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系統識別號 U0026-2207201423491500
論文名稱(中文) 建築室內自然通風評估之研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study On The Natural Ventilation Assessment Of Architectural Interior
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 102
學期 2
出版年 103
研究生(中文) 李怡萱
研究生(英文) Yi-Shiuan Lee
學號 N76011283
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 88頁
口試委員 指導教授-林憲德
口試委員-林子平
口試委員-黃瑞隆
中文關鍵字 建築室內  通風評估  CFD 數值模擬  通風潛力 
英文關鍵字 Building Interior  Ventilation Assessment  CFD  Ventilation Potential (VP) 
學科別分類
中文摘要 由於溫室效應的衝擊,促使節能減碳的意識提倡,在建築設計上運用自然通風的觀點備受重視,無論是以開窗手法、增設通風塔、改變平面配置等均是希望以執行自然通風、減少空調而達到節約能源的目的。
在過去建築相關法令對建築室內通風之規範,採逐一空間評估的計算,不但耗時耗力,更無法快速評判建築平面設計對於室內通風的整體效益。有鑑於此,自然通風潛力VP評估法以建築整體設計為出發點,從建築平面圖上繪製通風面積來進行室內通風之整體性評估,以便直接掌握建築空間配置對通風性能之特性。利用「電腦計算流體力學(Computational Fluid Dynamic,CFD)」模擬建築室內通風環境,比對此評估法之通風效益,提供可信度及修正建議,希冀其能有效運用在室內風場評估作業,節省繁雜的計算工作量,使之成為簡潔一體化的綜合評估方法。
主要研究內容如下:
一、CFD數值模擬
以一般住宅的空間平面案例,整理出七種常見的空間配置平面圖,藉由數值模擬軟體建立其住宅空間模型。藉由模擬結果得知,相對或相鄰兩側設置開口的平面設計,比較能夠達到對流效果,形成自然通風的條件,而同側開口的對流效果較不明顯。臥室空間因個人隱私屬於常態關閉,在此狀態模擬下,無明顯對流效果。室內封閉的空間、廊道過多也會導致整體通風效果降低。
二、自然通風潛力評估法
探討近年來國際的通風評估方式,根據自然通風潛力VP(Ventilation Potential)評估法,其為開窗位置與平面設計之條件所形成室內可自然通風面積與總居室面積的比例,評估七種空間案例的通風效益。透過數值模擬結果比對VP指數,相關係數為0.93,表示以VP值評估空間的通風效益用在實務面時是有其可行性參考。
英文摘要 SUMMARY

This research discussed ventilation assessment methods used in international as literature review. Under the new proposed ventilation specification by Professor Hsien-Te Lin, natural Ventilation Potential (VP) is the evaluation method which considered the two factors, opening position and graphic design, calculated the proportion of interior natural ventilation area and total area.
This research assessment seven kinds of space cases ventilation efficiency by calculated VP value and used Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models the case environment of ventilation, than compared to ventilation effects of VP technique. The outcome may offer its reliability and revise suggestions. Through discussion of this research, it is hoped that CFD may work out effectively in the field of interior ventilation assessment and saving the overloaded with complicated calculation, to make the assessment method become a simple and integration.
INTRODUCTION

Due to the impact of Green House Effect, the awareness of Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction has increased. The application of natural ventilation in architectural design point of view draws much attention, either in window open approach, ventilation tower addition or floor layout, etc. It is hoped to achieve the goal of Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction by carrying out natural ventilation and air conditioning stopped.

According to several Building Acts-related for indoor ventilation, calculation of space assessment individually is not only time-consuming, but also lack of fast assessments of graphic design for interior ventilation overall affection. Therefore, natural Ventilation Potential (VP) evaluation method is based on the building design point of view, the establishment of building plan which draws ventilation area to assess integral interior ventilation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This research compiled the basic characteristics of interior natural ventilation by through literature review. The two evaluation methods of ventilation divided residential space into the opposite side and the adjacent side. Beside above mentioned, the study also took the international ventilation assessment as reference. In the research, it took the standard of ventilation according to the two Building Act-related, The Building Sustainability Index (BASIX), Australia, and Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in hot summer and warm winter zone, Chinese, as a new reference.

It used CFD modelling seven common types of residential spaces. Consulting to several settings of wind flow area from the reference mentioned earlier to simulate the environment of interior ventilation. Under this circumstances, analysing the impact of integral natural ventilation in various types of plan. Then, the study established simulation data from various types of plan. However, using two techniques, CFD simulation and ventilation assessment calculated VP index of seven types of residential space. The results of this research came out by comparing and analying simulation results and VP index.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

According to the simulation results, it showed that openings at the opposite side or one adjacent to the other can achieve the effects of convention, forming a natural ventilation conditions. Further, the opening ventilation area in adjacent side is larger than opening at opposite side. The convention effects is less obvious than that when the openings at the same side. Bedroom spaces are more personally and generally closed. The simulation shows no significant convention effects under this circumstance. Therefore, the effects of convention will be reduced if enclosed space and corridor are over number.

As simulation results came out, the results showed that correlation coefficient was 0.93 (r=0.93) which compared with VP index. The outcome showed that VP can be a reference in a practical side when using that evaluates the ventilation effects.

