系統識別號 U0026-2307201510255000
論文名稱(中文) 俄文и ‘and’ 連接詞的功能及其中文和英文翻譯:基於語料庫的研究
論文名稱(英文) A Corpus-Based Study on a Russian Conjunction и ‘and’ and its Equivalent Expressions in English and Mandarin Chinese Translations
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 外國語文學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Foreign Languages & Literature
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 阿遼娜
研究生(英文) Alena Kulikova
電子信箱 alena.a.kulikova@gmail.com
學號 R66017028
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 130頁
口試委員 指導教授-李惠琦
中文關鍵字 並列結構  連接詞  語料分析  翻譯  俄英中對比 
英文關鍵字 coordination  conjunction  corpus analysis  translation  Russian-English-Chinese 
中文摘要 本研究主要在探討俄文連接詞i ‘and’(俄文: “и”)的功能。此外,我们也探討這些功能是否在俄中與俄英譯文得到體現。
有關俄文連接詞i的研究大多數集中在名詞之間的連接詞(Andreyewsky 1973, Chaves & Paperno 2007, Osborne 2009, Paperno 2012等)。本研究探討子句與子句之間的連接詞用法。
I連接詞基本的功能是「對等連接詞」(coordinate conjunction)。它也會帶有附加意義(Shvedova et al. 1980; Vinogradov 2001)。有些語言學家說多義性不是聯結詞本身的特徵,而是上下文隱含的或其他語言因素表示的意思(例如,Sannikov 2008)。 不能否認的是,由i連接的子句特點是它們之間邏輯關係的多樣性。
第一,我們綜合語言學家與詞典對i表示的語義關係做的分類,也分析「俄語國家語料庫」中i的用法。第二,我們分析 “Anna Karenina” (Leo Tolstoy)的俄英(譯者:一、Garnett, 二、Maude)與俄中(譯者:一、力岡,二、周揚)的翻譯以檢查俄語i的語義和語用上的功能是怎麼在目標文保存的。我們同意Degand (2009)的意見:翻譯可用於理解一詞多義的話語標記(p. 173)。
因為英文and聯結詞也有很多不同的功能(Caron 1999; Sweet 2005; de Vos 2007等),and是i翻譯中最常用的對等詞。相比之下,俄中翻譯會用更多對等詞。因為中文的並列複合句一般是「無連詞的」(asyndetic) (Eifring 1995), 在翻譯中普通的i會被省略。但是如果i帶有附加意義,中文翻譯會用顯性的連詞來表達語篇中隱含的邏輯關係。
英文摘要 The study aimed: first, to investigate functions of a Russian connective i ‘and’ (Cyrillic: ‘и’) when used in an inter-clausal and inter-sentential position; second, to analyze how these functions are represented in corresponding English and Mandarin Chinese translations.
While i-structures with coordinate noun phrase constituents have received a lot of attention among Russian and overseas scholars (for example, Andreyewsky 1973, Chaves & Paperno 2007, Osborne 2009, Paperno 2012, etc.), this thesis places the main focus on i-coordination of clauses and sentences, which has been under-investigated.
Conjunction i has been claimed to be polysemous and carrying various additional meanings along with its main function of expressing coordinative relations in their pure form (Shvedova et al. 1980; Vinogradov 2001). Some scholars argue that assumed polysemy is not a feature of the conjunction itself but rather arises from the surrounding context and other linguistic factors (for instance, Sannikov 2008). In either case, diversity of possible relations between i-coordinated clauses and sentences cannot be denied and constitutes one of the tasks to be solved by a translator.
Consequently, corpora of two types – monolingual and translation – were examined.
First, we provided an overview of previous accounts on i functions in lexicographic and other sources, followed by analysis of a sample from National Corpus of Russian Language in an attempt to finalize previous classifications and gain a full summary of non-classical readings of i. Second, we investigated Russian-English (by Constance Garnett and by Louise and Aylmer Maude) and Russian-Chinese (by Li Gang and by Chou Yang) translations of Leo Tolstoy’s “Anna Karenina” in order to see how and whether semantic and pragmatic functions of Russian i-constructions were transferred to a target text. We are guided by Degand’s (2009) claim that “translation data can be used to gain insight into the meaning of polysemous discourse markers” (p. 173).
