進階搜尋


下載電子全文  
系統識別號 U0026-2206201103225600
論文名稱(中文) 倫理領導、倫理氣候、組織承諾與組織績效關係之研究-以定期海運業為例
論文名稱(英文) Ethical Leadership, Ethical Climate, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Performance in the Container Shipping Industry
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 交通管理學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Transportation & Communication Management Science
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 邱義泰
研究生(英文) Yi-Tai Chiu
學號 R56984118
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 177頁
口試委員 指導教授-呂錦山
口試委員-林珮珺
口試委員-楊清喬
中文關鍵字 定期海運業  倫理領導  倫理氣候  組織承諾  組織績效 
英文關鍵字 Container Shipping  Ethical Leadership  Ethical Climate  Organizational Commitment  Organizational Performance 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本研究在探討定期海運業倫理領導與倫理氣候對組織承諾與組織績效之影響。經由結構方程模式分析,結果發現「倫理領導」對「倫理氣候」有正向的影響,並進而影響到「組織績效」;「倫理領導」對「組織承諾」有正向的影響關係,進而影響到「組織績效」;「倫理氣候」對「組織承諾」有正向的影響關係,但「倫理領導」對「組織績效」的影響,在本研究中並沒有得到驗證支持,據此可知「倫理氣候」和「組織承諾」為「倫理領導」影響「組織績效」的中介效果。最後,根據結果提出相關之建議,以供定期海運業者作為提升企業倫理之參考。
英文摘要 The objective of this study is to examine the effects of ethical leadership, ethical climate on organizational commitment and organizational performance in the container shipping context. A structural equation modeling approach was employed in the study. Results indicated that ethical leadership had a positive effect on ethical climate and organizational commitment, whereas ethical climate has a positive influence on organizational commitment and organizational performance. However, the impact of ethical leadership on organizational performance was not supported in this study. Practical implications of the research findings for shipping companies were discussed.
論文目次 目錄 I
表目錄V
圖目錄IX
第一章 緒論1
1.1 研究背景與動機1
1.2 研究目的5
1.3 研究範圍與限制5
1.4 研究流程6
第二章 文獻回顧8
2.1 定期海運業簡介8
2.1.1 定期海運業之定義8
2.1.2 定期海運業之現況9
2.1.3 定期海運業之倫理準則11
2.2 倫理領導15
2.2.1 倫理領導定義及相關文獻15
2.2.2 倫理領導相關研究衡量構面18
2.3 倫理氣候20
2.3.1 倫理氣候之定義及相關文獻20
2.3.2 倫理氣候相關研究構面22
2.4 組織承諾25
2.4.1 組織承諾的定義25
2.4.2 組織承諾的類型28
2.5 組織績效31
2.5.1 組織績效的意義31
2.5.2 組織績效的衡量構面32
2.6 小結35
第三章 研究方法36
3.1 研究架構與假設36
3.1.1 研究架構36
3.1.2 研究假設37
3.2 變項之操作性定義及衡量43
3.2.1 倫理領導43
3.2.2 倫理氣候43
3.2.3 組織承諾45
3.2.4 組織績效46
3.3 研究設計47
3.3.1 調查方法47
3.3.2 問卷設計48
3.3.3 問卷內容49
3.4 資料分析方法與應用49
3.4.1 樣本回收之無回應偏差檢定49
3.4.2 敘述性統計分析50
3.4.3 因素分析50
3.4.4 信度與效度分析51
3.4.5 變異數分析52
3.4.6 驗證性因素分析52
3.4.7 結構方程模式53
3.5 小結56
第四章 定期海運業倫理領導、倫理氣候、組織承諾與組織績效關係分析結果58
