||The Determinant of Adult Self E-Learning Effectiveness: The Perspective of Andragogy and Media Synchronicity Theory
||Department of Business Administration
media synchronicity theory
self e-learning effectiveness
隨著網路普及化，線上學習(E-learning)儼然成為新的學習模式，其學習方式並非如傳統學習者需在固定的教室，必須由講師實際授課的環境下才能進行。線上學習最大的優勢是不受空間及時間的限制，只要在有網路的環境下就可進行，但行政院在2014年的報告指出，目前台灣人口有進行過線上學習僅接近三分之一的人口，而如何使線上學習系統生活化與提升學習者使用之意願與成效乃是推行自主學習理念之重要課題。因此，本研究結合成人學習理論(Andragogy)與媒體同步理論(Media Synchronicity Theory)探討成人學習者特性，以及心理需求是否會對成人學習成效產生影響。研究對象以具有使用線上學習系統經驗之成年人，總共回收454份有效問卷，以結構方程式(Structural Equation Model)分析，統計結果顯示成人學習準備度對感知自主性具有正向影響，成人學習取向對感知能力亦顯現正向效果。成人學習動機對感知自主性、感知能力及感知相關性皆具正向顯著的影響，此三項感知變數則對線上學習使用也都有正向顯著效果，進而影響自我線上學習效能。媒體同步對在線上學習採納及自我線上學習效能也具有調節效果。本研究建議業者在建立自己的線上學習系統與設計課程時，除需考量成人學習者的特性外，同時也必須滿足成人學習者的心理需求（自主、能力、相關），方能提升成人學習之意願與成效。
Due to the growth of the Internet, e-learning has become a new way of learning. Traditional learning requires a location and a lecturer must be physically present in order to deliver course material and thus is usually restricted by time and space. On the other hand, in the case of e-learning, the learning materials are always accessible as long as there is a computer and a connection to the Internet. Despite the advantages of e-learning, according to a report from Taiwan’s Executive Yuan in 2014, only one-third of the population of Taiwan has engaged in e-learning. Increasing the usage of e-learning among the general populace is an important issue because it helps learners engage in self-directed learning. In this study, andragogy and media synchronicity theory are adopted in order to determine if adult learner characteristics and psychological needs affect learning effectiveness in adults. The participants of this study were adults who have participated in e-learning previously. After collecting 454 valid questionnaires, a structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses proposed in this study. The results indicated that adult readiness to learn has a positive effect on perceived autonomy, while adult orientation to learn has a positive relationship with perceived competence. Furthermore, adult motivation to learn has a positive effect on perceived autonomy, perceived competence and perceived relatedness. Psychological needs (perceived autonomy, perceived competence, perceived relatedness) have a positive effect on usage of e-learning. Usage of e-learning has a positive effect on self e-learning effectiveness. This study also found that media synchronicity has a moderating effect on the relationship between usage of e-learning and self e-learning effectiveness. Finally, this study offers recommendations for the field of e-learning. To increase learning effectiveness in adults and their willingness to engage in e-learning, it is suggested that adult learners’ characteristics and psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) be taken into account when company or instructors build e-learning courses.
List of Table VII
List of Figure VII
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Gaps 4
1.3 Research Objectives 5
1.4 Research Process 5
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Adult learners 8
2.2 E-learning 9
2.3 Adult Learning Theory (Andragogy) 13
2.3.1 Self-concept 15
2.3.2 Adult Learner Experience 17
2.3.3 Readiness to Learn 18
2.3.4 Orientation to Learn 20
2.3.5 Motivation to learn 21
2.4 Psychological Needs 22
2.4.1 Perceived Autonomy 23
2.4.2 Perceived Competence 23
2.4.3 Perceived Relatedness 24
2.5 Usage of E-learning 24
2.6 Self E-learning Effectiveness 25
2.7 Media Synchronicity Theory 27
2.8 Conceptual Framework 30
2.9 Hypothesis Development 32
2.9.1 Self-Concept and Perceived Autonomy 32
2.9.2 Readiness to Learn and Perceived Autonomy 33
2.9.3 Orientation to learn and perceived competence 34
2.9.4 Adult Learner Experience vs Perceived Competence and Perceived Relatedness 35
2.9.5 Motivation to Learn vs Perceived Autonomy and Perceived Competence and Perceived Relatedness. 37
2.9.6 Perceived Autonomy and Usage of E-learning 38
2.9.7 Perceived Competence and Usage of E-learning 38
2.9.8 Perceived Relatedness and Usage of E-learning 38
2.9.9 Usage of E-learning and Self E-learning Effectiveness 39
2.10 Moderating Effect of Media Synchronicity 41
Chapter 3 RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODOLOGY 43
3.1 Definition of Constructs. 43
3.2 Hypotheses to be Tested 44
3.3 Questionnaire Design 45
3.4 Pilot Test Analysis 51
3.5 Data Analysis Procedure 54
3.5.1 Demographic Analysis 54
3.5.2 Confirmation Factor Analysis 54
3.5.3 Reliability and Validity Analysis 55
3.5.4 Structural Equation Model 55
3.5.5 Competing Model 55
Chapter 4 DATA ANALYSIS & RESULT 56
4.1 Data collection and Demographic Analysis 56
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 57
4.3 Measurement Model Analysis 59