Due to multi-functional and polysemous nature of English and (Caron 1999, Sweet 2005, de Vos 2007, etc.), it is the most frequent equivalent for i to be applied by translators. More variety can be observed in Russian-Chinese translation. While i in its main function as a simple coordinator is likely to be omitted in translation considering that asyndetic coordination is more preferred in Mandarin Chinese (Eifring 1995), in case when i has an additional meaning, conjunctions are added in the target text in order to explicitate implied discourse relations.
We believe that the results obtained from this study will contribute to a better understanding of Russian i-constructions by teachers and students learning Russian as a second language. Our analysis results will also find application in translation studies.
1.1 Motivation and purpose 1
1.2 Research questions and the scope of the study 2
1.3 Definition of terms 3
1.4 Organization of the thesis 4
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Coordination 5
2.2.1 Coordination on the syntax level 6
2.2.2 Coordination on the semantic level 7
2.2.3 Coordination on the pragmatic level 9
2.3 Coordination in English and Mandarin Chinese 11
2.3.1 English 11
2.3.2 Mandarin Chinese 12
2.4 Translation of Russian i 15
2.4.1 Function words in translation studies 15
2.4.2 Translation equivalents of i in English and Mandarin Chinese 21
3.1 Introduction 24
3.1.1 I as a conjunction 24
3.1.2 I as a particle 25
3.1.3 I as an interjection 26
3.2 Previous accounts of i functions 27
3.2.1 Lexicographic accounts of i 27
3.2.2 Textbook and other accounts of i 32
3.2.3 “Polysemy” of i 38
3.3 Corpus investigation 41
3.3.1 Data collection and analysis 42
3.3.2 Results 43
3.4 Summary 59
4.1 Data 62
4.1.1 Overview 62
4.1.2 Selection of target texts 63
4.2 Data Analysis 65
5.1 Overview 67
5.2 Omission of i in TT and variables affecting it 68
5.2.1 Independent variable III: type of coordination constituents 69
5.2.2 Independent variable IV: type of relation between coordinated constituents 70
5.2.3 Interaction between independent variables III & IV 72
5.3 Translation equivalents of i 78
5.3.1 Overview 78
5.3.2 Translation of inter-clausal i 83
5.3.3 Translation of inter-sentential i 93
5.4 Conclusion 97
6.1 Summary of results and implications 99
6.2 Limitations of the study and future research prospects 100
參考文獻 ABBYY Lingvo (2015). Available at: http://www.lingvo-online.ru/en [Accessed: 1 February 2015].
Aijmer, Karin & Bengt Altenberg. 2002. Zero translations and cross-linguistic equivalence: Evidence from the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. From the COLT's Mouth … and Others’. Language Corpora Studies in Honour of Anna-Brita Stenström, ed. by L.E. Breivik & A. Hasselgren, 19–41. Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi.
Ameka, F.K.. 1999. Interjections. Concise Encyclopedia of Grammatical Categories, ed. by Keith Brown and Jim Miller. pp. 213–216. UK: Elsevier.
Andreyewsky, Alexander. 1973. The 'I' Structures of Modern Russian: a Study in the Grammar of Conjunction. Ann Arbor: New York University dissertation.
Baker, Mona. 2011. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. (2nd edition). London/New York: Routledge.
Bar-Lev, Zev, & Arthur Palacas. 1980. Semantic command over pragmatic priority. Lingua 51:137–146.
Becher, Viktor. 2010. Towards a more rigorous treatment of the Explicitation Hypothesis in translation studies. trans-kom 2.1:1–25.
Becher, Viktor. 2011. When and why do translators add connectives? Target 23:26–47.
Beikian, Ali, Yarahmadzehi, Nahid, & Mahta Karimpour Natanzi. 2013. Explicitation of сonjunctive кelations in Ghabraei’s Persian translation of ‘The Kite Runner’. English Language and Literature Studies 3:81–89.
Beloshapkova, B.A. 1977. Sovremennyj Russkij Jazyk: Sintaksis [Modern Russian Language: Syntax]. Moscow.
Belyaev, J.I. 2003. Sintaksis Sovremennogo Russkogo Literaturnogo Jazyka [Syntax of Modern Russian Language]. Kherson: Izdatelstvo KSU.
