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系統識別號 U0026-2208201923171100
論文名稱(中文) 以神經適應性效果探討鳥類視覺專家度與臉孔選擇區之神經處理機制
論文名稱(英文) A(n) (in)direct support for the perceptual expertise hypothesis of FFA: neural adaptation effects on bird experts
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 心理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Psychology
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 楊念庭
研究生(英文) Nian-Ting Yang
學號 U76064046
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 54頁
口試委員 指導教授-龔俊嘉
口試委員-陳德祐
口試委員-謝伯讓
中文關鍵字 臉孔選擇區  專家度  神經干擾效果 
英文關鍵字 FFFA  Expertise  Neural adaptation effect  Bird experts 
學科別分類
中文摘要 在臉孔辨識的領域中,臉孔選擇區作為一個主要討論的腦區,其作用機制尚存在著爭議:究竟隨著專家經驗的提升,是否能激發臉孔選擇區對於專家物體刺激的活化?早期的部分研究提出了相關的支持證據(專家假說學派),但仍然也有其他的研究不支持此說法(臉孔獨特性學派),直至今日,各學派對於專家度與臉孔選擇區是否存在著正向的線性關係,仍然沒有一致的解答。對此,本研究嘗試使用不同面向的方式來檢驗專家度與臉孔選擇區活化的線性關係:隨著專家度(鳥類視覺辨識度)的提升,越專家的受試者是否會用相同認知資源處理臉孔與專家物體(熟悉鳥),進而產生認知資源競爭的現象(Neural Adaptation Effect),致使臉孔的活化反應顯著地下降。本研究一共招募了34位的受試者(台灣與美國受試者各佔一半),分別測量鳥類辨識專家度,與進行各類不同程度的功能磁振造影的作業,包括被動視覺作業、一回合回溯辨識作業、一回合回溯位置作業以及二回合回溯辨識作業,每項作業都為區間設計且包含四種類別刺激:同種族的臉孔、熟悉鳥、非熟悉鳥以及日常物體。最後我們在ROI(功能性定義)的分析中發現,在被動視覺作業裡,專家度與臉孔選擇區的活化(對於臉)呈現非常顯著的負向線性關係(r32 = -.565, p < .001, BF- 0 = 142.878),近一步地,當臉孔刺激呈現在鳥類刺激之後,其神經干擾的效果會比臉孔刺激呈現在一般物體刺激之後更顯著;而專家度與臉孔選擇區的活化(對於熟悉鳥)則在四個作業中都沒有看到顯著相關,與先前研究的結果一致。另外在全腦相關的分析中,觀察到在四個作業的右側梭狀回,對於臉孔的相對應活化程度(臉孔 vs. 物體)與專家度之間有顯著的負向關係;另一方面,於被動視覺作業和一回合回溯辨識作業中,右側梭狀回對於熟悉鳥的相對應活化程度(熟悉鳥 vs. 物體)與專家度之間有顯著的正向關係。這些結果顯示出挑選ROI的重要性,在過去的文獻中,都使用臉孔選擇區來探討專家度與臉孔選擇區活化程度之間的正向線性關係,這樣的方式在過去以及我們的研究中都顯示出不穩定性;反之,如果使用臉孔選擇區來探討專家度與臉孔活化之間的負向關係,相較於前者來說是較顯著且穩定的,本研究也利用這樣的方式,來間接支持專家假說學派的理論,說明臉孔選擇區不僅僅只針對臉孔做反應,隨著經驗的累積,同樣也會處理專家物體刺激。
英文摘要 One of the unsolved debates in the prolonged exchanges between face specificity and perceptual expertise hypothesis of FFA has been on whether the BOLD activities in FFA for objects of expertise (e.g., cars) correlate with their (car experts’) behavioral expertise. While early studies found supporting evidence, later replication attempts by other labs did not. Until today, the reasons behind these disparate expertise-FFA correlation results remain unclear. To revisit, in the current study we recruit local bird experts, and examine from the flip side of the expertise-FFA correlation: whether there is an adaptation-like negative correlation between face selectivity (faces vs. objects) and bird expertise in their FFA. 17 Taiwanese birders and 17 American birds were both evaluated with behavioral expertise index (d’), and later scanned with various tasks, including FFA localizers (Taiwan only), passive viewing, 1-back location, 1-back and 2-back identity tasks, on blocked presentations of 4 stimuli: Own-race faces, familiar birds, unfamiliar birds, and common objects. While the localizer-defined r-FFA showed insignificant FFA-expertise correlations, be they ‘birds vs. objects’ or ‘birds only’, activities on face blocks shows strong negative correlation (r32 = -.565, p < .001, BF- 0 = 142.878). In addition, when separating face blocks into ‘after-birds’ vs. ‘after-objects’ conditions, the former BOLD was more reduced with higher d’, and the latter more elevated overall, together further supporting the modulation of bird expertise onto activities for faces in FFA. Complementary whole-brain correlations with “faces vs. objects” contrasts showed adjacent right fusiform gyrus (rFG) regions, negatively d’-correlated, across all 4 tasks, whereas the “birds vs. objects” contrast showed positive rFG clusters only in PV and 1bID tasks, together suggesting the critical importance of choosing faces, not birds (or any other objects of expertise), as the target of the expertise-FFA correlation, for better chance of significance and localizer optimality. To conclude, our results provide clues to the mixed expertise-FFA correlation results, and demonstrate the face-bird interactions in rFG as further support of the Flexibility of mid-Fusiform Area (FFA, Tarr and Gauthier, Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 12(3), 495-504, 2000)
論文目次 Abstract iv
Introduction 1
Does behavioral expertise predict FFA’s response? 3
Neural adaptation effect 6
Research purpose 6
Method 8
Behavioral Expertise Measure and Stimuli 8
Scanning 11
Data analysis 12
ROI definition 13
BOLD percent signal change (PSC) for each subject’s ROI 14
Whole-brain correlation 14
Result 15
Behavioral results 15
FFA-expertise correlations 17
Whole-brain correlation (WBC) 19
The Influence of Stimulus Position on Adaptation Effect 22
Discussion & Conclusion 26
Reference 31
Supplementary materials 36

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