4.3.1 Confirmation Factor Analysis (CFA) 59
4.3.2 Reliability Analysis and Convergent Validity 62
4.3.3 Discriminant Validity Analysis 63
4.4 Structural Equation Models – Hypothesis Testing 64
4.5 Competing Model - Moderating Effect Testing 67
Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS 70
5.1 Discussion and Findings 70
5.1.1 The Relationship between Adult Characteristics and Psychological Needs 70
5.1.2 The Relationship between Psychological Needs and Usage of E-learning (H6~H8) 76
5.1.3 The Relationship Between Usage of E-learning and Self E-learning Effectiveness (H9) 78
5.1.4 The Moderating Effect of Media Synchronicity (H10) 79
5.2 Implication 80
5.2.1 Theoretical Implication 81
5.2.2 Managerial Implication 83
5.3 Limitation and Recommendations for Future Research 84
Appendix A 101
Appendix B: Questionnaire 102
Abdellatief, M., Sultan, A. B. M., Jabar, M. A., & Abdullah, R. (2011). A technique for quality evaluation of e-learning from developers perspective. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 3(1), 157-164.
Ahmed, W., & Bruinsma, M. (2006). A structural model of self-concept, autonomous motivation and academic performance in cross-cultural perspective. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 4(3), 551-576.
Akbari, E., Pilot, A., & Simons, P. R. J. (2015). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in foreign language learning through Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 126-134.
Alavi, M., & Leidner, D. E. (2001). Review: Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 107-136.
Albert, A., & Hallowel, M. R. (2013). Revamping occupational safety and health training: Integrating andragogical principles for the adult learner. Construction Economics and Building, 13(3), 128-140.
Azeiteiro, U., Bacelar-Nicolau, P., Caetano, F., & Caeiro, S. (2015). Education for sustainable development through e-learning in higher education: experiences from Portugal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 106, 308-319.
Baack, S., & Alfred, D. (2013). Nurses’ preparedness and perceived competence in managing disasters. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 45(3), 281-287.
Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and weil-being in two work settings1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(10), 2045-2068.
Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84(6), 740-756.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.
Barclay, L. A., & York, K. M. (1996). The scavenger hunt exercise: Symbols of organizational culture. Journal of Management Education, 20(1), 125-128.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529.
Bell, S. J., Mengüç, B., & Widing II, R. E. (2010). Salesperson learning, organizational learning, and retail store performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(2), 187-201.
Bilimoria, D. 2000. Management education's commitments to students. Journal of Management Education, 24(4): 422-423.
Brookfield, S. (1986). Understanding and facilitating adult learning: A comprehensive analysis of principles and effective practices. United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill Education.
Bums, R. B. (1979). The self-concept: Theory, measurement, development and behaviour. New York: Longman Group.
Campbell, DT, & Fiske, DW (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
Cao, X., Vogel, D. R., Guo, X., Liu, H., & Gu, J. (2012). Understanding the influence of social media in the workplace: An integration of media synchronicity and social capital theories. In System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 3938-3947). IEEE.
Candy, P. C. (1991). Self-Direction for Lifelong Learning. A Comprehensive Guide to Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980.
Chen, K. C., & Jang, S. J. (2010). Motivation in online learning: Testing a model of self-determination theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(4), 741-752.
Cheok, M. L., & Wong, S. L. (2015). Predictors of e-learning satisfaction in teaching and learning for school teachers: A literature review. International Journal of Instruction, 8(1), 75-90.
Cho, V., Cheng, T. C. E., & Hung, H. (2009). Continued usage of technology versus situational factors: an empirical analysis. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 26(4), 264-284.
Chou, S.W., & Liu, C.H. (2005). Learning effectiveness in a Web-based virtual learning environment: a learner control perspective. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 21(1), 65-76.
Churchill Jr, G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.
Chu, T. H., & Chen, Y. Y. (2016). With good we become good: Understanding e-learning usage by theory of planned behavior and group influences. Computers & Education, 92(C), 37-52.