Belyaev, Oleg. 2014. Systematic mismatches: coordination and subordination at three levels of grammar. Journal of Linguistics:1–60.
Bianxi E Han Da Cidian便攜俄漢大詞典[Big Russian-Chinese Portable Dictionary]. 2007. Beijing: 商務印書館.
Blakemore, Diane. 2002. Relevance and Linguistic Meaning: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse Markers. Cambridge University Press.
Blakemore, Diane, & Robyn Carston. 2005. The pragmatics of sentential coordination with and. Lingua 115.569–589.
Blum-Kulka, Shoshana. 1986. Shifts of cohesion and coherence in translation. Interlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation and Second Language Acquisition Studies, ed. by J. House & S. Blum-Kulka, 17-35. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Bogdanova, N. V., Asinovskij, A. S., Markasova, E. V., Stepanova, S. B., Suprunova, A. V. & T. Iu. Sherstinova. 2010. Zvukovoj korpus russkogo jazyka «Odin rechevoj den’»: Puti popolnenija i pervye rezul’taty issledovania [The Russian speech corpus «One speaker’s day»: Ways of replenishment and first results of research]. Komp’iuternaia Lingvistika i Intellektual’nye Tekhnologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoj Konferentsii “Dialog 2010” [Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies: Proceedings of the International Conference “Dialog 2010”]: 41–46.
Bogdanova N. V., & N. A. Os’mak. 2011. O nekotorykh leksicheskikh «otkrytiiakh» na materiale russkoi spontannoi rechi (korpusnoe issledovanie [Some lexical “discoveries” on material of Russian spontaneous speech (corpora research)]. Komp’iuternaia Lingvistika i Intellektual’nye Tekhnologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoj Konferentsii “Dialog 2010” [Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies: Proceedings of the International Conference “Dialog 2010”]: 110–124.
Bonelli, E.T., & J. Sinclair. 2006. Corpora. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (Second Edition), ed. by Keith Brown, 206–220. Oxford: Elsevier.
Candel-Mora, Miguel A. & Chelo Vargas-Sierra. 2013. An analysis of research production in corpus linguistics applied to translation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 95:317–24.
Caron, J. 1999. Connectives. Concise Encyclopedia of Grammatical Categories, ed. by Keith Brown & Jim Miller, 91–93. UK: Elsevier.
Chaves, Rui Pedro. 2007. Coordinate Structures: Constraint-Based Syntax-Semantics Processing. University of Lisbon dissertation.
Chaves, Rui Pedro, & Denis Paperno. 2007. On the Russian hybrid coordination construction. Paper presented to the 14th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 2007.
Chen, J. Wallace. 2004. Investigating explicitation of conjunctions in translated Chinese: a corpus-based study. Language Matters 35:295–312.
Chen, J. Wallace. 2006. Explicitation through the use of connectives in translated Chinese: a corpus-based study. University of Manchester dissertation.
Claesen, Thomas. 2014. Style and coordination in literary translation: A case study of coordination style in Joseph Roth’s Hotel Savoy and its two Dutch translations. Ghent University dissertation.
Cornish, Francis. 2009. Inter-sentential anaphora and coherence relations in discourse: a perfect match. Language Sciences 31:572–592.
Culicover, Peter W., & Ray Jackendoff. 1997. Semantic subordination despite syntactic coordination. Linguistic Inquiry 28:195–217.
Da E Han Cidian大俄漢詞典[Big Russian-Chinese Dictionary] . 2001. Beijing: 商務印書館出版發行.
Dahl, Vladimir. 1979. Tolkovy Slovar Zhivogo Velikorusskogo Jazyka [Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language]. Moscow: Russkiy Jazyk.
Degand, Liesbeth. 2009. On describing polysemous discourse markers. What does translation add to the picture? Will to Well: Studies in Linguistics Offered to Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen, ed. by S. Slembrouck & M.v. Herreweghe, 173–184. Gent: Academia Press.
Dengub, Evgeny, & Marina Rojavin. 2010. The conjunctions и, а, and но: a comparison of usage by heritage and traditional students of Russian. The Slavic and East European Journal 54.1:147–164.
