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系統識別號 U0026-2206201114533300
論文名稱(中文) 調節焦點與相互依賴對聯盟學習與績效之影響
論文名稱(英文) The Effects of Regulatory Focus and Interdependencies on Alliance Learning and Performance
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 企業管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Business Administration
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 陳亭吟
研究生(英文) Ting-Yin Chen
學號 r46984093
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 108頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳淑惠
口試委員-吳萬益
口試委員-張淑昭
中文關鍵字 調節焦點  相互依賴  組織學習  聯盟績效 
英文關鍵字 regulatory focus  interdependence  organizational learning  alliance performance 
學科別分類
中文摘要 為何組織會從事探索式聯盟或利用式聯盟?若同時致力於此兩種學習方式的聯盟在聯盟績效表現上會優於只從事探索式或利用式的聯盟嗎?為了回答這兩個研究問題,本研究整合兩種理論,調節焦點理論和資源依賴理論。具體來說,根據調節焦點理論,本研究認為促進焦點的組織傾向於在聯盟中從事探索式學習,而預防焦點的組織則傾向於從事利用式學習。另外,根據資源依賴理論,本研究預測當組織和夥伴處於不對等依賴關係時,傾向從事利用式學習;對等的依賴關係則會使組織從事探索式學習。本研究進一步整合兩種觀點於聯盟學習和績效上。
本研究採用2 (調節焦點 – 促進式、預防式) × 3 (相互依賴 – 低、中、高) 之實驗設計,針對台灣南區各大學EMBA學生進行研究。研究結果指出預防焦點的組織將會使用利用式學習,而促進焦點的組織會使用探索式學習,並創造更多聯盟績效。組織若同時具備促進焦點和對等的依賴關係將會使組織專注於提高創造性思考、交換價值資源;而組織若同時具備預防焦點和較低的依賴關係,將會採用利用式學習。本研究同樣發現緊密的夥伴關係、追求冒險、嘗試不同的事物有助於聯盟績效。又若組織同時採用高度的探索式學習及利用式學習,績效可能不及專注於任一學習方式的組織。
英文摘要 Why does an organization engage in exploration or exploitation alliance? Does ambidextrous alliance performs better than exploration and exploitation? This study integrates two theories, regulatory focus and resource dependence. Based on the concept of regulatory focus theory, this study posits that for an organization with promotion orientation, they tend to employ exploration learning for its alliance; while for prevention orientation, they tend to employ exploitation learning. Further, based on resource dependence theory, this study predicts that when an organization is asymmetrical dependencies toward its partners, they tend to employ exploration learning; while balanced dependencies drive the organization to employ exploitation learning. This study further integrates the two on alliance learning and performance.
The experiment between subject design, 2 (regulatory focus - promotion vs. prevention) × 3 (interdependencies - low vs. balanced vs. high) are conducted among EMBA students in Taiwan universities. The results indicate that prevention focus will lead to exploitation learning, while promotion focus will lead to exploration learning and more alliance performance. Promotion focus and balance dependence will lead firms focus on enhancing creative thinking, while when firms with prevention focus and more power than its partner, they tend to exploitation learning. Performance might not so good compare to when they allied using exploration or exploitation only rather than ambidextrous.
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT III
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VIII
LIST OF FIGURES X
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives and Conceptual Framework 4
1.3 Scope of study 5
1.4 Research Procedure 6
1.5 The Structure of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.1 Definition of Research Constructs 10
2.1.1 Organizational Learning 10
2.1.1.2 Exploration and Exploitation 13
2.1.1.3 Ambidexterity 13
2.1.2 Alliance Performance 15
2.1.3 Regulatory focus 18
2.1.4 Interdependence 21
2.2 Hypothesis Development 25
2.2.1 Relationship between Regulatory Focus and Organizational Learning 25
2.2.2 Relationship between Regulatory Focus and Alliance Performance 26
2.2.3 Relationship between Interdependence and Organizational Learning 27
2.2.4 Relationship between Interdependence and Alliance Performance 28
2.2.5 The Interaction of Regulatory Focus and Interdependence toward Learning 30
2.2.6 The Interaction of Regulatory Focus and Interdependence toward Alliance Performance 32
2.2.7 Relationship between Organizational Learning toward Alliance Performance 33
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Conceptual Framework 35
3.2 Hypotheses to be Tested 36
3.3 Research Design 37
3.4 Stimulus Development 38
3.4.1 Business Type Selection 39
3.5 Construct Measurement and Questionnaire Design 40
3.5.1 Manipulation Checks 41
3.5.2 Questionnaire Design 46
3.6 Pretest 46
3.6.1 Reliability and Validity of the Construct Measurement 47
3.6.2 Manipulation Checks 49
3.7 Sampling Process 50
3.8 Data Analysis Procedure 51
3.8.1 Descriptive Statistic Analysis 51
3.8.2 Purification and Reliability of the Measurement Variables 51
CHAPTER FOUR REASERCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 54
4.1 Descriptive Analysis 54
4.1.1 Data Collection 54
4.1.2 Characteristics of Respondents 55
4.1.3 Measurement Results for Relevant Research Variables 57
4.2 Manipulation Check in Main Study 58
4.3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test 60
4.3.1 Regulatory focus 60
4.3.2 Interdependence 62
4.3.3 Organizational Learning 64
4.3.4 Alliance Performance 66
4.4 Correlation Matrix for All Variables 67
4.5 Differences between Factors of Research Construct 68
4.5.1 The Effects of Regulatory Focus 68
4.5.2 The Effects of Interdependence 70
4.5.3 The Interaction Effects of regulatory focus and interdependence 71
4.5.3.1 Differences of organizational learning under regulatory focus and interdependence 71
4.5.3.2 Differences of alliance performance under regulatory focus and interdependence 74
4.6 Different type of organizational learning on alliance performance 76
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 78
5.1 Research Conclusion 78
5.2 Research Implication and Contributions 82
5.2.1 Academic Contribution 82
5.2.2 Managerial Implication 83
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions 85
REFERENCES 87
APPENDIX I: MANUPULATION 99
APPENDIX II: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 103

