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系統識別號 U0026-2306201912381200
論文名稱(中文) 約翰·尼霍夫《荷使初訪中國記》城鎮與建築圖像之研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study of the Illustrations of Towns and Architecture in An Embassy from the East-India Company of the United Province to the Grand Tartar Cham Emperour of China by Johan Nieuhof
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 葉天韻
研究生(英文) Tian-Yun Ye
學號 N76053023
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 165頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃恩宇
口試委員-傅朝卿
口試委員-薛孟琪
中文關鍵字 約翰·尼霍夫  城鎮  宮殿  寺廟  建築圖像  《荷使初訪中國記》 
英文關鍵字 Johan Nieuhof  Towns  Palaces  Temples  Architectural images  An Embassy from the East-India Company of the United Province to the Grand Tartar Cham Emperour of China 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自16世紀以來,亞洲市場巨大的財富誘惑以及歐洲本土宗教競爭,讓歐洲各國爭相進入亞洲海域。1655年7月19日,荷蘭派遣使團17人初訪中國,一方面為了求通貿易,另一方面則為了緩解當時台灣據點的危機,他們前去向朝廷表明自己的立場。此次出訪經過,使團成員約翰·尼霍夫(Johan Nieuhof)將其記錄於《荷使初訪中國記》中。書中80張素描手稿圖,再現了尼霍夫眼中的中國樣貌,讓歐洲讀者對東方世界產生了嚮往。本研究著重城鎮與建築主題,以圖像中的城鎮、宮殿與寺廟為研究對象,對照史料、現存建築,以及其他已知資訊,以繪者視角觀察之間的差異。

本研究先就《荷使初訪中國記》中城鎮主題的畫作進行討論。荷蘭使團從廣東省進入中國,一路沿水道經過62座中國城鎮、鄉村,抵達京城。由於出訪路線受到隨行官員的安排,繪者大多時間在船上度過,於是大部分是極目遠眺對城鎮的遠景描繪。使團在中國官員的帶領下,有幸參觀少數幾座城市的內部,尼霍夫對廣州城的民居建築,以及南京城街道與其兩側街屋留下記錄。分析繪者對不同城鎮風景記錄的方式,以及他對城鎮重點關注的對象與原因。

接著,本研究就宮殿主題畫作進行討論。使團抵達京城於紫禁城朝見皇帝,尼霍夫運用大量的文字對皇城進行記錄,他繪下一張十字形皇城平面鳥瞰圖,及一張朝見皇帝的情形圖。對比真實中紫禁城宮殿,尼霍夫筆下的與我們認知中的皇城有顯著差異。以尼霍夫所繪的平面鳥瞰圖,推測使團於皇城內真實路徑,以及朝見皇帝時真實的廣場位置,並分析繪出十字形平面的原因。另一張圖,觀察與真實廣場的差異,以及繪者對廣場重點關注部分,探究其原因。

最後,本研究針對寺廟主題畫作進行討論。初訪一路上,尼霍夫對寺廟建築一直都保持著關注,他不僅繪製了著名的南京報恩寺,同時對沿途數間寺廟的外部及內部也進行了圖像記錄。由於尼霍夫對報恩寺的描述相較更為詳細,就《荷使初訪中國記》中唯一一張報恩寺全貌圖,對照真實考古發掘,觀察繪者重點關注部分,並分析其原因。另外,由於報恩寺琉璃塔在歐洲名聲遠播,他逐漸成為當時歐洲最出名的中國建築。分析後期出版的琉璃塔圖,對歐洲中國塔樓,和18世紀歐洲「中國風」出現的影響,以及他與後續歐洲人對中國塔聯想之間的聯繫。