4.1 回收樣本之基本敘述統計分析58
4.1.1 問卷回收概況58
4.1.2 樣本回收之無回應偏差檢定59
4.1.3 基本資料敘述統計分析63
4.1.4 倫理領導、倫理氣候、組織承諾與組織績效敘述統計分析68
4.2 倫理領導、倫理氣候、組織承諾與組織績效之因素分析與信度分析74
4.2.1 倫理領導問項因素分析與信度分析74
4.2.2 倫理氣候問項因素分析與信度分析76
4.2.3 組織承諾問項因素分析與信度分析82
4.2.4 組織績效問項因素分析與信度分析87
4.3 樣本特性與因素構面之變異數分析89
4.3.1 填答者不同性別與各因素構面之變異數分析89
4.3.2 填答者不同年齡與各因素構面之變異數分析90
4.3.3 填答者不同教育程度與各因素構面之變異數分析92
4.3.4 填答者不同職稱與各因素構面之變異數分析92
4.3.5 公司經營型態與各因素構面之變異數分析93
4.3.6 公司所有權型態與各因素構面之變異數分析95
4.3.7 員工服務年資與各因素構面之變異數分析96
4.3.8 公司成立年資與各因素構面之變異數分析97
4.3.9 公司員工人數與各因素構面之變異數分析99
4.3.10 公司營業額與各因素構面之變異數分析100
4.3.11 部門別與各因素構面之變異數分析102
4.4 相關分析103
4.5 驗證性因素分析105
4.5.1 倫理領導構面驗證性因素分析與校估105
4.5.2 倫理氣候構面驗證性因素分析與校估108
4.5.3 組織承諾構面驗證性因素分析與校估115
4.5.4 組織績效構面驗證性因素分析與校估119
4.5.5 各構面之收斂效度分析121
4.5.6 各構面之區別效度分析124
4.6 結構方程模式分析結果126
4.6.1 結構方程模式(SEM)建立126
4.6.2 模式驗證129
4.6.3 結構方程模式分析與校估131
4.6.4 結構方程模式假設驗證135
4.6.5 中介效果驗證138
4.7 小結144
第五章 結論與建議146
5.1 結論146
5.2 建議151
5.3 後續研究152
參考文獻154
一、中文部分154
二、英文部分156
三、網站資料166
附錄一 正式問卷167
附錄二 專家訪談172
參考文獻 參考文獻
一、中文部分
1.方妙玲,「倫理領導、信任、個人需求實現對組織承諾的影響」,企業管理學報,第74期,民國96年,頁1-40。
2.王佳琪,「倫理領導與領導者-成員交換關係品質及組織公民行為間關係之研究」,台灣科技大學技術及職業教育研究所碩士論文,民國97年。
3.王鳳生、蔡豐隆,「企業倫理氣候、倫理行為與企業社會績效」,亞太經濟管理評論,第6卷,第2期,民國92年,頁103-119。
4.古永嘉與楊雪蘭編譯,Cooper, D.R., Schindler, P.S.,著,「企業研究方法」,第十版,台北:華泰書局,民國98年。
5.吳成豐,「企業倫理的實踐」,初版,台北:前程企業管理有限公司,民國91年。
6.吳成豐、黃莉雅,「倫理領導、組織公民行為與組織績效之相關研究-以服務業、製造業為例」,經營管理論叢第一屆管理與決策2005年學術研討會特刊,民國94年,頁71-78。
7.李其芳、吳秉恩,「企業倫理政策、倫理氣候與組織績效關係之研究」,管理學報,第16卷,第2期,民國88年,頁201-230。
8.李茂能,「結構方程模式軟體Amos之簡介及其在測驗編製上之應用-Graphics & Basic」,初版,台北:心理出版社,民國95年
9.李德治、童惠玲,「多變量分析:專題及論文常用的統計方法」,初版,台北:雙葉書廊有限公司,民國98年。
10.林光、張志清,「航運業經營與管理」,第五版,台北:航貿文化事業有限公司,民國95年
11.林震岩,「多變量分析:SPSS的操作與應用」,再版,台北:智勝文化,民國96年。
12.莊立民、鍾鎔駿,「創業導向、倫理氣候與組織績效關聯性之研究:以銀行業為例」,創業管理研究,第3卷,第2期,民國97年,頁29-60。
13.陳美華、許銘珊、蔡明達,「連鎖飯店倫理氣候、組織承諾與組織公民行為之實證研究」,觀光旅遊研究學刊,第4卷,第2期,民國98年,頁55-68。
14.陳順宇,「多變量分析」,第四版,台北:華泰書局,民國94年。
15.陳順宇,「結構方程模式Amos操作」,初版,台北:心理出版社,民國96年。
16.曾柔鶯,「領導型態、企業文化與企業績效關係之研究-以企業倫理氣候為中介變項」,臺灣土地金融季刊,第36卷,第4期,民國88年,頁35-58。
17.楊家豪,「海運業基本資料」,台灣經濟研究院產經資料庫,民國99年7月9日。
18.楊祺弘,「組織特性、倫理氣候與組織績效相關性之研究-以鋼鐵業為例」,長榮大學經營管理研究所碩士論文,民國96年。
19.葉桂珍,「道德倫理觀與組織承諾、工作滿意度及離職意向之關係研究」,中山管理評論,第3卷,第3期,民國84年,頁15-29。
20.黎正中譯,Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, L.,著,「企業倫理:倫理決策訂定與案例」,第七版,台北:華泰書局,民國97年。
21.戴久永、劉祥得、吳怡得,「倫理氣候影響工作績效與離職意圖之研究」,經營管理論叢2009第三屆管理與決策學術研討會特刊,民國98年,頁157-173。

二、英文部分
