加速度函數 112
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