本研究就《荷使初訪中國記》中的城鎮與建築主題圖像出發,以城鎮、宮殿與寺廟三大分類為研究對象,透過不斷對照、討論、分析,利用尼霍夫作為畫家的語言,藉由一系列其自我意識形態下對中國城鎮、建築所觀察到現象間的差異出發,分析這些差異如何被再現,以及差異背後存在的可能聯繫與原因。
英文摘要 ABSTRACT
Since the 16th century, the lure of wealth in the Asian market and the fierce competition among European religions have made European countries rush to enter Asian waters. On July 19th, 1655, in order to ease the crisis in Taiwan's stronghold at that time, the Netherlands sent 17 people to China to seek trade, who went to the imperial government to state their position clear.This visit was recorded by Johan Nieuhof who serviced for VOC in the book called An Embassy from the East-India Company of the United Province to the Grand Tartar Cham Emperour of China.The 80 sketches in the book represent what Nieuhof saw as China at that time which also makes European readers have strong interest and yearning for the eastern world at the same time.According to the illustrations of towns and architecture in the book, this study takes towns, palaces and temples as research objects, and compares historical materials, existing architecture and other known information to observe the differences between them from the perspective of the painter.

Firstly, this study mainly observes the drawings of Chinese towns .The Dutch embassy entered China from Guangdong Province. They walked all the way along the waterway, passing through 62 towns and villages, and finally arrived in Beijing. Since the itinerary of the visit was arranged by the accompanying officials and the painter spent most of his time on the ship, he completed the long-term depiction of the town through his eyes.Under the leadership of China, the embassy visited the interior of a few cities. Nieuhof had certain records of residential building in Guangzhou city, as well as streets and houses on both sides of Nanjing city. The third chapter of this study discusses the observation of Chinese cities and towns under two different distances in the book. This study analyzes the way in which the painter recorded the scenery of different towns, and the objects and reasons he focused on the towns.

Secondly, this study mainly observes the drawings of palaces.The Dutch embassy arrived in Beijing and they finally met the emperor in the Forbidden City. Nieuhof used a large number of words to record the imperial city. He drew a cross-shaped bird's eye view of the imperial city and a circumstances of presenting themselves before the emperor. Compared with the real Forbidden City palace, the Forbidden City we see is significantly different from our cognition.The fourth chapter of this study analyzes the only two pictures depicting the Forbidden City in the book, infers the real path of the ambassador group walking in the imperial city and the real square position when seeing the emperor by using the plane bird's eye view, and analyzes the reason why the cross-shaped plane was drawn. In another picture, observe the difference between it and the real square and the focus of the painter on the square, so as to explore the reason.

Lastly, this study mainly observes the drawings of temples .During the visit, Nieuhof has been paying much attention to the temple architecture. He not only drew the famous Nanjing Baoen Temple, but also recorded the exterior and interior of several temples along the way . As his description of Baoen Temple is more detailed, the fifth chapter of this study mainly observes the parts that the painter focuses on and analyzes the reasons according to the only complete picture of Baoen Temple in the book and comparing with the real archaeological excavations. In addition, due to its popularity in Europe, Baoen Temple's Porcelain Tower gradually became the most famous Chinese architecture in Europe at that time. This study analyzes the influence of Nieuhof's Porcelain Tower on European Chinese tower and the "Chinoiserie" of Europe in the 18th century, and discusses the connection between him and the association of European people with Chinese tower.

Starting from the illustrations of towns and architecture in this book, the study takes towns, palaces and temples as the research objects. Through constant comparison, discussion and analysis, this study uses the language of Nieuhof as a painter, starting from a series of differences observed in Chinese towns and architecture under his own ideology, to analyze how these differences are represented as well as the possible connections and reasons behind the differences.


MATERIALS AND METHODS
According to the sketch manuscript drawing made by Nieuhof during the first visit to China, it can be divided into three major themes, that is towns, palaces and temples. Differences were found by continuously comparing these manuscript drawings with later made copperplate etchings, early historical data, field surveys and other related data. In addition, we went to the field and compared the manuscript drawing with the real scenery or buildings in order to observe the differences between them. Taking Nieuhof’s understanding of the Chinese town, palace and temple buildings we have observed as the starting point, this research discusses the reality behind these differences and the possible relations and reasons behind them.

CONCLUSION
In the paintings whose themes are towns, the sights all over China painted by Nieuhof are very similar. The Landscape Painting of Netherlands in the 17th century often emerges a situation that water areas, steamers, windmills and other elements that had symbolic meanings at that time are combined and arranged. The painter may use this painting method to select the elements that represent the Chinese towns to combine, finally showing many paintings that just seem like the real scenery of Chinese towns to readers. Furthermore, the painter may combine with his life experience in Batavia so that he mistakenly thought that houses in China were built on the side of the road.