Cooper, D., & Thatcher, S. M. (2010). Identification in organizations: The role of self-concept orientations and identification motives. Academy of Management Review, 35(4), 516-538.
Council of European Union (2006). Adult learning: It is never too late to learn. 14600/06. Retrieved from http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2014600 %202006%20INIT
Council of European Union (2011). Council Resolution on a renewed European agenda for adult learning. 2011/c 272/01. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2011.372.01.0001.01.ENG
Cozma, M. (2015). The challenge of teaching english to adult learners in today's world. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 1209-1214.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.
Dauda, S. Y., & Lee, J. (2015). Technology usage: A conjoint analysis of consumers׳ preference on future online banking services. Information Systems, 53, 1-15.
Davenport, J., & Davenport, J. A. (1985). A chronology and analysis of the andragogy debate. Adult Education Quarterly, 35(3), 152-159.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Cognitive evaluation theory. In Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior (pp. 43-85). New York: Springer US.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1024.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. Handbook of Self-Determination Research, 3-33.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: Reflections and future directions. In E.L. Deci, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research (pp. 431-441). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
De Clercq, D., Honig, B., & Martin, B. (2012). The roles of learning orientation and passion for work in the formation of entrepreneurial intention. International Small Business Journal, 31(6), 652-676.
Delon, W., & Mclean, E. (1992). Information systems success: The quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), 60–95.
DeLuca, D., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). Outcomes from conduct of virtual teams at two sites: Support for media synchronicity theory. In System Sciences, 2005. HICSS'05. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 50b-50b). IEEE.
Dennis, A. R., Fuller, R. M., & Valacich, J. S. (2008). Media, tasks, and communication processes: A theory of media synchronicity. MIS Quarterly, 32(3), 575-600.
Deschacht, N., & Goeman, K. (2015). The effect of blended learning on course persistence and performance of adult learners: A difference-in-differences analysis. Computers & Education, 87, 83-89.
Farid, S., Ahmad, R., Niaz, I. A., Arif, M., Shamshirband, S., & Khattak, M. D. (2015). Identification and prioritization of critical issues for the promotion of e-learning in Pakistan. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 161-171.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-388.
Forrest, S. P., & Peterson, T. O. (2006). It's called andragogy. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(1), 113-122.
Fortier, M. S., Duda, J. L., Guerin, E., & Teixeira, P. J. (2012). Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 20.
Froiland, J. M., Oros, E., Smith, L., & Hirchert, T. (2012). Intrinsic motivation to learn: The nexus between psychological health and academic success. Contemporary School Psychology: Formerly" The California School Psychologist", 16(1), 91-100.
Goeman, K., & Deschacht, N. (2014). Persistence and performance of adult learners in blended business education. In Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 459-479 (pp. 1-11)
Green, J., Liem, G. A. D., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S., Marsh, H. W., & McInerney, D. (2012). Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: Key processes from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of Adolescence, 35(5), 1111-1122.
Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Roy, A., & Litalien, D. (2010). Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement: Mediating and additive effects. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 644-653.
Gunnell, K. E., Crocker, P. R., Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., & Zumbo, B. D. (2014). Goal contents, motivation, psychological need satisfaction, well-being and physical activity: A test of self-determination theory over 6 months. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 19-29.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hartree, A. (1984). Malcolm Knowles’ theory of andragogy: A critique. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 3(3), 203-210.
Ho, S. Y. (2012). The effects of location personalization on individuals’ intention to use mobile services. Decision Support Systems, 53(4), 802-812
Hogarth, K., & Dawson, D. (2008). Implementing e-learning in organisations: What e-learning research can learn from instructional technology (IT) and organisational studies (OS) innovation studies. International Journal on E-learning, 7(1), 87-105.
Houde, J. (2006). Andragogy and Motivation: An examination of the principles of andragogy through two motivation theories. In Proceedings of the AHRD Conference 2006, pp. 90-97.
Huang, J. J., Yang, S. J., Huang, Y. M., & Hsiao, I. Y. (2010). Social learning networks: Build mobile learning networks based on collaborative services. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), 78-92.
Industrial Development Bureau (2013). Research report on digital learning in Taiwan. Department of Economic Affair Industrial Development Bureau. Taipei: Taiwan.
Isenberg, S., & Glancy, F. (2011). Taxonomy of online media: Integrating andragogy, transformative learning, and media synchronicity theory to improve learning. In Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, Community and Extension Education at Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.
Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational Design of Instruction. Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status. Ed. CM: Reigelruth.
