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系統識別號 U0026-2208201119191300
論文名稱(中文) 台灣西南部古亭坑層斷層帶低溫流體礦化作用
論文名稱(英文) Fault-zone mineralization from low-temperature fluid in Gutingkeng formation, southwestern Taiwan
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 地球科學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Earth Sciences
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 楊雪婷
研究生(英文) Hsueh-Ting Yang
學號 l46981058
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 105頁
口試委員 指導教授-江威德
口試委員-楊懷仁
口試委員-楊燦堯
中文關鍵字 重晶石  方解石  龍船斷層  古亭坑層 
英文關鍵字 barite  calcite  Longchuan Fault  Gutingkeng Formation 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究針對新近發現於龍船斷層北端下部古亭坑層砂岩裂隙充填之重晶石及方解石,進行岩象、礦物化學、鍶同位素、稀土元素及碳、氧或硫穩定同位素分析,以瞭解其礦物學特徵,並協助推論流體特性及來源。
龍船斷層北端方解石呈顏色深淺不一之黃色脈狀充填砂岩裂隙,局部形成些微扭曲之黃色菱柱狀晶體,粒徑約為數公釐,黃色方解石脈之中心部份或方解石晶體之上,局部可見白色重晶石生成,部份形成方柱狀自形晶體,長度可達4公分,此形態多見於沉積岩地區低溫熱水沉澱,初次發現於臺灣;另亦可見重晶石包裹方解石自形晶粒。前述這些方解石-重晶石脈及晶體僅出露於龍船斷層附近之砂岩裂隙,另於這些砂岩附近之泥岩常具剪切裂隙充填白色方解石,且局部可見厚度不等之斷層泥,但未見延伸至砂岩裂隙。黃色方解石固溶體可達8 mol.% FeCO3、5 mol.% MgCO3及2 mol.% MnCO3,重晶石之SrSO4固溶體可達~1 mol.%。方解石相對球粒隕石規化之稀土元素分佈形態具有富輕稀土元素及銪負異常之特徵,惟有一地呈現銪正異常,87Sr/86Sr比值範圍多在0.7097~0.7109之間,而δ13CPDB和δ18OPDB值分別為-22.77~-1.88 ‰及-12.52~2.45 ‰。重晶石87Sr/86Sr比值為0.7108~0.7117,δ34SV-CDT值為13.45~18.46 ‰。玉女峰地區方解石具有相對高之δ13CPDB和δ18OPDB,以及相對高Sr濃度與低87Sr/86Sr比值;重晶石有相對高δ34SV-CDT和低87Sr/86Sr比值之特徵。
龍船斷層破裂帶礦化作用顯涉及兩階段沿裂隙分別上湧之富二氧化碳流體及攜帶硫酸鹽及鋇離子之還原性流體(可能富含碳氫化合物)。初期形成方解石之流體以海水為主,但亦與天水及沉積有機物質有輕微混合或交互作用,方解石及水之氧同位素地溫計顯示流體平均溫度約為68°C;沉澱重晶石之流體主要源自沉積盆地中之鹵水,於遷移途徑中與泥岩反應增加其87Sr組成。推測玉女峰可能為主要破裂帶及流體湧升地區,流體溫度及其與圍岩反應程度相對較低。
英文摘要 Field occurrence, petrography, mineral chemistry, REE and Sr concentrations, Sr87/Sr86 ratio, and C, O, and S isotope compositions of vein minerals were investigated to gain knowledge of the paleohydrogeological evolution associated with the northern section of Longchuan Fault in the Pliocene Gutingkeng mudstone.