Dergacheva, Irina. 2014. Parts of Speech Definitions in Russian Language Grammar Sources In 1960-2014.
Dijk, T.A. van. 1979. Pragmatic connectives. Journal of Pragmatics 3:447–456.
Ding, Li Jung丁立容. 2007. Cong tuoersitai de liangxing guan tantao qi zuopin zhong de beiju nuxing 從托爾斯泰的兩性觀探討其作品中的悲劇女性 [Investigation of tragedy of women in Tolstoy’s works in relation to his concept of gender]. National Chenchi University dissertation.
Dyvik, Helge. 2005. Translations as a semantic knowledge source. Proceedings of the Second Baltic Conference on Human Language Technologies, 27–38. Tallinn: Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of the Estonian Language.
E Han Wenxue Fanyi Cidian俄漢文學翻譯詞典[Russian-Chinese Literary Translation Dictionary]. 2000. Beijing: 商務印書館.
E Han Xuexi Cidian俄漢學習詞典[Learner’s Russian-Chinese Dictionary]. 2002. Beijing: 商務.
Eifring, Halvor. 1995. Clause Combination in Chinese. London/New York/Köln: BRILL.
Evgenieva, A.P. (ed.) 1999. Slovar’ Russkogo Jazyka [The Dictionary of Russian Language]. Moscow: Russkiy Jazyk.
Evison, Jane. 2010. What are the basics of analyzing a corpus? The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, ed. by Anne O’Keeffe & Michael McCarthy, 122–135. London/New York: Routledge.
Fang, M. 1999. Sci-tech translation and its research in China. Meta 44.1:185–197.
Frajzyngier, Zygmunt. 1996. Grammaticalization of the Complex Sentence: A Case Study in Chadic. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins.
Gifford, Henry. 1978. On translating Tolstoy. New Essays on Tolstoy, ed. by Malcolm Jones, 17–38. Cambridge University Press.
Gladkova, Anna. 2013. “Is he one of ours?” The cultural semantics and ethnopragmatics of social categories in Russian. Journal of Pragmatics 55:180–194.
Gladkova, Anna & Jesús Romero-Trillo. 2014. Ain’t it beautiful? The conceptualization of beauty from an ethnopragmatic perspective. Journal of Pragmatics 60: 140–159.
Gorokhova, Svetlana. 2013. The role of the speaker’s linguistic experience in the production of grammatical agreement: A corpus-based study of Russian speech errors. Corpus Linguistics 2013: Abstract Book, ed. by Andrew Hardie & Robbie Love, 98–100. Lancaster: UCREL.
Grice, H.P. 1989. Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
Grover, C. 1999. Coordination. Concise Encyclopedia of Grammatical Categories, ed. by Keith Brown & Jim Miller, 115–122. Amsterdam/New York: Elsevier.
Haspelmath, M. 2007. Coordination. Language Typology and Syntactic Description, ed. by T. Shopen, 1–51. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harrison, William, & Svetlana Le Fleming (eds.) 1981. Russian-English and English-Russian Dictionary. London/New York: Routledge.
Hatim, B., & I. Mason. 1990. Discourse and the Translator. London/New York: Longman.
Hobbs, J.R. 1990. The coherence and structure of discourse. Literature and Cognition. CSLI Lecture Notes (vol. 21), ed. by J.R. Hobbs, 83–114. Leland Stanford Junior University, California.
Howard, Jiaying. 2002. A Student Handbook for Chinese Function Words. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Huang, C.-T. James, Li, Y.-H. Audrey, & Yafei Li. 2009. The Syntax of Chinese. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huddleston, Rodney, & Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2006. Coordination and subordination. The Handbook of English Linguistics, ed. by Bas Aarts, 198–219. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Ide, Nancy. 1999. Parallel translations as sense discriminators. SIGLEX99: Standardizing Lexical Resources, ACL99 Workshop, 52–61. College Park, Maryland.
Jing-Schmidt, Z., & V. Kapatsinski. 2012. The apprehensive: Fear as endophoric reference and its pragmatics in English, Mandarin, and Russian. Journal of Pragmatics 44.4:346–373.
