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系統識別號 U0026-2201201810302400
論文名稱(中文) 應屆畢業護生老人長期照護護理能力與意願之研究:全國性調查研究
論文名稱(英文) Geriatric Long Term Care Nursing Competencies and Willingness to Serve among Final-Year Nurse Students from Difference School Systems: A National Survey
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 護理學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Nursing
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 謝佩倫
研究生(英文) Pei-Lun Hsieh
學號 TA8031054
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 179頁
口試委員 指導教授-陳靜敏
召集委員-陳清惠
口試委員-李怡娟
口試委員-黃芳銘
口試委員-蘇佩芳
中文關鍵字 護生  人長期照護  護理能力  意願 
英文關鍵字 nursing students  geriatric long term care  nursing competencies  willingness to serve 
學科別分類
中文摘要 背景 面臨老年人口快速增加,導致長期照護需求日益劇增明顯,強化專業照護人員投入老人長期照護領域為我國推動長期照顧政策之重要策略,因此應了解護理應屆畢業生具備之老人長期照護專業護理能力,期使投入未來護理就業職場。
研究目的 探討大學及技專校院不同學制護理科系應屆畢業學生於老人長期照護護理能力現況及意願之影響因素。
研究方法 採橫斷式研究設計,研究對象為不同學制護理科系應屆畢業學生。研究工具為自擬結構式問卷,內容包括「個人屬性資料」、「老人長期照護現況¬」含老人長期照護知識、實習經驗及修課情形、「老人長期照護服務意願」及「老人長期照護護理能力」等四大部份,經專家內容效度與內在一致性測試與修正後,進而採紙本問卷調查各大學及技專校院不同學制護理科系應屆畢業學生,共發出1,010份問卷,回收有效樣本共949份,回收率為93.96%。以SPSS 17.0軟體進行資料建檔,使用t-test、單因子變異數分析、卡方檢定、皮爾森相關性分析、Spearman’s Rho等級相關分析與多元回歸等分析。
結果 本研究對象89.8%為女性,平均年齡為20.95歲,過去經常與長者接觸但較少有機會與失能或身心障礙者接觸。在老人長期照護現況分析,在知識部分,滿分15分,平均得分為9.18±0.43分,以專科學制者得分最低(8.9±0.26)。各學制間的實習經驗平均得分在2.99的實習經驗,以專科學制研究對象的實習經驗得分(3.04±0.49)高於其他學制。在修課情形,有75.7%研究對象曾修過老人護理相關課程,46.6%研究對象曾修過長期照護課程,課程多安排在高年級,以選修課程居多。有63.5%研究對象表示在求學期間對老人長期照護是「尚有興趣」。在老人長期照護服務意願部分,平均得分為2.88±0.67,趨近於「同意」,研究對象認為當老人或失能長者有健康問題時會樂意為其解決問題,且認為老人長期照護工作是專業且具有成就感的,但會因為老人長期照護職場環境或政策不明、個人特質、老人長期照護工作待遇福利差等,而不想投入老人長期照護服務的場域。在老人長期照護護理能力總得分平均為3.18±0.52,介於「同意」與「非常同意」之間,顯示護生對老人長期照護個案具備倫理觀念、能評估其生活環境與需求,能適時代言並提供緩和治療與臨終關懷照護等能力較佳;但在運用老人長期照護相關照護模式及介入執行能力顯不足,在領導與團隊上溝通能力上亦自覺較不足夠。進一步進行相關性分析發現,護理能力與年齡、老人長期照護知識呈負相關,但與實習經驗及修課情形呈正相關。進行各學制分析發現,專科生曾有跟失能者同住經驗者、老人長期照護知識與護理能力呈負相關。一般大學學生在老人長期照護護理能力與修課經驗呈正相關。專科及與四技學生的老人長期照護實習經驗及修課情形,與護理能力有顯著正相關。老人長期照護服務意願與年齡、學制呈負相關,但與老人同住經驗頻率、實習經驗及修課情形呈正相關。透過多元回歸分析老人長期照護現況、個人屬性、服務意願對老人長期照護護理能力的預測力,結果發現發現學制(B=-0.03)、與失能或身心障礙者同住經驗(B=-0.03) 、老人長期照護知識(B=-0.01)、實習經驗(B=0.05)及修課情形(B=0.07)為主要的預測因子,解釋力為10%。此外,多元回歸分析老人長期照護服務意願的預測力,結果發現發現學制(B=-0.02)、老人長期照護知識(B=0.01)、實習經驗(B=0.02)、修課情形(B=0.21)及護理能力(B=0.12)為主要的預測因子,解釋力為23%。
討論 本研究藉由瞭解不同學制應屆畢業護生老人長期照護能力現況及應具備之長期照護能力及意願相關要素,以期提供未來護理學生或新進護理人員在老人長期照護專業發展之建議。在護理養成教育中,建議各級護理學校應將老人長期照護列為必修課程,增進護理學生之知能,透過老人長期照護場域的實習經驗,增進護理生對老人及失能者接觸頻率,以提升護理應屆畢業生投身老人長期照護之意願。
英文摘要 Background: As facing the rapid growth of the elderly population, the demands for long-term care are drastically increasing. The important strategy for Taiwan in preparation for long-term care policy is to focus on the engagement of long-term care professionals. Therefore, there is a need to understand the final-year nursing students’ nursing competencies in Geriatric Long Term Care (GLTC) in the hope of their involvement in the future care for geriatric and disable needs.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nursing students’ GLTC nursing competencies, willingness to serve and its influential factors among the final year of the Department of Nursing from different school systems.