In addition, in the calculation correction of VP index, it changed the depth calculation of opening windows area in adjacent side from 5m to 3m. A newly- adjusted VP index came out after changing. By comparing the new VP index and simulation results, the results after adjustment showed that r=0.9853 which means both techniques have highly correlation. Therefore, this research suggested that change depth calculation of opening widows in adjacent side from 5m to 3m may bring more realistic benefits to the ventilation effects by using VP assessment evaluate.

CONCLUSION

After carefully comparing the two results of both techniques, the outcome showed highly reliability. This research utilized VP assessment to evaluate interior natural ventilation, and also tried to make researcher understand several relevant characteristics of the wind fields. The purpose of the study is tried to make future designers may gain a basic and general idea of building interior ventilation environment without using any professional experiments or running simulations. Second, it is hoped that the research may provide a great opportunities as a reference to the future researchers or designers when in the stage of planning. Thus, the capability of interior natural ventilation can be utilized more effectively in further research.
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
1-1前言 1
1-2研究動機 2
1-3研究目的 3
1-4研究範圍與內容 4
1-5風場模擬文獻回顧 5
1-6研究流程 6
第二章 通風環境與通風評估 7
2-1 通風環境介紹 7
2-1-1風速與風向 7
2-1-2建築的自然通風 10
2-2國外室內通風評估法 11
2-2-1澳洲BASIX(Building Sustainability Index)評估法 12
2-2-2中國夏熱冬暖地區居住建築節能設計標準評估法 17
2-2-3評估法結論 19
2-3我國綠建築評估手冊EEWH評估法 20
2-3-1評估法介紹 20
2-3-2評估法檢討 22
2-4自然通風潛力VP評估法 22
2-4-1評估法內容 22
2-4-2評估法計算方式介紹 23
2-4-3評估法效益 28
第三章 理論基礎與數值模擬介紹 29
3-1 CFD計算流體力學 29
3-1-1 CFD研究方法介紹 29
3-1-2 CFD數值解析方法 31
3-1-3統御方程式 32
3-1-4紊流模型簡介 33
3-2 CFD數值模擬流程及數值設定 35
3-2-1 CFD數值模擬流程 35
3-2-2計算區域與邊界條件設定 36
3-2-3求解方法設定與離散方法 38
3-2-4鬆弛係數與收斂標準 39
3-2-5模擬模型介紹與網格設定 40
第四章 數值模擬與通風潛力VP值評估 43
4-1住宅類型空間數值模擬 43
4-2住宅類型空間通風潛力評估及分析 52
4-2-1通風潛力評估 52
4-2-2數值模擬與評估法比對 57
4-3通風潛力評估法修正 60
第五章 結論與建議 65
5-1 結論 65
5-2 後續研究建議 66
參考文獻 68
附錄一
參考文獻 一、中文文獻
1. 王文安、周伯丞、江哲銘、陳春榮,住宅空間通風效果之研究-廚房空氣環境之CFD 模擬解析,1997
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6. 江哲銘,建築物裡,三民書局,1997
7. 林憲德,建築碳排評估與診斷,詹氏書局,2014
8. 林憲德,人居熱環境,詹氏圖書,2009
9. 林憲德,綠色建築,詹氏書局,2006
10. 周伯丞,建築軀殼開口部自然通風效果之研究,,國立成功大學建築研究所博士論文,2000
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16. 賈力,解國珍,陳向東,室內氣流模擬過程中計算流體力學的紊流模型評價與選擇,製冷空調與電力機械,第02期,2005
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18. 趙福雲、湯廣發、劉娣、劉志強、王漢青,CFD數值模擬的系統誤差反饋及其實現,暖通空調,第6期,2004
19. 楊靖恆,以水洞實驗探討建築物自然通風,國立成功大學航空太空工程所碩士論文,2013
20. 劉姵君,中庭建築浮力通風評估之研究,國立成功大學建築所碩士論文,2007
21. 簡君翰,無動力太陽能通風塔能源效益解析─以綠色魔法學校國際會議廳為例,國立成功大學建築所碩士論文,2009
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二、英文文獻
1. ANSYS FLUENT 12.1 in Workbench User’s Guide, 2009.
2. Allard, F., Santamouris, M., (1998) Natural Ventilation in Buildings, Earthscan Publications Ltd.
3. Allocca, C., Chen, Q., Glicksman, L. R., (2003). Design analysis of single-sided natural ventilation, Energy and Buildings, Vol.35, No.8.785-795.
4. Etheridge, D., Sandberg, M., (1996). Building ventilation: Theory and measurement,John Wiley &Sons,England.
5. Hwang, R. L., Lin, T. P., (2007). Thermal comfort requirements for occupants of semi-outdoor and outdoor environments in hot-humid regions. Architectural Science Review, 50(4), 60-67.
6. Klaus, A. H., Steve, T. C., (1993).Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers Vol-1: Kansas,USA.
7. Launder, B. E., Spalding, D. B., (1974). The numerical computation of turbulent flows.Computer methods in applied mechanics mechanics and engineering,3(2),269-289.
8. The Building Sustainability Index (BASIX), www.basix.nsw.gov.au/
9. Yim, S. H. L., Fung, J. C. H., Lau, A. K. H., Kot, S. C., (2009). Air ventilation impacts of the “wall effect” resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings. Atmospheric environment,43(32),4982-4994.
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