||Constructing a Multidimensional Concept Map-based Augmented Reality Mobile Learning System for Foodchain Course in Natural Science
||Department of Industrial Design
Multidimensional Concept Map
Owing to the popularity of computer equipment and the rapid evolution of information technology, elementary education learning and teaching materials have changed in a variety of ways. Many multimedia and computer-assisted learning systems that provide interactive and effective learning materials have been developed. AR learning applications have been widely used as vehicles for interactive digital learning of the complex and abstract concepts in several curricula. Researchers have touted the benefits of AR because it allows students to interact with virtual objects in the real world.
Although AR has proved to be effective for learning, some researchers have said that an appropriate learning structure and instructional scaffolds are required when using AR. Recently, the concept maps an effective tool for integrating newly acquired knowledge into prior knowledge and enabling students to establish and comprehend the relationships between concepts. However, the difficulty of adding more concepts nodes on the limited screen when the course needs to represent a large or complex knowledge framework in the mobile learning. Multidimensional concept map (MCM) approach that can be applied to avoid showing too much information on the limited screen. Studies have also reported that the MCM approach can be used to demonstrate knowledge content and organize complicated and difficult concept frameworks in an effective manner.
Therefore, this study proposed using concept map and multidimensional concept map approaches respectively as the learning structure for the AR learning system in an elementary school natural science course. At first, this study compares the efficacy of the concept-mapped augmented reality (CMAR) learning material with that of the augmented reality learning material. And then, the in-depth study compares how MCM approach with AR technology affect students’ learning achievement, learning motivation and acceptance of the related methods.
The findings in this study showed that students in the CMAR group performed significantly better than those in the AR group. The student interview results also revealed that the CMAR system helped students organize what they wanted to learn. Using concept maps as knowledge scaffolds provided the AR system with a suitable instructional method. Moreover, this study also found that the students using the MCMAR learning approach performed significantly better than those using the MCM learning approach. The MCMAR approach proposed in this study is worth further investigation as a mobile learning method. The proposed learning methods in this study provided future researchers with a suitable architecture for designing an augmented reality learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Motivation and Purpose 2
1.3 Scope and Limitations 4
1.4 Structure of the Dissertation 4
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Augmented Reality, the Related Learning Theory and Its Applications in Education 7
2.2 Mindtools 12
2.3 Concept Map (CM) 17
2.4 Multidimensional Concept Map (MCM) 20
2.5 Summary 22
CHAPTER 3 METHOD 23
3.1 Research Method 23
3.1.1 Research design 23
3.2 Experimental Design - Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (CMAR) Learning 26
3.2.1 CMAR Learning System 26
3.2.2 Participants 34
3.2.3 Experimental Instruments 35
3.2.4 Experimental Procedure 38
3.3 Experimental Design - Multidimensional Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (MCMAR) Learning 40
3.3.1 MCMAR Learning System 40
3.3.2 Participants 48
3.3.3 Experimental Instruments 48
3.3.4 Experimental Procedure 51
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS 53
4.1 Results of Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (CMAR) Learning 53
4.1.1 Analysis of Pre-test and Pre-questionnaire 53
4.1.2 Analysis of Post-test 54
4.1.3 Analysis of Learning Motivation 55
4.1.4 Analysis of Learning Attitude 56
4.1.5 Student Interviews 57
4.2 Results of Multidimensional Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (MCMAR) Learning 59
4.2.1 Analysis of Learning Achievement 59
4.2.2 Analysis of Learning Motivation 60
4.2.3 Analysis of the Acceptance of Multidimensional Concept Maps 60
CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 62
5.1 The Effectiveness of Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (CMAR) Learning 62
5.2 The Effectiveness of Multidimensional Concept-mapped Augmented Reality (MCMAR) Learning 64
5.3 Conclusions 66
5.4 Suggestions 67
Appendix A Learning Motivation Questionnaire 80
Appendix B Learning Attitude Questionnaire 82
Appendix C Questionnaire of the Acceptance of Multidimensional Concept Maps toward the Course 84
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