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系統識別號 U0026-2208201320390200
論文名稱(中文) 部分圍束加強磚造高型磚牆面內受力行為研究
論文名稱(英文) Seismic Behavior of Slender Partially-Confined Masonry Panels Subjected to In-plane Force
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 101
學期 2
出版年 102
研究生(中文) 莊宗樺
研究生(英文) Tsung-Hua Chuang
學號 n78961109
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 362頁
口試委員 指導教授-杜怡萱
口試委員-姚昭智
口試委員-黃世建
口試委員-鍾立來
口試委員-陳奕信
中文關鍵字 加強磚造  高型磚牆  面內  磚翼牆  窗間牆 
英文關鍵字 confined masonry  in-plane  slender panel  wing-wall  pier 
學科別分類
中文摘要 台灣加強磚造建築常因機能需求將完整之四邊圍束磚牆多處開口,形成數片部分圍束高型磚牆,依其圍束條件可分為無側邊圍束磚牆及三邊圍束磚牆。因此類磚牆側向強度較低,使其面內方向成為建築物之弱向。在實務分析上,為求計算簡便常將此類磚牆忽略,但所得結果過於保守且不符合實際結構行為,且國內外既有評估方法之適用範圍均未涵蓋此類磚牆。因此,本文旨在探討部分圍束加強磚造高型磚牆受力行為,並建立性能曲線分析模型以供耐震評估使用。
本文於國家地震工程研究中心進行一系列加強磚造高型磚牆之靜態側推試驗,試體共有九座,包括兩座無側邊圍束試體及七座三邊圍束試體,試體全為足尺設計,以雙曲率方式加載。無側邊圍束試體之變因為軸壓力,而三邊圍束試體則分為單側翼牆及雙側翼牆試體,控制變因為磚牆寬度、加強柱配置及單向或往復加載。試驗結果顯示,加強柱存在時,因柱牆間之互制關係,使無側邊圍束試體與三邊圍束試體破壞模式及受力行為不同。無側邊圍束試體之軸力與側向強度約成正比關係,受軸壓力較大之磚牆,強度較大但韌性較差。三邊圍束試體中,牆寬較大之試體具有較高初始剛度及側向強度,且行為更為脆性,牆寬與側向強度約成正比關係。所有三邊圍束試體之加強柱均出現均勻拉力裂縫,顯示柱承受額外軸拉力,磚牆承受額外軸壓力。此外,將磚牆配置於受力側或背力側,側向強度差異不大,顯示耐震評估時不應忽略受力側磚牆之貢獻。
根據試驗結果及既有文獻,本文歸納受面內力之部分圍束加強磚造磚牆破壞行為及側力抵抗機制。破壞模式可分為剪力破壞及撓曲破壞,剪力破壞又分為對角拉力破壞、對角壓力破壞及灰縫滑移破壞。側力抵抗機制方面,無側邊圍束磚牆及三邊圍束磚牆分別以二鉸拱機制及拉壓桿機制抵抗側力。
本文依據上述歸納結果推導部分圍束加強磚造高型磚牆面內性能曲線分析模型。無側邊圍束磚牆之分析模型為假設磚牆撓曲破壞,於側傾過程中呈現剛體旋轉,並依適用情形分為高度固定及垂直軸力固定分析模型。與本文試體及既有文獻試體比對後顯示,本分析模型可合理預估牆體性能曲線。三邊圍束磚牆之性能曲線分析模型,則以部分自行推導,部分修正既有公式之方式建立,並將側力造成之磚牆額外軸壓力及加強柱之強度貢獻納入考量,分別計算各破壞模式之極限強度後,取各極限強度最小值決定最終破壞模式。與本文試體及既有文獻試體比對後顯示,分析結果大致呈現合理偏保守之情形,其中,極限強度及破壞模式預測準確,但對開裂即達極限強度之牆體,性能曲線誤差較大。
英文摘要 In Taiwan, confined masonry wall (CM) walls are often divided into several slender partially-confined masonry (SPCM) panels due to the needs of openings. SPCM panels can be classified into piers or wing-walls by the restraint conditions. Since SPCM panels are obviously weaker then complete CM panels without openings, the SPCM panels usually govern the capacity of resisting earthquake of a building. However, because of the difficulty in analysis, the contribution of SPCM panels is usually ignored in practical seismic assessment, causing over-conservative results. Most of current analytical models are not suitable for this kind of panels. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to investigate the seismic behavior and to establish an analytical model of SPCM panels.
A series of static lateral-load tests for SPCM panels had been conducted in the laboratory of National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE). All specimens are full-scaled, including two piers and seven wing-walls. The two pier specimens were identical and subjected to different axial force during the test. The test factors of wing-wall specimens include the number and the length of the panels, the position of the column and the loading type.