Method: A cross-sectional design was used, and the subjects were the student nurse (SN) in the Department of Nursing from different school systems. The research instruments were the self-developed structured questionnaire included: the current situations of GLTC including GLTC-related knowledge, practicum experience and GLTC-related course taking status, willingness to serve in GLTC, and GLTC nursing competence. A Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) sampling strategy was used to collect data from the Department of Nursing of universities and technical vocational colleges. A total of 1,010 questionnaires were distributed and 949 valid questionnaires were returned, with the response rate of 93.96%. The data were analyzed use SPSS version 17, and t-test, one-way ANOVA, Person’s correlation and Spearman’s rho rank correlation coefficient were used for correlation analysis. Multiple regression with enter method was adopted to predict the significant factors influencing the nursing students’ GLTC nursing competencies and willingness to serve.
Results: 89.8% of the subjects in this study were females, with an average age of 20.95 years. Majority of SN had frequent contacts with the elderly but seldom had the opportunities to know disabled people. In terms of the current status of GLTC, the average score in knowledge was 9.18 ±0.43 out of 15, with the junior college students scored the lowest (8.9±0.26). The mean score of the practicum experiences from all subjects was 2.99±0.53, and the junior college system scored higher (3.04±0.49) than
other school systems. 75.7% of the subjects had taken geriatric nursing related courses while 46.6% had taken long-term care nursing courses, and the courses were mostly provided as elective ones in their senior years. In terms of the willingness to serve in GLTC, students ranked close to “Agree” (2.88±0.67). The subjects would be willing to solve the health problems for the elderly or disabled elders and regarded GLTC nursing work was a profession, but they might not want to work in the GLTC settings due to unclear GLTC nursing working environment and ambiguous policies, personal characteristics, or low salary and few welfare benefits. The mean score in GLTC nursing competence was 3.18±0.52, between “Agree” and “Strongly Agree”, showing that the nursing students had adequate competence in ethical, could assess client’s living environment and needs, and had better competencies in timely advocate and the provision of palliative treatment and hospice care; however, the competence in GLTC-related care models and implementation of the intervention was insufficient, and they also had lower self-perception of leadership and group communication abilities. Further correlational analysis showed that the GLTC-related nursing competencies were negatively correlated with age and GLTC-related knowledge, yet positively correlated with the practicum experience and the related course taking status. It was found in the analysis of the different school systems that for the junior college students, having the experience living with the disabled, and the GLTC-related knowledge were negatively correlated with their nursing competence. GLTC-related course taking status and the nursing competence were positively correlated for students in general universities (GU). For students in junior colleges and 4-year colleges (4-y C), their GLTC practicum experiences and GLTC-related course taking status were significantly correlated with their nursing competencies. The willingness to serve in GLTC were negatively correlated with age and school system while positively correlated with the experience living with the elderly people, practicum experience and the related course taking status. Through regression analysis, “ School system” (B=-0.03), “Experiences living with the disabled” (B=-0.03), “GLTC-related knowledge” (B=-0.01), “Practicum experiences” (B=0.05) and “GLTC-related course taking status” (B=0.07) were significant predictors for competency which can explain 10% of the variance. In addition, the major predictive factors of the willingness to serve in GLTC included “School system” (B=-0.02), “GLTC-related knowledge” (B=0.01), “Practicum experiences” (B=0.02), “GLTC-related course taking status” (B=0.21) and “Nursing competence” (B=0.12), with 23% of the explanatory power.
