||Eco-efficiency analysis for green buildings
||Eco-efficiency analysis for green buildings
||Department of Civil Engineering
||Vu Xuan Truong
The green building isa revolution in the construction industry in recent years. The concerns of green buildings are the environmental impacts and economic benefits to the human world. Eco-efficiency integrates the two concerns as one indicator to assess the greenness and economic efficiency for buildings.
This research developed the eco-efficiency indicators for green buildings. Four environmental impacts are energy, water, waste and recycle and CO2 emissions. Four economic costs of design, construction, operation and green are the economic components. From analyzing the characteristics of buildings, three prominent indicators are determined: (1) construction cost/energy consumption, (2) operation cost/CO2 emissions, and (3) green cost/CO2 emissionsreduction.
Eco-efficiency calculations were performed from the data of 9 LEED buildings. The first two indicators point out different strategy options for the ‘greenness” of buildings. For example, higher construction cost maybe for the platinum buildings resultin higher value of construction cost/energy;the lower operation costforagreener building brings smallervalue of operation cost/CO¬2. The values of eco-efficiency can be increased or decreased to mean better performance. In the third indicator, with lower green costs, the certified buildings have the best eco-efficiency in CO2 emissions reduction.
Although the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of LEED gold buildings are smaller, the green cost of these buildings is much higher. Therefore, the gold building’s eco-efficiency is not better than those with lower certified levels.
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and overview 1
1.2 Research Motivation 2
1.3 Research Objective and Scope 2
1.4 Research Method and Process 3
1.5 Thesis Structure. 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Green Rating Systems 6
2.1.1 LEED 6
2.1.2 BREEAM 7
2.1.3 CASBEE 8
2.1.4 EEWH 9
2.2 Environmental burdens 10
2.2.1 Energy consumption 11
2.2.2 Water consumption 13
2.2.3 Waste and recycle 14
2.2.4 CO2 emissions 16
2.3 Cost and Benefits 17
2.3.1 Green cost and construction cost 17
2.3.2 Incentives 19
2.4 Eco-Efficiency 21
2.4.1 Definition of eco-efficiency 21
2.4.2 Framework of eco-efficiency indicators 22
2.4.3 Principles of eco-efficiency 23
CHAPTER 3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM BUILDINGS 26
3.1 Types of Environmental Impacts 26
3.1.1 Environmental impact by WBCSD 26
3.1.2 Building environmental impact background 27
3.2 Energy Consumption 28
3.2.1 Energy credits in green programs 29
3.2.2 Energy consumption in buildings 31
3.3 Water consumption 33
3.3.1 Watercredits in green programs 33
3.3.2 Water consumption in buildings 35
3.4 Waste and Recycle 36
3.4.1 Waste and Recycle in green programs 36
3.4.2 Waste and Recycle in buildings 38
3.5 CO2 Emissions 39
3.5.1 CO2emissions in green programs 39
3.5.2 CO2emissions in buildings 41
CHAPTER 4 GREEN COSTS AND INCENTIVES 42
4.1 Concepts of Green Costs 42
4.1.1 Factors causing green costs 42
4.1.2 Categories of green costs 44
4.2 Green Cost Percentages and Values 46
4.2.1 Overall 46
4.2.2 Designstage 48
4.2.3 Construction stage 49
4.2.4 Operation and Maintenance stage 50
4.3 Incentives for Green Features 54
4.3.1 Monetary incentives 54
4.3.2 Intangible incentives (non-monetary) 56
CHAPTER 5 BUILDING ECO-EFFICIENCY 59
5.1 Developing Building Eco-efficiency Indicators 59
5.1.1 Eco-efficiency indicators for buildings 59
5.1.2 Ratio of construction cost to energy consumption 62
5.1.3 Ratio of operation cost to CO2 emissions 64
5.1.4 Ratio of green costto CO2 emissions reduction 66
5.2 Calculation of Eco-Efficiency 68
5.2.1 Data presentation 68
5.2.2 Ratio of construction cost to energy consumption 70
5.2.3 Ratio of operation cost to CO2 emissions 72
5.2.4 Ratio of green cost to CO2 emissions reduction 76
5.2.5 Performance and eco-efficiency of green buildings 79
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 81
6.1 Conclusions 81
6.2 Suggestion for Future Research 82
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