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1- 1 Scope of the Study 6
Table 2- 1 Definitions of Organization Learning 12
Table 2- 2 Measurements and Measurement Type for Alliance Performance 17
Table 2- 3 Related discuss of Interdependence 24
Table 3- 1 Summary of Hypotheses 36
Table 3- 2 Factorial Design 37
Table 3- 3 Measurements of Regulatory Focus 42
Table 3- 4 Measurements of Interdependence 44
Table 3- 5 Measurements of Organizational Learning 45
Table 3- 6 Measurements of alliance performance 46
Table 3- 7 Reliability Analysis of Pretest 48
Table 3- 8 Manipulation Check on Regulatory Focus 50
Table 3- 9 Manipulation Check on Interdependence 50
Table 4- 1 Characteristics of Respondents 56
Table 4- 2 Descriptive Analysis for Questionnaire Items 58
Table 4- 3 Manipulation Check on Regulatory focus in Main Test 59
Table 4- 4 Manipulation Check on Interdependence in the Main Test 60
Table 4- 5 Exploratory Factor Analysis for Regulatory focus 61
Table 4- 6 Exploratory Factor Analysis for Interdependence 63
Table 4- 7 Exploratory Factor Analysis for Organizational Learning 65
Table 4- 8 Exploratory Factor Analysis for Organizational Learning 66
Table 4- 9 Correlation Matrix for All Constructs 67

Table 4- 10 Results of Univariate Analysis of Variance for Type of Regulatory Focus 69
Table 4- 11 Results of Univariate Analysis of Variance for Interdependence 71
Table 4- 12 Comparison organizational learning among respondents with Regulatory Focus and Interdependence 72
Table 4- 13 Comparison alliance performance among respondents with Regulatory Focus and Interdependence 74
Table 4-14 Comparison alliance performance among respondents with organizational learning 77
Table 5- 1 Proofs of Hypotheses 80

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1- 1 The conceptual framework of this study 5
Figure 1- 2 The research procedure flow chart 7
Figure 2- 1 Psychological variables for promotion focus and prevention focus 20
Figure 3- 1 Conceptual framework 35
Figure 4- 1 The interaction effects between regulatory focus and interdependence on exploration and exploitation 72
Figure 4- 2 The interaction effects between regulatory focus and interdependence on alliance performance 75

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