The test results suggest that the seismic behavior and failure mode of the pier specimens are obviously different from the wing-wall specimens due to the interaction between the panel and the column. The lateral strength of pier specimens is proportional to the axial force., but the ductility is lower when the axial force is higher. The wing-wall specimens with longer panels have higher initial stiffness, higher strength, and lower ductility. The lateral strength of wing-wall specimens is approximately proportional to the total length of the panels, even though the failure modes are not the same. Although axial load were applied to all the wing-wall specimens during the test, uniform tensile cracks were observed on the columns, indicating that the columns were subjected to tension while the masonry panels were subjected to additional compression. No matter which side the masonry panel was placed, the single wing-wall specimens showed similar lateral resistance, indicating that the custom of neglecting masonry panels on the “tensile” side in analysis is not reasonable.
According to the test results and former researches, the failure modes of SPCM panels can be classified as shear failure and flexural failure and shear failure includes diagonal tension failure, diagonal compression failure and bed-joint sliding failure. The load resistance mechanism of the SPCM panels is also generalized. The piers resist lateral loading with double-hinged arch mechanism, while the wing-walls can be considered as strut-and-tie systems.
Analytical models for both piers and wing-walls had been established on the basis of structural behavior summarized from the test result. The model for pier can be applied to fixed-vertical restraint or fixed-axial-force conditions. It is used to evaluate the piers failed by flexure and display rocking behavior. In the comparison with existing test results, the analytical model shows accurate and reasonable evaluation for the load-displacement curve of piers. The model for wing-wall considers the additional compression due to panel-column interaction and the contribution of the column. It was established by modifying existing models. The ultimate strength, the failure mode, and the form of load-displacement curve are determined by the minimum between the strengths of three failure modes. The comparison with test results shows that the analytical model can accurately evaluate the ultimate strength and failure mode of wing-walls, but error in load-displacement curve becomes obvious when a wing-wall reaches its ultimate strength as initial cracking happens. Generally, the analytical model shows reasonable and conservative estimation.
論文目次 表目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
符號說明 XVI

第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1 研究動機及目的 1-1
1.2 文獻回顧 1-3
1.3 研究方法 1-9
1.4 適用範圍 1-10
第二章 高型磚牆面內側推試驗 2-1
2.1 試體設計 2-1
2.1.1 試體介紹 2-1
2.1.2 施工流程 2-13
2.2 試驗裝置規劃及加載歷程 2-17
2.2.1 試驗裝置 2-17
2.2.2 量測儀器 2-22
2.2.3 加載方式及加載歷程 2-25
2.3 試體材料性質 2-28
2.4 試驗結果 2-40
2.4.1 試體破壞特徵描述 2-40
2.4.2 試體受力行為 2-55
2.4.3 試驗結果討論 2-76
2.5 高型磚牆面內方向破壞模式及側力抵抗機制 2-95
2.5.1 破壞模式歸納 2-95
2.5.2 側力抵抗機制 2-101
第三章 既有分析模型及其評估結果 3-1
3.1 既有分析模型簡介 3-1
3.1.1 FEMA356相關建議公式 3-1
3.1.2 陳奕信面內剪力強度分析模型 3-4
3.1.3 ACI 318之柱剪力強度公式 3-7
3.2 既有分析模型與試驗結果比對 3-8
3.2.1 無側邊圍束試體比對結果 3-8
3.2.2 三邊圍束試體比對結果 3-11
3.3 小結 3-20
第四章 無側邊圍束高型磚牆性能曲線分析模型 4-1
4.1 適用前提與範圍 4-1
4.2 Angel. E 建議之磚牆應力應變曲線 4-3
4.3 高度固定分析模型 4-4
4.4 垂直軸力固定分析模型 4-10
第五章 三邊圍束高型磚牆性能曲線分析模型 5-1
5.1 基本假設與分析架構 5-1
5.1.1 基本假設 5-1
5.1.2 分析架構及計算流程 5-2
5.2 側力作用下柱牆互制造成之磚牆額外軸壓力 5-6
5.3 柱、牆軸力及側力分配方式 5-15
5.3.1 軸力分配方式 5-15
5.3.2 側力分配方式 5-16
5.4 初始剛度模型 5-19
5.4.1 等值壓桿寬度及適用範圍 5-19
5.4.2 初始剛度計算 5-20
5.5 開裂強度及變位 5-22
5.6 極限點及破壞點之強度與變位 5-24
5.6.1 對角壓力破壞模式 5-24
5.6.2 灰縫滑移破壞模式 5-33
5.6.3 撓曲破壞模式 5-38
5.7 含開口四邊圍束磚牆分析方式 5-49
第六章 分析模型之驗證 6-1
6.1 驗證試體簡介
6.1.1 無側邊圍束試體 6-1
6.1.2 三邊圍束試體 6-8
6.2 磚牆彈性模數及灰縫抗剪強度建議 6-14
6.2.1 磚牆抗壓強度與彈性模數計算 6-14
6.2.2 理論灰縫抗剪強度 6-15
6.3 分析模型與驗證試體比對結果 6-16
6.3.1 無側邊圍束試體比對結果 6-16
6.3.2 三邊圍束試體比對結果 6-27
6.4 小結 6-52
第七章 結論與建議 7-1
7.1 結論 7-1
7.2 建議 7-4
附錄A 試體裂縫圖及破壞照片 A-1
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