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系統識別號 U0026-2207202018410400
論文名稱(中文) 探討達成不同貼文類型適用的圖像替代文字描述方式研究
論文名稱(英文) A study of the description of alt text suitable for different types of posts
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工業設計學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Industrial Design
學年度 108
學期 2
出版年 109
研究生(中文) 蔡涵如
研究生(英文) Han-Ju Tsai
學號 P36071189
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 126頁
口試委員 指導教授-何俊亨
口試委員-馬敏元
口試委員-陳璽任
口試委員-盧彥年
中文關鍵字 替代文字  口述影像  螢幕翻譯  可用性  圖像索引 
英文關鍵字 Alt Text  Audio Description  Accessibility  Image Index 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於網際網路與行動裝置的迅速發展,提高社群軟體的使用率。社群網路 上的社交物件也越來越多樣化,圖像、影像逐漸取代文字為主要的社交物件。 而視障者也是社群軟體的高度使用者,雖然目前已有無障礙輔助閱覽工具,但 是當視障者在使用社群軟體時,依然會面臨無障礙輔助閱覽工具無法解決的困 境,例如,圖像沒有替代的說明文字。為了改善視障者的使用者體驗,臉書近 年推出了自動替代文字系統,該系統結合人工智慧辨識圖像與替代文字語法, 可以自動為圖像產生替代的說明文字,但是目前該系統產出的敘述還是非常的 簡單,仍然有許多可改善的空間。因此本研究探討了另一項可為視障者提供視 覺資訊的口述影像服務。雖然目前口述影像以客觀的方式為製作口語描述的原 則,但是近年也有學者提出應該要以更有戲劇張力、主觀的敘述方式來製作口 述影像,以提高使用者的體驗。然而口述影像適合的敘述方式,不該只有主觀 或者客觀的二分法,應該是要依照影像內容種類進而調整敘述的方式,才能給 使用者較佳的體驗。因此本研究以口述影像的文獻為借鑒,提出臉書貼文中的 圖像替代文字應該要因應貼文類型調整敘述方式。
本研究以金字塔概念索引模型為輔助建置替代文的工具,分別對十種新聞 內容種類與兩種圖文關係搭配的二十則貼文,產生一般(Generic)、特定 (Specific)、抽象(Abstract)三種敘述方式的圖像替代文字,以了解貼文種 類與圖文關係對於圖像替代文字適合的敘述方式的影響。研究結果發現,一般 而言,由於相繼型的貼文在文字內容中,解釋圖像資訊的比例較少,因此貼文 適合使用特定的圖像替代文字。而說明型貼文的文字內容中,已經解釋許多圖 像資訊,因此可以使用特定或者抽象的圖像替代文字。最後將研究結果發現彙 整成建議圖像替代文字產出流程圖,以提供未來相關研究或者相關服務參考。
英文摘要 Due to the rapid development of the Internet and mobile devices, social software has increased. Social objects on social networks are becoming diversified, and images and videos are gradually replacing text as the primary social object. The visually impaired are also constant users of social software. There are currently accessible reading tools that can aid them in using social software. However, there are still some dilemmas that accessible reading tools cannot currently solve; for example, images do not have alt text. To improve the visually impaired user experience, Facebook has launched an automatic alt text system in recent years. This system combines artificial intelligence that recognizes images and alt text syntax, which can automatically generate alt text for images. The descriptions currently produced by the system are still very monotonous, and there is always room for improvement. Therefore, this study reviews another service called Audio Description that can provide visual information for the visually impaired. Generally, objectivity is the top purpose for Audio Describer descriptions. In recent years, some scholars have suggested that Audio Describer should produce Audio Descriptions more dramatically and subjectively to improve user experience. However, the suitable narrative method for Audio Description should not be based on a subjective or objective dichotomy. It should be adjusted according to the type of video content in order to produce a better user experience. Therefore, this study takes the literature related to Audio Description as a reference and proposes that the alt text of Facebook posts should be adjusted according to the types of those posts.
In this study, the Conceptual Model is used to build three types of alt texts of twenty posts with ten kinds of news content and two types of graphic and textual relationships. The study examines the relationship between graphics and text that is suitable for producing generic, specific, or abstract alt text in a variety of content areas. The study found that because successive posts spend a smaller percentage of time explaining image information in the text content, these posts are suitable for specific alt text. The text of illustrated posts contains a lot of image information, so these posts are appropriate for specific or abstract alt text. Finally, the aggregation of the research results organized into a flow chart of the different ways of producing alt text provides a reference for future related research or the development of related services.
論文目次 摘要 ii
SUMMARY iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Purpose 2
CHAPTER 2 MA TERIALS AND METHODS 3
2.1 Collecting the Facebook Posts Samples 3
2.2 Produce the Alt Text Samples 4
2.3 Alt Text Experiment 5
CHAPTER 3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 7
3.1 Results of the Friedman Test 7
3.2 Results of Bonferroni post hoc 8
3.3 Induction of all the Results 9
3.4 Image-text relationship as the Primary Influence Effect 10
3.5 Contents Types as the Main Influence Factors 11
3.5.1 The Impact of Business Content on Alt Text 12
3.5.2 The Impact of Sports Content on Alt Text 13
3.5.3 The Impact of Technology and Science Content on Alt Text 14
3.6 Other Influence Factors 15
3.6.1 The Interactive Impact of Entertainment and Art Content and Image-text Relationship on Alt Text 16
3.6.2 The Interactive Impact of Story Content and Image-text Relationship on Alt Text 17
3.6.3 The Interactive Impact of Health Content and Image-text Relationship on Alt Text 18
3.7 Summary 19
CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION 21
4.1 Research Conclusion 21
4.2 Research Contribution 22
4.3 Discussion with Previous Literature 23
4.4 Research Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research 24
REFERENCE 26
TRADITIONAL CHINESE VERSION 28
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