Kandel, B.L. 1970. Bibliografija perevodov romana «Anna Karenina» na inostrannye jazyki [Bibliography of translations of “Anna Karenina” into foreign languages]. Anna Karenina, ed. by V.A. Zhdanov & E.E. Zaideshpdur, 891–907. Moscow: Nauka.
Kemple, Brian. 2012. Essential Russian Grammar. Dover Publications.
Kibrik, A. A. & V. I. Podlesskaia, V. I. 2005. Korrektsiia sboev v ustnoj spontannoj rechi: Opyt korpusnogo issledovaniia [Self-correction in oral spontaneous speech: Experience of corpora research]. Komp’iuternaia Lingvistika i Intellektual’nye Tekhnologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoj Konferentsii “Dialog 2010” [Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies: Proceedings of the International Conference “Dialog 2010”].
Kibrik, A. A. & O.A. Savel’eva-Trofimova. 2008. Subklauzal’nye diskursivnye edinitsy v ustnoj rechi (na materiale korpusa “Rasskazy detej o snovideniiakh”) [Subclausal discourse elements in oral speech (based on the corpora material “Kid’s stories about dreams”)].
Klaudy, Kinga. 2008. Explicitation. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, ed. by M. Baker & G. Saldanha, 80–85. London: Routledge.
Konšalová, Petra. 2007. Explicitation as a universal in syntactic de/condensation. Across Languages and Cultures 8.17–32.
Kurylowicz, Jerzy. 1965. The evolution of grammatical categories. Diogenes 51:55–71.
Kuznetsov, S.A (ed.). 1998. Bol'shoj Tolkovyj Slovar' Russkogo Jazyka [Big Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language]. St. Petersburg: Norint.
Lehmann, Christian. 2002. Thoughts on Grammaticalization (2nd edition). Erfurt: Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität (ASSidUE, 9).
Li, Bao-Ling, & Yang Shi-Zhang. 2008. Pronoun chain connection in Russian-Chinese translation. Journal of PLA University of Foreign Languages 31.1:66–70.
Ljamina, Anna, & Fu Ze (eds.) 2008. 300 Grammaticheskikh Rules (Razgovornyj Kitaiskij) [300 Grammar Rules (Spoken Chinese)]. Russia, Moscow: AST: Vostok-Zapad.
Ljapon, M.V. 1986. Smyslovaja Struktura Slozhnogo Predlozhenija i Tekst [Semantic Structure of a Compound Sentences and Text]. Moscow.
Macura, Paul (ed.) 1990. Elsevier’s Russian-English Dictionary. Amsterdam/Oxford/New York/Tokyo: Elsevier.
Maltzoff, Nicholas. 1991. Essentials of Russian Grammar: A Complete Guide for Students and Professionals. USA: Passport Books.
McCarthy, M. 2004. Touchstone: from Corpus to Coursebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mortier, Liesbeth, & Liesbeth Degand. 2009. Adversative discourse markers in contrast: The need for a combined corpus approach. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 14:301–329.
Muller, V.K. (ed.) 2013. Polnyi Anglo-Russkiy Russko-Angliiskiy Slovar [Complete English-Russian Russian-English Dictionary]. Moscow: Eksmo.
Murtisari, Elisabet Titik. 2014. Response to Becher’s two papers on the Explicitation Hypothesis. trans-kom 7:272–281.
Noël, Dirk. 2003. Translations as evidence for semantics: an illustration. Linguistics 41.4: 757–785.
Nonato, Rafael. 2014. Clause Chaining, Switch Reference and Coordination. MIT dissertation.
O’Brien, M. A. (ed.) 1944. New Russian-English and English-Russian Dictionary. New York: Dover Publications.
Olohan, Maeve. 2004. Introducing Corpora in Translation Studies. London/New York: Routledge.
Olohan, Maeve, & Mona Baker. 2000. Reporting that in translated English: Evidence for subliminal processes of explicitation? Across Languages and Cultures 1.2:141–158.
Osborne, Olga. 2009. Comparative Analysis of Atypical Coordinate Structures in Russian and English Languages in Correlation with Field Structure of Grammatical Category Coordination. The University of New South Wales dissertation.
Ozhegov, S.I. 2008. Tolkovyi Slovar Russkogo Jazyka [Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language]. Moscow: Oniks.