1.Allen, N.J., Grisaffe, D.B., 2001. Employee commitment to the organization and customer reactions mapping the linkages. Human Resource Management Review 11(3), 209-236.
2.Allen, N.J., Meyer, J.P., 1990. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63, 1-18.
3.Allen, N.J., Meyer, J.P., 1996. Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: an examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior 49(3), 252-276.
4.Armstrong, J.S., Overton, T.S., 1977. Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research 14(3), 396-402.
5.Angle, H.L., Perry, J.L., 1981. An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly 26, 1-14.
6.Bandura, A., 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
7.Babin, B.J., Boles, J.S., Robin, D.P., 2000. Representing the perceived ethical work climate among marketing employees. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28(3), 345-358.
8.Barnett, T., Vaicys, C., 2000. The moderating effect of individuals’ perceptions of ethical work climate on ethical judgments and behavioral intentions. Journal of Business Ethics 27, 351-362.
9.Benkhoff, B., 1997. Ignoring commitment is costly: new approaches establish the missing link between commitment and performance. Human Relations 50(6), 701-725.
10.Blau, P., 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. John Wiley, New York.
11.Brown, M.E., Treviño, L.K., Harrison, D.A., 2005. Ethical leadership: a social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97(2), 117-134.
12.Brown, M.E., Treviño, L.K., 2006. Ethical leadership: a review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly 17(6), 595-616.
13.Cullen, J.B., Parboteeah, K.P., Victor, B., 2003. The effects of ethical climates on organizational commitment: a two-study analysis. Journal of Business Ethics 46(2), 127-141.
14.Dalton, D.R., Todor, W.D., Spendolini, M.J., Fielding, G.J., Porter, L.W., 1980. Organization structure and performance: a critical review. Academy of Management Review 5(1), 49-64.
15.De Hoogh, A.H.B., Den Hartog, D.N., 2008. Ethical and despotic leadership, relationship with leader’s social responsibility, top management team effectiveness and subordinates’ optimism: a multi-method study. The Leadership Quarterly 19(3), 297-311.
16.Deshpande, S.P., Joseph, J., 2009. Impact of emotional intelligence, ethical climate, and behavior of peers on ethical behavior of nurses. Journal of Business Ethics 85, 403-410.