Conclusions: This study aimed to understand the current status of and the influential factors for the nursing competence and willingness to serve in GLTC among the final-year nursing students from different school systems to provide suggestions for the nursing students or new nursing staff in the development of nursing in GLTC. In nursing education, it is suggested that GLTC course be included as the mandatory course to enhance the nursing students’ competence and willingness to serve and that through the practicum experiences in GLTC settings, the frequency for the nursing students to contact the elderly and the disabled be increased in an attempt to enhance the final-year nursing students’ willingness to serve in GLTC.
論文目次 TABLES OF CONTENTS
Candidate Qualification Assessment Certificate (Chinese)
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iii
Acknowledgement vi
TABLES OF CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Significance of the problem 4
1.3 Purpose 7
1.4 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 The Development of Professional Geriatric Long-term Care Competency 9
2.2 Nursing Competency of Geriatric Long-term Care 12
2.3 Studies on Factors Associated with Geriatric Long-term Care Nursing Competence 19
2.4 Research Framework 23
2.5 Research Hypotheses 24
CHAPTER THREE 26
METHODOLOGY 26
3.1 Research Design 26
3.2 Sample and Sampling 27
3.3 Research Instruments and measurements 28
3.4 The Reliability and Validity of Research Instruments 32
3.5 Data collection and procedure 39
3.6 Ethical considerations 42
3.7 Statistical analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 44
4.1 Personal and Demographic Characteristics of the Subjects 44
4.2 The Current Status of the GLTC among Nursing Students from Different School Systems 48
4.3 The GLTC Nursing Competencies of Nursing Students from Different School Systems 58
4.4 Willingness to Serve in GLTC among Nursing Students from Different School Systems 61
4.5 Analysis of Personal Characteristics and the Current Care Status in GLTC among the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 67
4.6 Correlation between of the Personal Characteristics and the GLTC Nursing Competencies among the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 70
4.7 Correlation between the GLTC Status and the GLTC Nursing Competencies among the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 72
4.8 Correlation between the GLTC Nursing Competencies and the Willingness to Serve in GLTC among the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 74
4.9 Factors Affecting GLTC Nursing Competencies of the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 76
4.10 Factors Affecting Willingness to Serve in GLTC of the Nursing Students from Different School Systems 80
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS 84
5.1 Discussions on the Personal Characteristics of the final-year Nursing Students 84
5.2 Discussion on the Nursing Students’ Current GLTC Status 87
5.3 Discussions on the Nursing Students’ Willingness to Serve in GLTC 92
5.4 Discussions on the Relevant Factors for GLTC Nursing Competencies 95
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND LIMITATIONS 100
6.1 Conclusions 100
6.2 Recommendations 102
6.3 Research Limitations 104
REFERENCE 105
APPENDICES 113
Appendices 1 List of experts of content validity 113
Appendices 2 Content validity of questionnaire 114
Appendices 3 Score analsysis of Content validity index 136
Appendices 4 Questionnaire of study 170
Appendices 5 Ethical approval (Chinese and English) 178
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Essentials for gerontological nursing practice and GN competency statements 14
Table 2 The Index of Content Validity and number of items after modification 34
Table 3 Reliability of the pilot study scales 35
Table 4. Discrimination and Difficulty Analysis of GLTC-related Knowledge Scale 36
Table 5. Number of items and reliability of the scale after revision 38
Table 6. Personal attribute analysis of the subjects from different school systems 47
Table 7 Accuracy rates of the GLTC-related knowledge scale of students from different school systems 50
Table. 8 Difference in the scores of the GLTC-related knowledge and school systems 51
Table 9 Analysis of GLTC-related practicum experiences 53
Table 10 Analysis of difference of GLTC-related practicum experiences and school systems 53
Table 11 Difference analysis of the GLTC-related course taking and school systems 56
Table 12 Difference analysis of the GLTC nursing competencies and different school systems 60
Table 13 Scores of the willingness to serve in GLTC and difference analysis 64
Table 14 Correlation analysis results between the personal characteristics of nursing students from different school systems and the GLTC status 68
Table 15 Correlation analysis of the overall nursing students’ personal characteristics and the GLTC nursing competencies 71
Table 16 The correlation analysis of the GLTC status and the GLTC nursing competencies 73
Table 17 Correlation analysis of the GLTC nursing competencies and willingness to serve in GLTC of the nursing students from different school systems 75
Table 18 Summary of the stepwise regression analysis of all the variables of the overall GLTC nursing competencies 78
Table 19 Summary of the stepwise regression analysis of all the variables of the overall willingness to serve in GLTC 82 

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure1. COPA model 17
Figure 2 Research framework diagram 23
Figure 3. Data collection and procedure 41

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