Øverås, Linn. 1998. In Search of the third code: an investigation of norms in literary translation. Meta 43:557–570.
Pápai, Vilma. 2004. Explicitation: a universal of translated texts? Translation Universals. Do They Exist?, ed. by Anna Mauranen & Pekka Kujamäki, 143–165. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Paperno, Dennis. 2012. Semantics and Syntax of Non-Standard Coordination. Los Angeles: University of California dissertation.
Patsulaki, F.-D.K., & E.V. Vinogradova. 2015. Russian classics translation into Chinese. Paper presented at VII International student online science conference “Student Science Forum 2015”.
Petukhov, Sergey. 2014. "Great sage" Lev Tolstoy and "Wander soul" Fyodor Dostoyevsky in China. Vestnik Burjatskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta [Bulletin of the Buryat State University] 10.2:93–97.
Podlesskaya, Vera I. 2015. A corpus-based study of self-repairs in Russian spoken monologues. Russian Linguistics 39.1: 63–79.
Post, Margje. 2010. A contrastive analysis of Russian and Norwegian utterance-initial coordinating conjunctions. Oslo Studies in Language 2:413–432.
Puurtinen, Tiina. 2004. Explicitation of clausal relations. Translation Universals: Do They Exist?, ed. by A. Mauranen & P. Kujamäki, 165–176. John Benjamins B.V.
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech & Jan Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London/New Your: Longman.
RNC. 2014. Russian National Corpus (2003-2014). Retrieved from: http://ruscorpora.ru.
Salih, Rashwan Ramadan. 2014. The use of translation in linguistic studies: the case of but. Global Journal of Human-Social Science 14:27–32.
Sannikov, V.Z. 2008. Russkij Sintaksis v Semantiko-Pragmaticheskom Prostranstve [Russian Syntax in Semantics-Pragmatics Space]. Moscow: Jazyki Slavjanskih Kul'tur.
Seely, John. 2009. Oxford A-Z of Grammar and Punctuation. Oxford University Press.
Schmied, Josef, & Barbara Fink. 2000. Corpus-based contrastive lexicology: the case of English with and its German translation equivalents. Multilingual Corpora in Teaching and Research, ed. by Simon Philip Botley, Anthony Mark McEnery & Andrew Wilson, 157–177. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi B.V.
Sekali, Martine. 2011. Counter-subordinative coordination versus co-subordinative coordination: A syntax / semantics / pragmatics interface study of and, but and for. Interfaces in Language 2, ed. by D. Hornsby, 3–18. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Shvedova et al., N.I., et al. (ed.) 1980. Russkaja Grammatika [Russian Grammar]. Moscow: Nauka.
Si, G. 1996. Gongfu Zai Shi Wai: Fanyi Outan功夫在詩外--翻譯偶談 [Beyond Poetry: Notes on Translation]. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, J.M. 1991. Corpus, Concordance and Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sitchinava, Dmitri V. 2012. Parallel corpora within the Russian National Corpus. Philological Studies (LXIII), 271–278. Prace Filologiczne.
Smirnitsky, A.I. (ed.) 1959. Russian-English Dictionary, comp. by O. S. Akhmanova et al. Moscow: State Pub. House of Foreign and National Dictionaries.
Sokolova, E.P. 2014. Phenomenon of transitivity in the system of the synsemantic parts of speech in Russian. Journal of Historical, Philological and Cultural Studies 3(45). 263–265.
Starodumova, E. A. 2005. Sintaksis sovremennogo russkogo jazyka [Syntax of Modern Russian Language]. Vladivostok: Izdatelstvo Dalnevostochnogo universiteta.
Sun Yuan孫元 &Yang Shi Zhang楊仕章. 2007. Tongji yu fenxi: Wenxue fanyi zhong lianshi tongyi lianxi de zhuanhuan統計與分析:文學翻譯中鍊式同義聯繫的轉換 [Statistics and analysis: Transformations regarding chain synonyms in literary translation]. Zhongguo Eyu Jiaoxue中國俄語教學 [Teaching of Russian language in China] 26.4:43–47.
Sweet, Henry. 2005. A New English Grammar: Logical and Historical (Part I). Elibron Classics.