17.Dickson, M.W., Smith, D.B., Grojean, M.W., Ehrhart, M., 2001. An organizational climate regarding ethics: the outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. The Leadership Quarterly 12(2), 197-217.
18.Doll, W.J., Xia, W., Torkzadeh, G., 1994. A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument. MIS Quarterly 18(4), 453-461.
19.Elbanna, S., Child, J., 2007. Influences on strategic decision effectiveness: development and test of an integrative model. Strategic Management Journal 28, 431-453.
20.Elçi, M., Alpkan, L., 2009. The impact of perceived organizational ethical climate on work satisfaction. Journal of Business Ethics 84(3), 297-311.
21.Felfe, J., Heinitz, K., 2010. The impact of consensus and agreement of leadership perceptions on commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and customer satisfaction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 19(3), 279-303.
22.Fraj-Andrés, E., Martinez-Salinas, E., Matute-Vallejo, J., 2009. A multidimensional approach to the influence of environmental marketing and orientation on the firm’s organizational performance. Journal of Business Ethics 88(2), 263-286.
23.Ford, J.D., Schellenberg, D.A., 1982. Conceptual issue of linkage in the assessment of organizational performance. Academy of Management Review 7(1), 49-58.
24.Fugate, B.S., Stank, T.P., Mentzer, J.T., 2009. Linking improved knowledge management to operational and organizational performance. Journal of Operations Management 27, 247-264.
25.González, T.F., Guillén, M., 2008. Organizational commitment: a proposal for a wider ethical conceptualization of ‘normative commitment’. Journal of Business Ethics 78(3), 401-414.
26.Gonzalez-Padron, T., Hult, G.T., Calantone, R., 2008. Exploiting innovative opportunities in global purchasing: an assessment of ethical climate and relationship performance. Industrial Marketing Management 37(1), 69-82.
27.Hair, J.F.Jr., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., 2010. Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
28.Hair, J.F.Jr., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., 2006. Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
29.Hubbard, G., 2009. Measuring organizational performance: beyond the triple bottom line. Business Strategy and the Environment 18(3), 177-191.
30.Hunt, S.D., Wood, V.R., Chonko, L.B., 1989. Corporate ethical values and organizational commitment in marketing. Journal of Marketing 53(3), 79-90.
31.Iacobucci, D., Churchill, G.A.Jr., 2010. Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, 10th ed. South-Western, Canada.
32.Ittner, C.D., Larcker, D.F., 1997. Quality strategy, strategic control systems, and organizational performance. Accounting Organizations and Society 22, 293-314.
33.Jaros, S.J., Jermier, J.M., Koehler, J.W., Sincich, T., 1993. Effects of continuance, affective, and moral commitment on the withdrawal process: an evaluation of eight structural equation models. Academy of Management Journal 36(5), 951-995.
34.Johari, J., 2003. The influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment on performance. Journal of Management Development 22(8), 708-728.
35.Kaiser, H.F.,1974. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.
36.Kaplan, R.S., 1983. Measuring manufacturing performance: a new challenge for managerial accounting research. The Accounting Review 58(4), 686-704.
37.Kaplan, R.S., Norton, D.P., 1992. The balanced scorecard-measures that drive performance. Harvard Business Review 70(1), 71-79.
38.Kelly, S.W., Dorsch, M.J., 1991. Ethical climate, organizational commitment, and indebtedness among purchasing executives. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management 11, 55-66.
39.Kerr, S., Jermier, J.M., 1978. Substitutes for leadership: their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 22, 375-403.
40.Khuntia, R., Suar, D., 2004. A scale to assess ethical leadership of Indian private and public sector managers. Journal of Business Ethics 49(1), 13-26.
41.Kim, N.Y., Miller, G., 2008. Perceptions of the ethical climate in the Korean tourism industry. Journal of Business Ethics 82(4), 941-954.