White to yellow calcite occurred as a vein mineral locally forming slightly twisted rhombohedral crystals several millimeters in size filling in bedding-perpendicular sandstone fractures. White prismatic barite crystals up to 4 cm in length of barite grew over and irregularly enclosed the calcite. Such a barite occurrence was first reported in Taiwan but was found in many other sedimentary sequences affected by low-temperature fluids. The occurrence of the calcite and barite was restricted in the immediate vicinity of Longchuan Fault. Fault gouges of variable thicknesses and fissure-filling calcite veinlets in sheared mudstones were observed as well, but did not extend into the sandstones with fracture-filling calcite and barite. Up to 8 mol.% FeCO3, 5 mol.% MgCO3, and 2 mol.% MnCO3 in the yellowish calcite and ~1 mol.% SrSO4 in the barite were detected. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the calcite from most of the localities showed slightly enriched LREE and a negative Eu anomaly with an exception from Yunifeng. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio was measured in the range of 0.7097~0.7109 for the calcite and 0.7108~0.7177 for the barite. The barite δ34SV-CDT value was 13.45~18.46 ‰ while the calcite had positively correlated δ13CPDB and δ18OPDB values of -22.7~-1.88 ‰ and -12.52~2.45 ‰. Relatively large δ13CPDB, δ18OPDB, and [Sr2+] and low 87Sr/86Sr values in calcite and high δ34SV-CDT and low 87Sr/86Sr measurements in barite were obtained for the Yunifeng samples.
The fracture-zone mineralization at Longchuan Fault apparently involved two-stage along-fracture upwelling of a CO2-rich fluid and a subsequent reducing fluid (probably rich in hydrocarbons) carrying sulfate- and barium-rich ions. The early calcite-forming fluid was dominated by brine having minor mixing with meteoric water and interaction with organic matter in sediments. The average crystallization temperature was ~68°C based on the calcite-water oxygen isotope geothermometer. The fluid that precipitated barite was primarily derived from a basin brine with additional 87Sr contributed by reactions with mudstones along its flow paths. The fracturing and fluid upwelling were probably centered at Yunifeng having the host rocks experienced a relatively low degree of reaction with a comparatively low-temperature fluid.
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 序論 1
1-1.前言 1
1-2.前人研究 1
1-2-1.重晶石 1
1-2-2.方解石 4
1-3.研究目的 7
第二章 地質背景 8
2-1.龍船斷層 8
2-2.古亭坑層 10
2-3.泥火山分佈 11
第三章 分析方法 14
3-1.實驗流程 14
3-2.採樣地點 15
3-3.岩象觀察 19
3-3-1.偏光顯微鏡 19
3-3-2.掃瞄式電子顯微鏡 19
3-4.礦物相鑑定(X光粉末繞射分析) 20
3-4-1.亂向試片分析(全岩、礦物鑑定) 20
3-4-2.順向試片(黏土礦物鑑定) 21
3-5.穩定同位素分析 22
3-5-1.樣品前處理 23
3-5-2.碳同位素 24
3-5-3.氧同位素 24
3-5-4.硫同位素 25
3-6.微量元素與稀土元素 25
3-6-1.重晶石樣品消化流程 25
3-6-2.方解石樣品消化流程 26
3-6-3.碳酸鹽煙囪樣品消化流程 26
3-7.鍶同位素 27
3-7-1.同位素分析之樣品純化步驟 27
3-7-2.分析原理 27
第四章 結果 28
4-1.野外調查 28
4-1-1.礦物分布 28
4-1-2.相關岩層破裂及變形特性 37
4-1-3.岩層位態與破裂面之關係 39
4-2.砂岩之礦物學與岩象組織 41
4-2-1.重晶石 46
4-2-2.方解石 48
4-2-3.黃鐵礦型態 50
4-3.泥岩之礦物學與岩象組織 51
4-3-1.重晶石 53
4-3-2.方解石 53
4-3-3.黃鐵礦型態 54
4-3-4.其他礦物 57
4-4.方解石之化學分析 59
4-4-1.主要元素 59
4-4-2.稀土元素 62
4-4-3.碳、氧同位素 65
4-4-4.鍶同位素 66
4-5.重晶石化學分析結果 68
4-5-1.硫同位素 68
4-5-2.鍶同位素 68
4-6.硫化物硫同位素分析結果 70
第五章 討論 71
5-1.礦化作用與龍船斷層之關係探討 71
5-2.形成礦物之流體來源與性質 72
5-2-1.方解石 72
5-2-2.重晶石 79
5-3.形成機制探討 83
5-3-1.流體來源與泥火山之相關性 83
5-3-2.形成機制模型 84
第六章 結論 86
參考文獻 87
附錄 101
附錄一 101
附錄二 102
附錄三 104
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