Tolstoy, Leo. 1911. Anna Karenina, transl. by Constance Garnett. Available at: http://ruscorpora.ru/search-para-en.html [Accessed: 1 February 2015].
Tolstoy, Leo. 1980. Anna Karenina, transl. by Louise and Aylmer Maude. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Tolstoy, Leo. 1996. Anna Kalienina 安娜.卡列尼娜 [Anna Karenina], transl. by Li Gang 力岡. Taipei.
Tolstoy, Leo. 2004. Anna Kalienina 安娜.卡列尼娜 [Anna Karenina], transl. by Chou Yang 周揚. Taipei.
Tribble, Christopher. 2010. What are concordances and how are they used? The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics, ed. by Anne O’Keeffe & Michael McCarthy, 167–183. London/New York: Routledge.
Tufis, Dan & Radu Ion. 2003. Word sense clustering based on translation equivalence in parallel texts; a case study in Romanian. Proceedings of the International Conference on Speech and Dialog – SPED, Bucharest, 13–26.
Txurruka, Isabel Gómez. 2003. The natural language conjunction and. Linguistics and Philosophy 26:255–285.
Ushakov, D. N. (ed.) 1940. Tolkoviy Slovar’ Russkogo Jazyka [Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language]. Moscow: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatelstvo Inostrannyh i Natsional’nyh Slovarey.
Vardøy, Benedikte, & Margje Post. 2013. A corpus-based study of English loanwords on‑ing in Russian (2000-2011). Bergen Language and Linguistics Studies 3.1:179–194.
Viimaranta, Johanna. 2014. The meaning and use of podportit’ on the basis of the Russian National Corpus. Russian Linguistics 38.1:63–87.
Vinogradov, V.V. 1969. O vzaimodeistvii leksiko-semanticheskikh urovnej s grammaticheskimi v structure jazyka [On interaction between lexico-semantic and grammatic levels in language structure]. Mysli o Sovremennom Russkom Jazyke [Thoughts on Modern Russian Language], ed. by V.V. Vinogradov. Moscow.
Vinogradov, V.V. 2001. Russkiy Jazyk (Grammaticheskoje Uchenije o Slove) [Russian Language (A Grammatical Study on Speech)]. Moscow: Russkiy Jazyk.
Vos, Mark de. 2007. And as an aspectual connective in the event structure of pseudo-coordinative constructions. Connectives as Discourse Markers, ed. by Agnes Celle & Ruth Huart, 49-70. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Vries, Mark de. 2004. Parataxis as a different type of asymmetric merge. Paper presented at the International Conference on Advances in the Internet, Processing, Systems, and Interdisciplinary Research, 2004. Pescara.
Wheeler, Marcus, Unbegaun, Boris, Falla, Paul, & Della Thompson (eds.). 2007. Oxford Russian Dictionary. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
Xiandai E Han Cidian現代俄漢詞典[Modern Russian-Chinese Dictionary]. 1998. Beijing: 外語教學與研究.
Xiandai E Han Shuangjie Cidian 現代俄漢雙解詞典 [Modern Russian-Chinese and Chinese-Russian Dictionary]. 1992. Beijing: 外語教學與研究出版發行: 新華經銷.
Xin E Han Ci Dian新俄漢詞典[New Russian-Chinese Dictionary].1989. 瀋陽市: 遼寧人民出版.
Yuasa, Etsuyo, & Jerry M. Sadock. 2002. Pseudo-subordination: A mismatch between syntax and semantics. Journal of Linguistics 38:87–111.
Zanettin, Federico. 2013. Corpus methods for descriptive translation studies. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 95:20–32.
Zevakhina, N.A. 2011. Exclamatives in Russian: a corpus study. Komp’iuternaia lingvistika i intellektual’nye tekhnologii. Po materialam ezhegodnoj mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii “Dialog 2011” [Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Technologies: Proceedings of the International Annual Conference “Dialog 2011”]: 737–749.
Zhongyang E Han Shiyong Cidian中央俄漢實用辭典[Russian-Chinese Practical Dictionary].1995. Taipei: 中央圖書.
Zhongyang E Han Shiyong Cidian中央俄漢實用辭典[Russian-Chinese Practical Dictionary].2004. Taipei: 中央圖書.
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-07-31起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2015-09-01起公開。

  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館