42.Kushman, J.W., 1992. The organizational dynamics of teacher workplace commitment: a study of urban elementary and middle schools. Educational Administration Quarterly 28(1), 5-42.
43.Lambert, D.M., Harrington, T.C., 1990. Measuring nonresponse bias in customer service mail surveys. Journal of Business Logistics 11(2), 5-25.
44.Luria, G., Yagil, D., 2008. Procedural justice, ethical climate and service outcomes in restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management 27(2), 276-283.
45.Luthans, F., Mccaul, H.S., Dodd, N.G., 1985. Organizational commitment: a comparison of American, Japanese, and Korean employees. Academy of Management Journal 28(1), 213-219.
46.Mathieu, J.E., Zajac, D.M., 1990. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin 108(2), 171-194.
47.Mayer, D.M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., Salvador, R., 2009. How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 108(1), 1-13.
48.Mayer, D.M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R.L., 2010. Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct: the mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics 95, 7-16.
49.Mayer, R.C., Schoorman, F.D., 1992. Predicting participation and production outcomes through a two-dimensional model of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal 35(3), 671-684.
50.McCann, J., Holt, R., 2009. Ethical leadership and organizations: an analysis of leadership in the manufacturing industry based on the perceived leadership integrity scale. Journal of Business Ethics 87(2), 211-220.
51.Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J., 1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1(1), 61-89.
52.Meyer, J.P., Herscovitch, L., 2001. Commitment in the workplace toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review 11(3), 299-326.
53.Mowday, R.T., Porter, L.W., Steer, R.M., 1982. Employee-organization Linkages. Academic Press, New York.
54.Mowday, R.T., Steer, R.M., Porter, L.W., 1979. The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior 14(2), 224-247.
55.Morgan, R.M., Hunt, S.D., 1994. The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing 58, 20-38.
56.Mulki, J.P., Jaramilo, J.F., Locander, W.B., 2008. Effect of ethical climate on turnover intention: linking attitudinal- and stress theory. Journal of Business Ethics 78, 559-574.
57.Neubert, M.J., Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., Roberts, J.A., Chonko, L.B., 2009. The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behavior: evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics 90(2), 157-170.
58.Okpara, J.O., Wynn, P., 2008. The impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction, and commitment in Nigeria implications for management development. Journal of Management Development 27(9), 935-950.
59.O’Reily, C.A., Chatman, J., 1986. Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: the effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 71(3), 492-499.
60.Paulraj, A., Lado, A.A., Chen, I.J., 2008. Inter-organizational communication as a relational competency: antecedents and performance outcomes in collaborative buyer-supplier relationships 26, 45-46.
61.Penley, L.E., Gould, S., 1988. Etzioni’s model of organizational involvement: a perspective for understanding commitment to organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior 9(1), 43-59.
62.Piccolo, R.F., Greenbaum, R., Den Hartog, D.N., Folger, R., 2010. The relationship between ethical leadership and core job characteristics. Journal of Organizational Behavior 31(2), 259-278.
63.Porter, L.W., Steers, R.M., Mowday, R.T., Boulian, P.V., 1974. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology 59(5), 603-609.
64.Reilly B.J., Kyj, M.J., 1990. Ethical business and the ethical person. Business Horizons 33(6), 23-27.
65.Richard, J.P., Devinney, T.M., Yip, G.S., Johnson, G., 2009. Measuring organizational performance: towards methodological best practice. Journal of Management 35(3), 718-804.
66.Rubin, R.S., Dierdorff, E.C., Brown, M.E., 2010. Do ethical leader get ahead? Exploring ethical leadership and promotability. Business Ethics Quarterly 20(2), 215-236.
67.Saini, A., Martin, K.D., 2009. Strategic risk-taking propensity: the role of ethical climate and marketing output control. Journal of Business Ethics 90(4), 593-606.
