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系統識別號 U0026-2204201920004200
論文名稱(中文) 使用麥克風陣列設計與實作聲音來源定位機制
論文名稱(英文) Design and Implementation of Sound Source Positioning Mechanism Using Microphone Array
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系碩士在職專班
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science (on the job class)
學年度 107
學期 1
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 劉子維
研究生(英文) Tzu-Wei Liu
學號 N97051036
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 38頁
口試委員 指導教授-侯廷偉
召集委員-席家年
口試委員-鄧維光
口試委員-林志敏
口試委員-楊竹星
中文關鍵字 聲音來源定位  麥克風陣列  到達時間差法  波束成型法  機器人 
英文關鍵字 sound source location  microphone array  TDOA  Beamforming method  robot 
學科別分類
中文摘要 聲音來源判別是機器人一個重要的功能如果能夠準確的判別聲音來源就可以增加機器人所能夠提供的功能。以災難反應機器人或室內服務機器人為例,透過聲音來源方向的判別,可以讓機器人轉向音源,通常是需要救援或是服務的人,並朝向音源方向移動。本論文使用麥克風陣列以判別聲音來源的方向與角度,並用到達時間差法(Time Difference Of Arrival, TDOA)與波束成形法(Beamforming)以計算聲音來源角度,並比較兩種方法的結果的誤差與使用的時間。比較結果顯示波束成型法所需計算時間遠多於到達時間差法。目前使用三個麥克風為主要的陣列,實驗在160 cm x 160 cm以及 240 cm x 240 cm 的範圍內,以手機播放聲音來當作聲源加以測試。使用TDOA法,前者之誤差角度在0.2%~8.2%區間,後者之誤差角度在0.8%~4.75%區間。使用波束成型法所計算之誤差角度在0~10%之間與使用TDOA法比較起來沒有太大差別。
英文摘要 Identifying the direction of some sound source is one of the important issues in developing robots. Taking a disaster response robot or a home-service robot as an example, as the direction of the sound source, which would be a person, is determined, it could turn its direction to face and move toward the person.

This research used the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) method and the Beamforming method, separately and compared the calculation results of the sound source angle and the computation time. We found that TDOA saves more computation time than the latter. The receiver of the sound source is a microphone array. Three microphones are used as the main array. The experiments were conducted in the range of 160cm x 160 cm and 240cm x 240 cm. A mobile phone kept broadcasting music served as the sound source. The error angle of the former is between 0.2% and 8.2%, and the error angle of the latter is between 0.8% and 4.75%.The error angle calculated by the Beamforming method is between 0 and 10%, which is not much different from the TDOA method.
論文目次 摘要 I
Extended Abstract II
誌謝 VII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII
第一章、緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與背景 1
1-2 研究目的 1
1-3 研究貢獻 2
第二章、文獻探討 3
2-1 到達時間差法(Time Difference of Arrival; TDOA) 3
2-1-1 時間差計算 4
2-1-2 角度計算 7
2-2 波束成型(Beamforming) 7
2-3 高分辨率譜估計的方法 9
第三章、系統設計與架構 11
3-1 系統設計 11
3-1-1 聲音來源角度計算 12
3-1-2 履帶車控制 19
3-1-3 控制介面 21
3-2 實驗方法 22
第四章、實驗結果 23
4-1 測試結果 23
第五章、結論與未來工作 31
參考文獻 [1] C. Knapp, G. Carter, "The Generalized Correlation Method For Estimation of
Time Delay", IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, 1976, Vol. 24, no. 4,
pp. 1320 - 1323
[2] Daniele Salvati, Carlo Drioli, Gian Luca Foresti, "Sound Source and
Microphone Localization from Acoustic Impulse Responses", IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 2016, Vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1459 – 1463
[3] Dongsuk Yook, Taewoo Lee, Youngkyu Cho ,"Fast Sound Source
Localization Using Two-Level Search Space Clustering", IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 2015, Vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 20 – 26
[4] Hung-Yan Gu, Shan-Siang Yang, "A Sound-Source Localization System
Using Three-Microphone Array and Cross-power Spectrum Phase", Proc. of International Conference on Machine Learning, 2012, pp. 15-17, Xian, China
[5] Jiri Tuma, Patrik Janecka, Milan Vala and Lukas Richter, "Sound
Source Localization", Proc. of International Carpathian Control Conference, 2012, pp. 28-31, High Tatras, Slovakia
[6] Jacob Benesty, Jingdong Chen, Yiteng Huang, “Microphone Array Signal
Processing”, Springer Verlag, 2008, Chapter 03, Berlin, Germany
[7] Jacob Benesty, Jingdong Chen, Yiteng Huang, “Microphone Array Signal
Processing”, Springer Verlag, 2008, Chapter09, Berlin, Germany
[8] Yanwen Li, Huawei Chen, "Reverberation Robust Feature Extraction for
Sound Source Localization Using a Small-Sized Microphone Array",
IEEE Sensors Journal, 2017, Vol. 17, no. 19, pp.6331 – 6339
[9] Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary, Subir Verma, Anshu Aditya, "Sound Source
Localization using GCC-PHAT with TDOA Estimation", Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research, 2014, Vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 54-58
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