In the paintings whose themes are palaces, Nieuhof mainly painted the Forbidden City. In the 17th century, Netherlands reformed the theology. In order to fight against the Catholicism, the Protestantism developed the new greek-cross church plane. And a new trend of cross town planning arose in Netherlands in the 17th century. Perhaps in Nieuhof’s eyes, a great plane is closely related to the shape of the cross, thus he drew the Forbidden City in the shape of a cross. Moreover, influenced by the Renaissance, the image of the square shaped in "ㄇ" began to appear before the Dutch palaces, and perhaps Nieuhof saw the familiar square layout in the Chinese palaces so that he especially highlighted it in the paintings.

In the paintings whose themes are temples, Nieuhof kept a record of several temple buildings and the statues inside the temples. During the Dutch reform in the 17th century, the Protestant doctrine was against the idol worship. Because Nieuhof had no opportunity to see ikon in native Netherlands so he felt surprised to see the ikon in Chinese temples and thus he recorded it. In addition, compared to other European countries, Netherlands often takes the central single tower as the entrance of most of its churches. When Nieuhof saw the Porcelain Tower which is located in the central axis of the Temple, he especially highlighted it probably because he was familiar with the central tower.

The book An Embassy from the East-India Company of the United Province to the Grand Tartar Cham Emperour of China has been repeatedly reissued in Europe, drawing paintings concerning China can give the European readers the more direct feeling and cognition for Chinese towns and architcture, and make them generate keen interest in the oriental world. As a result, the Europe has been continuously publishing works regarding China. However, on account of the one- sideness of the propagation of the Porcelain Tower, there appears to have more space for the European people to imagine about the Chinese towers. Nieuhof’s misunderstanding of the apical cap of the tower of the Gratitude Temple was spread to Europe, making pineapple one of the hot art themes concerning the "Chinoiserie" of Europe in the 18th century.



論文目次 目錄
第一章 緒論
1-1研究動機與目的………………………………………………………………... 1
1-2研究對象與範圍...……………………………………………………………… 4
1-3文獻回顧………………………………………………………………………... 7
1-4研究方法與步驟..……………………………………………………………..... 12

第二章 《荷使初訪中國記》之背景
2-1歐洲人的海外擴張……………………………………………………………... 17
2-2荷蘭人在亞洲...………………………………………………………………… 19
2-3台灣熱蘭遮市鎮的危機...……………………………………………………… 20
2-4荷蘭初訪中國之路線……………………………………………………........... 21
2-5約翰·尼霍夫之生平…………………………………………………………….. 25
2-6《荷使初訪中國記》之版本……………………………………………………. 26
2-7荷蘭後續出訪中國………………………………………………………........... 29
2-8小結……………………………………………………………………………... 31

第三章 《荷使初訪中國記》中的城鎮圖像
3-1初訪沿途的中國城鎮…………………………………………………………... 32
3-2城鎮風景畫……………………………………………………………………... 33
3-3城內的建築與街道……………………………………………………………... 41
3-4小結……………………………………………………………………………... 48

第四章 《荷使初訪中國記》中的宮殿圖像
4-1使團在紫禁城內的可能路徑…………………………………………………... 50
4-2紫禁城的十字平面佈局………………………………………………………... 59
4-3紫禁城的 「ㄇ」 字型平面廣場……………………………………………… 64
4-4小結……………………………………………………………………………... 69

第五章《荷使初訪中國記》中的寺廟圖像

5-1觀音岩廟、大王廟及其他寺廟中的神像………………………………………. 72
5-2南京報恩寺的琉璃塔………………………………………………................... 76
5-3南京報恩寺圖的後續影響……………………………………………………... 81
5-4小結……………………………………………………………………………... 87

第六章 結論
6-1尼霍夫眼中的中國城鎮……………………………………………………....... 88
6-2尼霍夫眼中的中國宮殿………………………………………………………... 89
6-3尼霍夫眼中的中國寺廟………………………………………………………... 90
6-4《荷使初訪中國記》在歐洲的影響……………………………………………... 91
6-5後續研究方向…………………………………………………………………... 91

參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………. 93
附錄一………………………………………………………………………………. 98
附錄二……………………………………………………………………………..... 158















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