||Research on the model of the learning game
||Department of Industrial Design
Reality room Escape Game (REG)
using what one has learned
本研究旨在提出教育型實境密室逃脫 (Reality room Escape Game簡稱REG)之設計模式，現今教育多提倡從遊戲或從實做中學習，近年更有翻轉教室的出現，取代過去以「教」為主的授課方式，改以 「學」為中心，讓學生成為教育活動中的主角。而本研究在深入探討REG遊戲後，發現過去研究指出在 該遊戲過程中，參與者會對於所在空間中的特定主題產生強烈的熱情，而這樣的情緒反應也使玩家對於 遊戲裡面蘊含的知識感到有興趣，且REG所營造的空間更能讓學習者擁有身歷其境之感受，完整學習心流，符合現今社會所期望之教育模式。
The purpose of this study is to propose a design model for educational REG (Reality room Escape Game). Nowadays, the idea of learning from games or learning by doing has become popular in education. The emergence of the flipped classroom model in recent years has further shifted instruction from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered model, making students the central focus of an educational activity. After a thorough research on REG, it is found that REG can strongly arouse participants’ passion for the particular theme of the space they are in, further increasing participants’ interests in exploring relevant knowledge. Besides, the space that REG creates can immerse the participants in the scene, and thus stimulate a flow. Such findings show that what participants can learn from REG concurs with what society expects learners to learn from education.
The attempt of this study is to incorporate REG into formal education by proposing a design model for educational REG. The taxonomy of educational objectives proposed by Benjamin Samuel Bloom, B. S. is examined first. After that, a design model for educational REG is developed based on the educational objectives in the cognitive domain, as well as the design principles for learning games, and the design procedures for REG. To ensure that the tasks generated by the design model can help replace cognitive ability tests, experts who have examined the model are interviewed. Following the interview, a revised design model and an experimental REG space that allows students to participate are created. The experimental subjects are fifth graders and they have to solve puzzles related to natural science in the experimental REG space. They are divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The test scores and the ratio of the number of people passing the test to the number of people successfully “escaping” the reality room are being crossed-compared so as to prove the feasibility and validity of educational REG.
The experiment results show that students succeeding in educational REG space all pass the test that measures their learning effectiveness, while students passing the test don’t necessarily succeed in the REG space. The finding demonstrates that educational REG can not only measure how students differ in terms of their cognitive abilities, but also cultivate their abilities to use what they’ve learned. Moreover, the tasks in educational REG space are arranged based on difficulty levels (from easy to difficult) and the learning sequence in textbooks, which can help students develop a more systematic and logical way of thinking.
TABLE OF CONTENTS ix
LIST OF TABLES xiii
LIST OF FIGURES xv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background 1
1.2 motivation 3
1.3 Purpose 3
1.4 Research Hypothesis 4
1.5 Scope of study and limitation 5
1.6 Research architecture 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Current Educational Thinking 7
2.1.1 Current educational trends 7
2.1.2 Flip the classroom 9
2.1.3 Section 10
2.2 Cognitive education goals 10
2.2.1 Introduction to Educational Objectives in the Cognitive Domain 11
2.2.2 Assessment approaches in the Cognitive Domain 12
2.2.3 Learner’s cognitive development 14
2.2.4 Summary 15
2.3 Learning games 16
2.3.1 The relation between education and games 16
2.3.2 Design principles and procedures of learning games 18
2.3.3 Summary 21
2.4 Natural Science Education 21
2.4.1 Introduction to Natural Science Education 21
2.4.2 Current educational trend in natural science 22
2.4.3 Natural science game 23
2.4.4 Summary 24
2.5 Design procedures and elements 24
2.5.1 The concept of REG 25
2.5.2 The design elements of REG 26
2.5.3 Puzzle Organization 27
2.5.4 REG design flow 29
2.5.5 Summary 31
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 32
3.1 Construct Educational REG: Design Procedure 33
3.1.1 Learning game design Model 33
3.1.2 Educational REG design procedure 33
3.1.3 Summary 38
3.2 In-Depth Interview 38
3.2.1 In-Depth Interview Overview 38
3.2.2 Steps to conduct in-depth interview 39
3.2.3 Experts that are invited for interview 40
3.2.4 Summary 42
3.3 Design experiment 42
3.3.1 Overview 42
3.3.2 Process for design experiment 42
3.3.3 Group list for design experiment 43
CHAPTER 4 RESULT 46
4.1 In-depth Interview: Design Model of Educational REG 46
4.1.1 Mirror Studio Interview 46
4.1.2 Revision of task design procedure for educational REG- The interview with teachers in Chimin Elementary School 47
4.2 Educational REG Empirical Practice 51
4.2.1 Select the specific goals 51
4.2.2 Design the REG based on the objectives and provide participants free choices and direct experiences. 51
4.2.3 Appropriate interaction activities and feedback 58
4.2.4 Making and organizing the tasks 60
4.2.5 Add the theme background and accessories 62
4.2.6 Design interesting feedback activities 62
4.3 Experiment Results 64
4.3.1 Pre test 64
4.3.2 Post-test 66
4.3.3 Experiment results 70
4.4 Summary 72
4.4.1 Coin of death 72
4.4.2 Task design (participants' feedback) 73
4.4.3 Five senses 73
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 74
5.1 Research disscussion 74
5.1.1 Knowledge deconstruction and transfer 74
5.1.2 Different learning outcomes among students can be emphasized through educational REG. 75
5.1.3 Educational REG cultivates students the ability of applying knowledge into practical use. 75
5.2 Research contribution 76
5.2.1 In the field of education 76
5.2.2 In the field of design 77
5.2.3 In the field of business industry 78
5.3 Suggestions for future research 78
5.3.1 Partnered school 78
5.3.2 Suggestions for running educational REG 79
5.3.3 Suggestions for future research 79
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