Kenner, C., & Weinerman, J. (2011). Adult learning theory: Applications to non-traditional college students. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 41(2), 87-96.
Kerres, M., & Witt, C. D. (2003). A didactical framework for the design of blended learning arrangements. Journal of Educational Media, 28(2-3), 101-113.
Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Leadership, 16(10), 350-352.
Knowles, M. (1973). The adult learner: a neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Knowles, M. et al (1984) Andragogy in action. Applying modern principles of adult education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Knowles, H. (1998). A theory of adult learning: Andragogy. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Knowles, M., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2011). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (7th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier, Inc.
Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2014). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. United Kingdom: Routledge.
Kolb, J. A. (1999). The effect of gender role, attitude toward leadership, and self-confidence on leader emergence: Implications for leadership development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(4), 305-320.
La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: a self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 367.
Lai, H. J. (2011). The influence of adult learners' self-directed learning readiness and network literacy on online learning effectiveness: A study of civil servants in Taiwan. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2), 98-106.
Lau, R. W., Yen, N. Y., Li, F., & Wah, B. (2014). Recent development in multimedia e-learning technologies. World Wide Web, 17(2), 189-198.
Lee, D. Y., & Lehto, M. R. (2013). User acceptance of YouTube for procedural learning: An extension of the Technology Acceptance Model. Computers & Education, 61, 193-208.
Lee, Y. C. (2006). An empirical investigation into factors influencing the usage of an e-learning system. Online Information Review, 30(5), 517-541.
Loureiro, A., & Bettencourt, T. (2014). The use of virtual environments as an extended classroom–a case study with adult learners in tertiary education. Procedia Technology, 13, 97-106.
Martin, B. L., & Briggs, L. J. (1986). The affective and cognitive domains: Integration for instruction and research. New Jersey: Educational Technology.
Macaskill, A., & Taylor, E. (2010). The development of a brief measure of learner autonomy in university students. Studies in Higher Education, 35(3), 351-359.
McConnell, A. R. (2011). The multiple self-aspects framework: Self-concept representation and its implications. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 15(1), 3-27.
McGrath, J. E. (1991). Time, interaction, and performance (TIP) A Theory of Groups. Small Group Research, 22(2), 147-174.
Merrill, M. D. (1983). Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Merriam, S. B. (2001). Andragogy and self-directed learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2001(89), 3-14.
Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Self-directed learning. Learning in adulthood: a comprehensive guide. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1981). A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education Quarterly, 32(1), 3-24.
MIC (2006). Taiwan online learning 2006-2007 forecast. Market Intelligence Center.
Ministry of Education, Taiwan (2014). About e-learning and Education. Retrieved June 18th, 2016, from http://www.ey.gov.tw/en/cp.aspx?n=2CD69A13071FC9B3
Navimipour, N. J., & Zareie, B. (2015). A model for assessing the impact of e-learning systems on employees’ satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 475-485.
Neal, J. A., Schor, S., & Sabiers, M. P. (1998). This is your life! A lifeline exercise to promote discussion of differences. Journal of Management Education, 22(6), 745-752.
Neuhauser, C. (2010). Learning style and effectiveness of online and face-to-face instruction. The American Journal of Distance Education. 16(2), 99-113.
Nikou, S.A. & Economides, A.A. (2014) A model for mobile-based assessment usage based on self-determination theory of motivation, 2014 International Conference on Interactive Mobile Communication Technologies and Learning (IEEE), pp.86-90, 13-14 November 2014, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Nguyen, Thanh D., Dung T. Nguyen, & Thi H. Cao (2014). Acceptance and use of information system: E-learning based on cloud computing in Vietnam. Information and Communication Technology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 139-149.
North-Samardzic, A., Braccini, A. M., Spagnoletti, P., & Za, S. (2014). Applying media synchronicity theory to distance learning in virtual worlds: a design science approach. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(3), 328-346.
Ozkan, S., & Koseler, R. (2009). Multi-dimensional students’ evaluation of e-learning systems in the higher education context: An empirical investigation. Computers & Education, 53(4), 1285-1296.
Patrick, H., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. International Journal of Behavior Nutrition Physical Act, 9(18), b35.
Payne, S. S., Rundquist, P., Harper, W. V., & Gahimer, J. (2013). Self-directed learning readiness and self-determination for selected rehabilitation professional students: The impact of clinical education. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 10 (1). 35-45.
Rachal, J. R. (2002). Andragogy’s detectives: A critique of the present and a proposal for the future. Adult Education Quarterly, 52(3), 210-227.
Reed, S. J. (2012). Debriefing experience scale: Development of a tool to evaluate the student learning experience in debriefing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 8(6), e211-e217.
Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 149-172). United States: Springer.
Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(4), 419-435.
Result of Taiwan’s Internet Usage (2015, August 27th) Retrieved from http://www.bnext.com.tw/marketinfo/view/id/48311
Roca J.C., & Gagné, M. (2008). Understanding e-learning continuance intention in workplace: A self-determination theory perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(4), 1585-1604.
Rogers, Carl (1951), Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practices, Implications, and Theory. Boston: Hougton Mifflin.
Rosenberg, M. (1986). Self-concept from middle childhood through adolescence. Psychological Perspectives on the Self, 3(1), 107-136.
Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 749.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L., (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78
Ryland, E. K. (1998). " Greening" business education: Teaching the paradigm. Journal of Management Education, 22(3), 320-343.
Ryoo, S. Y., & Koo, C. (2010). The moderating effect of media synchronicity in the communication media use and knowledge creation. Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, 20(2), 103-124.
Sankowsky, D. (1998). Two pathways to instructional delivery: Distinguishing between the discipline-based and the development-based paradigms. Journal of Management Education, 22(3), 269-284.
Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of Educational Research, 407-441.
Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(3), 482-497.
Shih, J.-L., Chuang, C.-W., & Hwang, G.-J. (2010). An inquiry-based mobile learning approach to enhancing social science learning effectiveness. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (4), 50–62.
Slev, A. M., & Pop, A. (2012). A model for developing adult learner effectiveness in new roles and environments. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2051-2055.
Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). When is identity congruent with the self? A self-determination theory perspective. In Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 381-402). New York: Springer.
Sorebo, O., Halvari, H., Gulli, V.F., & Kristiansen, R. (2009). The role of self-determination theory in explaining teachers’ motivation to continue to use e-learning technology. Computers & Education, 53(4), 1177-1187
Sorgenfrei, C., Borschbach, A., & Smolnik, S. (2013). Understanding e-learning continuance intention: Towards a conceptual model. In European Conference on Information Systems 2013 Completed Research, June 5-8, Utrecht University, Netherlands (p. 223).
Sun, P. C., Tsai, R. J., Finger, G., Chen, Y. Y., & Yeh, D. (2008). What drives a successful e-learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Computers & Education, 50(4), 1183-1202.
Taiwan Network Information Center (2015). Research report on Internet usage rate in Taiwan. Retrieved from http://www.twnic.net.tw/download/200307/20150901e.pdf
Taylor, B., & Kroth, M. (2012). A single conversation with a wise man is better than ten years of study: A model for testing methodologies for pedagogy or andragogy. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 9(2), 42-56.
Taylor, E. W., & Laros, A. (2014). Researching the practice of fostering learning lessons learned from the study of andragogy. Journal of Transformative Education, 12(2), 134-147.
Teng, C. I. (2011). Who are likely to experience flow? Impact of temperament and character on flow. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(6), 863-868.
Theng, Y. L. (2009). Mobile learning for tertiary students: an exploratory study of acceptance of use. In World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, Vol. 2009(1), 937-946.
Trombley, B. K., & Lee, D. (2002). Web based Learning in Corporations: who is using it and why, who is not and why not?. Journal of Educational Media, 27(3), 137-146.
Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., Senecal, C., & Vallieres, E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52(4), 1003-1017.
Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 271-360.
Van Soom, C., & Donche, V. (2014). Profiling first-year students in STEM programs based on autonomous motivation and academic self-concept and relationship with academic achievement. PloS one, 9(11), e112489.
Vansteenkiste, M., Niemiec, C. P., & Soenens, B. (2010). The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: An historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 16, 105-166.
Vintilă, M., & Istrat, D. (2014). Improving the skills for true wellbeing of adult educators and learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 610-615.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Readings on the Development of Children, 23(3), 34-41.
Waddock, S. A. (1999). Linking community and spirit: A commentary and some propositions. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 332-345.
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: the concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66(5), 297-333.
White, R. W. (1963). The study of lives: Essays on personality in honor of Henry A. Murray. New York: Atherton Press.
Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: a test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(4), 767-779.
Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 70(1), 115-126.
Wu, J. P., Tsai, R. J., Chen, C. C., & Wu, Y. C. (2006). An integrative model to predict the continuance use of electronic learning systems: hints for teaching. International Journal on E-learning, 5(2), 287–302.
Yildirim, Ö. (2008). Turkish EFL learners’ readiness for learner autonomy. Journal of Language and Linguistics Studies, 4(1), 65-80
Zhang, D., Zhou, L., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2006). Instructional video in e-learning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness. Information & Management, 43(1), 15-27.