||Impact of social factors on stress-produced responses and cocaine memory
||Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
Social factors play an important role in stress responses and drug abuse. Our previous report indicated that presence of male conspecifics throughout a stress procedure reversed the stress-induced decreases in dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis in male mice. These findings imply that 1) mouse DG neurogenesis is susceptible to stress and 2) presence of conspecifics can be used as an effective way of social support to attenuate certain stress-induced responses in mice. It was of interest to note that adult male and female animals exhibited differential degree of DG neurogenesis. Moreover, stress susceptibility and the prevalence of certain emotion disorders were variant in two sexes. This study was divided into two parts. First part was undertaken to assess sex differences and the modulating effects of gonad intactness and the estrous phase on basal and the stressor-decreased cell proliferation and early differentiation in Balb/C mouse dentate gyrus (DG). Besides, we compared the stress-reversing effects exerted by the presence of male and female Balb/C mouse odors in stressed male and female mouse DG in this regard. A number of social factors have been known to affect drug use and the development of drug dependence. Second part was undertaken to study whether the presence of a companion group may affect cocaine-produced hedonic effect by using cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in a mouse model. Three male conspecific cocaine-free or -treated mice in together served as a conspecific mice served as a companion group in this study. In the first part, the results indicated that sexual differences in baselines in the number of newly proliferative cells, neuroblasts, and the sensitivity to stress-altered neuronal lineage commitment in the DG could be, in part, due to gonadal hormone differences between the two sexes. Mouse odors may reverse stressor-decreased newly proliferative cells and neuroblasts in male, but not in female, mouse DG by restoring BDNF and NGF levels. In the second part, the results indicated that the presence of companions may attenuate cocaine-produced CPP possibly by decreasing cocaine-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
Table of Contents 6-7
I-1. Introduction 9-13
I-2. Materials and Methods 14-21
I-3.1 Sexual differences in basal and the stressor-induced decreases in newly cell proliferation and early neuronal differentiation 22
I-3.2 Basal and the stressor-decreased newly cell proliferation and early neuronal differentiation in the DG in OVX and sham surgical female mice 23
I-3.3 Basal and the stressor-decreased new cell proliferation and early neuronal differentiation in the DG in female mice at estrous phases 25
I-3.4 Basal and the stressor-decreased newly cell proliferation and early neuronal differentiation in the DG in TX and sham male mice 26
I-3.5 The protective effects associated with the company of mouse odors throughout the stressor in two sexes 27
I-3.6 DG BDNF and NGF levels and the presence of male, female odors and the stressor 30
I-4. Discussion 32-37
I-5. Conclusions 38
I-6. Figures 39-46
I-7. References 47-52
II-1. Introduction 53-55
II-2. Materials and Methods 56-62
II-3.1 The presence of saline-treated companions decreased experimental mice’ cocaine-induced CPP 63
II-3.2 The presence of cocaine-treated companions decreased experimental mice’ cocaine-induced CPP 64
II-3.3 The state-dependent learning did not contribute to the companions-decreased cocaine-induced CPP 65
II-3.4 The presence of companions did not affect the development of cocaine-produced sensitization in locomotor activity or rectal temperature 66
II-3.5 The presence of companions did not affect the cocaine-stimulated CORT secretion 67
II-3.6 The presence of decreased the magnitude of cocaine-induced CPP possibly by abolishing the cocaine-stimulated dopamine release 68
II-3.7 Cocaine pretreatment reverse the presence of saline-treated companions decreased experimental mice’ cocaine-induced CPP 69
II-4. Discussion 71-72
II-5. Conclusions 73
II-6. Figures 74-81
II-7. References 82-83
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