68.Sama, L.M., Shoaf, V., 2008. Ethical leadership for the professions: fostering a moral community. Journal of Business Ethics 78, 39-46.
69.Schminke, M., Ambrose, M.L., Neubaum, D.O., 2005. The effect of leader moral development on ethical climate and employee attitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97(2), 135-151.
70.Schneider, B., 1975. Organizational climates: an essay. Personnel Psychology 28, 447-479.
71.Schwepker, C.H.Jr., 2001. Ethical climate’s relationship to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in the salesforce. Journal of Business Research 54(1), 39-52.
72.Seyal, A.H., Rahman, M.N., Rahim M.M., 2002. Determinants of academic use of the Internet: a structural equation model. Behaviour & Information Technology 21(1), 71-86.
73.Snow, C.C., Hrebiniak, L.G., 1980. Strategy, distinctive competence, and organizational performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 25(2), 317-336.
74.Steyrer, J., Schiffinger, M., Lang, R., 2008. Organizational commitment-a missing link between leadership behavior and organizational performance?. Scandinavian Journal of Management 24(4), 364-374.
75.Thomas, T., Schermerhorn, J.R.Jr., Dienhart, J.W., 2004. Strategic leadership of ethical behavior in business. Academy of Management Executive 18(2), 56-66.
76.Toor, S.R., Ofori, G., 2009. Ethical leadership: examining the relationships with full range leadership model, employee outcomes, and organizational culture. Journal of Business Ethics 90(4), 533-547.
77.Treviño, L.K., Butterfield, K.D., McCabe, D., 1998. The ethical context in organizations: influences on employee attitudes and behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly 8(3), 447-476.
78.Treviño, L.K., Hartman, L.P., Brown, M., 2000. Moral person and moral manager: how executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review 42(4), 128-142.
79.Tsai, M.T., Huang, C.C., 2008. The relationship among ethical climate types, facets of job satisfaction, and three components of organizational commitment: a study of nurses in Taiwan. Journal of Business Ethics 80(3), 565-581.
80.Venkatraman, N., Ramanujam, V., 1986. Measurement of business performance in strategy research: a comparison of approaches. Academy of Management Review 11(4), 801-814.
81.Verchoor, C.C., 1998. A study of the link between a corporation’s financial performance and its commitment to ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 17(13), 1509-1516.
82.Victor, B., Cullen, J.B., 1988. The organizational bases of ethical work climates. Administrative Science Quarterly 33(1), 101-125.
83.Weeks, A.W., Loe, T.W., Chonko, L.L., Wakefield, K. 2005. The effect of perceived ethical climate on the search for sales force excellence. Journal of Personal Selling & Management 24(3), 199-214.
84.Walumbwa, F.O., Schaubroeck, J., 2009. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology 94(5), 1275-1286
85. Wiener, Y., 1982. Commitment in organization: a normative view. Academy of Management Review 7(3), 418-428.
86.Wu, C.F., 2006. The study of the relations among ethical considerations, family management and organizational performance in corporate governance. Journal of Business Ethics 68(2), 165-179.
87.Wright, P.M., Gardner, T.M., Moynihan, L.M., 2003. The impact of hr practices on the performance of business units. Human Resource Management Journal 13(3), 21-36.
88.Zhu, W., May, D.R., Avolio, B.J., 2004. The impact of ethical leadership behavior on employee outcomes: the roles of psychological empowerment and authenticity. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 11(1), 16-26.

三、網站資料
1.BRS-Alphaliner網站:http://www.alphaliner.com/top100
2.人民網:http://www.people.com.cn
3.日本川崎汽船:http://www.kline.com/
4.麥司克-海陸網站:http://www.maersklinelimited.com
5.陽明海運網站:http://www.yangming.com.tw/chinese_version/index.asp
6.商船三井網站:http://www.maersklinelimited.com
7.朝日新聞社網站:http://www.asahi.com
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2013-06-29起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2014-06-29起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw