進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2108201915230500
論文名稱(中文) 生態旅遊態度、旅遊動機、旅遊意象與地區發展態度之關聯性研究-以龍鑾潭地區為例
論文名稱(英文) The Relationship between Ecotourism Attitudes, Travel Motivation, Tourism Image and Local Development- an example of Longluan Lake
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 謝孟安
研究生(英文) Meng-An Hsieh
學號 N76054435
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 84頁
口試委員 指導教授-張珩
口試委員-趙子元
口試委員-歐陽宇
中文關鍵字 生態旅遊態度  旅遊動機  旅遊意象  地區發展態度 
英文關鍵字 Ecotourism Attitudes  Travel Motivation  Tourism Image  Local Development 
學科別分類
中文摘要 隨著全球化的發展,「永續性」成為我們生活中重要的議題,近年來生態旅遊盛行因而吸引許多觀光客前往遊覽,旅客為當地帶來龐大的經濟效益,卻也可能影響生態環境進而產生問題。為此本研究欲瞭解人們對生態旅遊的態度、旅遊動機、旅遊意象與地區發展態度,以及態度所可能帶來的影響,以此提供當地居民、生態旅遊相關業者與生態旅遊景點管理者之參考依據。
本研究範圍選定墾丁國家公園內龍鑾潭所在地之龍水里,以當地居民與龍鑾潭內之遊客發放問卷,共發出302份問卷,其中有效問卷共300份。分析方法使用描述性統計、項目與信度分析、因素分析、結構方程模式以及單因子變異數分析與獨立樣本t檢定等,本研究從生態旅遊態度出發,運用結構方程模式進行假設模式之驗證。
研究結果得知,生態旅遊態度、旅遊動機、旅遊意象對地區發展態度有顯著影響。在生態旅遊態度構面將因子分為「自然永續意識」與「利益回饋」;旅遊動機構面分為「自我探索」與「創新」;旅遊意象構面分為「動植物景觀」、「歷史古蹟建築」、「可露營烤肉」、「旅遊資訊充足」、「餐飲吸引人」、「解說資訊充足」、「身障設施完善」、「花費價格合理」;地區發展態度構面分為「使用與開發地區資源」與「地區發展」。為使當地生態環境能進行保育與永續發展,居民與遊客有良好的生態旅遊態度能直接或間接影響自然保護區當地的地區發展態度,換言之,提升自然環境意識即可能提升居民與遊客對於生態旅遊的態度,最終將影響受訪者對於地區發展的態度與行為,促使生態旅遊能夠永續發展。
實務操作上,生態旅遊業者、居民與管理者無論進行旅遊、規劃或開發當地資源,都應考量如何使當地資源受到保育,同時資源與利益回饋給當地,且在人民利益與保育間取得共識與平衡。本研究得知居民與遊客本身的教育程度、環境素養、環保意識等皆影響我們的生活環境,政府發展觀光產業時應注意其利弊,決策時相關配套措施及法令依據應要有相當的規範,須符合當下時空背景適時修正及補充,並宣導遊客及觀光業瞭解政府規範,才能在人民與環境中達成雙贏。
英文摘要 The popularity of ecotourism has attracted many tourists in recent years, leading to huge economic benefits but serious threat of ecological environment in the local area. Therefore, the "sustainability" has become a momentous issue in our life with the global evolution.
The purpose of this study is not only to research the impact of people on ecotourism attitudes, travel motivation, tourism image and local development but further provide confident references for local residents, ecotourism-related operators and their scenic managers. The scope of this study was selected from Longshui village, located in Kenting National Park. The questionnaires of 300 practical samples were distributed to local residents and tourists in Longluan Lake.
The result shows that ecotourism attitudes, travel motivation and tourism image have a significant effect on local development. Both residents and tourists have good ecotourism attitudes, directly or indirectly influencing the local development of nature reserves, in order to establish proper conservation and sustainable progress. However, raising the awareness of the natural environment is likely to enhance the ecotourism attitude of residents and tourists and promote the sustainable progress of ecotourism.
論文目次 摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍與對象 3
第三節 研究方法與流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 生態旅遊態度 5
第二節 旅遊動機 8
第三節 旅遊意象 10
第四節 地區發展態度 12
第三章 研究設計 15
第一節 研究架構與假設 15
第二節 問卷設計 16
第三節 研究範圍與對象 22
第四節 統計分析方法 25
第四章 研究結果 27
第一節 描述性統計分析 27
第二節 項目分析 33
第三節 因素分析 37
第四節 結構方程模式分析 48
第五節 單因子變異數分析與獨立樣本t檢定 55
第五章 結果與討論 64
第一節 生態旅遊態度、旅遊動機、旅遊意象、地區發展態度之相關性 64
第二節 背景屬性對各構面及其因子之評價 65
第六章 結論與建議 68
第一節 結論 68
第二節 建議 69
第三節 後續研究建議 70
參考文獻 71
附錄一 龍鑾潭地區問卷 80
參考文獻 壹、外文文獻
1.AdrianaTisca, I., Istrat, N., Dumitrescu, C. D., & Cornu, G. (2016). Management of sustainable development in ecotourism. Case Study Romania. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39, 427-432.
2.Alkan, H. (2009). Negative impact of rural settlements on natural resources in the protected areas: Kovada lake national park, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(3), 363-372.
3.Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of tourism research, 26(4), 868-897.
4.Barrett, C. B., Brandon, K., Gibson, C., & Gjertsen, H. (2001). Conserving tropical biodiversity amid weak institutions. BioScience, 51(6), 497-502.
5.Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1983). Measuring leisure motivation. Journal of leisure research, 15(3), 219-228.
6.Beckman, E. (2013). The Impact of Motivations and Enduring Involvement in an Adventure Tourism Setting.
7.Beerli, A., & Martı́n, J. D. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism management, 25(5), 623-636.
8.Bentler, P. M. (1982). Confirmatory factor analysis via noniterative estimation: A fast, inexpensive method. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 417-424.
9.Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1993). EQS/Windows user's guide (version 4 ed.). Computer software]. Los Angeles: BMDP Statistical Software.
10.Bigne, J. E., Sanchez, M. I., & Sanchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: inter-relationship. Tourism management, 22(6), 607-616.
11.Blamey, R. K. (1997). Ecotourism: The search for an operational definition. Journal of sustainable tourism, 5(2), 109-130.
12.Boulding, K. E. (1956). The image: Knowledge in life and society(Vol. 47). University of Michigan Press.
13.Browne, M. W., & Mels, G. (1990). RAMONA User's Guide, Columbus: Department of Psychology. Ohio State University.
14.Budeanu, A., Miller, G., Moscardo, G., & Ooi, C. S. (2016). Sustainable tourism, progress, challenges and opportunities: an introduction.
15.Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism management, 21(1), 97-116.
16.Budowski, G. (1976). Tourism and environmental conservation: conflict, coexistence, or symbiosis?. Environmental conservation, 3(1), 27-31.
17.Caber, M., & Albayrak, T. (2016). Push or pull? Identifying rock climbing tourists' motivations. Tourism Management, 55, 74-84.
18.Cai, L. A., & Combrink, T. E. (2000). Japanese female travelers‐a unique outbound market. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 5(1), 16-24.
19.Cao, S., Wang, X., Song, Y., Chen, L., & Feng, Q. (2010). Impacts of the Natural Forest Conservation Program on the livelihoods of residents of Northwestern China: Perceptions of residents affected by the program. Ecological Economics, 69(7), 1454-1462.
20.Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, ecotourism, and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. Iucn.
21.Chang, L. C. (2010). The effects of moral emotions and justifications on visitors' intention to pick flowers in a forest recreation area in Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(1), 137-150.
22.Chen, B., Nakama, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2017). Traditional village forest landscapes: Tourists' attitudes and preferences for conservation. Tourism Management, 59, 652-662.
23.Chen, T. H., Chen, Y. L., Chen, C. Y., Liu, P. J., Cheng, J. O., & Ko, F. C. (2015). Assessment of ichthyotoxicity and anthropogenic contamination in the surface waters of Kenting National
24.Chen, T. S., & Lin, H. J. (2011). Application of a landscape development intensity index for assessing wetlands in Taiwan. Wetlands, 31(4), 745-756.
25.Chen, T. S., & Lin, H. J. (2013). Development of a framework for landscape assessment of Taiwanese wetlands. Ecological indicators, 25, 121-132.
26.Chen, T. S., Lin, H. J., & Huang, S. Y. (2015). A framework on habitat connectivity among Taiwan's wetlands for overwintering Black-faced Spoonbill. Ocean & Coastal Management, 116, 78-88.
27.Chen, Z. S., Hsieh, C. F., Jiang, F. Y., Hsieh, T. H., & Sun, I. F. (1997). Relations of soil properties to topography and vegetation in a subtropical rain forest in southern Taiwan. Plant Ecology, 132(2), 229-241.
28.Chikuta, O., du Plessis, L., & Saayman, M. (2017). Nature-based travel motivations for people with disabilities. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(1), 1-16.
29.Cohen, M. R. (1973). Environmental information versus environmental attitudes. The Journal of Environmental Education, 5(2), 5-8.
30.Crandall, R. (1980). Motivations for leisure. Journal of leisure research, 12(1), 45-54.
31.Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of tourism research, 6(4), 408-424.
32.Dann, G. M. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of tourism research, 4(4), 184-194.
33.Das, M., & Chatterjee, B. (2015). Ecotourism: A panacea or a predicament?. Tourism Management Perspectives, 14, 3-16.
34.Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Cognitive evaluation theory. In Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior(pp. 43-85). Springer, Boston, MA.
35.Dilley, R. S. (1986). Tourist brochures and tourist images. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 30(1), 59-65.
36.Dredge, D., & Jamal, T. (2015). Progress in tourism planning and policy: A post-structural perspective on knowledge production. Tourism Management, 51, 285-297.
37.Dyer, P., Gursoy, D., Sharma, B., & Carter, J. (2007). Structural modeling of resident perceptions of tourism and associated development on the Sunshine Coast, Australia. Tourism management, 28(2), 409-422.
38.Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1991). The meaning and measurement of destination image. Journal of tourism studies, 2(2), 2-12.
39.Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of travel research, 31(4), 3-13.
40.Ecotourism Society. (1998). Ecotourism statistical fact sheet.
41.Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time, and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of travel research, 30(2), 10-16.
42.Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 56-83.
43.Ferraro, P. J. (2001). Global habitat protection: limitations of development interventions and a role for conservation performance payments. Conservation biology, 15(4), 990-1000.
44.Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of tourism research, 21(3), 555-581.
45.Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
46.Freud, S. (1916). Instinto e suas Vicissitudes. Edição Standard Brasileira das Obras Psicológicas Completas, XIV. 1996, Imago, Rio de Janeiro.
47.Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & Garcı́a, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), 56-78.
48.Gartner, W. C. (1989). Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2), 16-20.
49.Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of travel & tourism marketing, 2(2-3), 191-216.
50.Geen, R. G., Beatty, W. W., & Arkin, R. M. (1984). Human motivation: Physiological, behavioral, and social approaches. Allyn & Bacon.
51.Goodrich, J. N. (1978). The relationship between preferences for and perceptions of vacation destinations: Application of a choice model. Journal of Travel research, 17(2), 8-13.
52.Grønhøj, A., & Thøgersen, J. (2017). Why young people do things for the environment: The role of parenting for adolescents’ motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 54, 11-19.
53.Hair, Joseph F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis.
54.Hall, C. M., & Jenkins, J. M. (2003). Tourism and public policy. Cengage Learning EMEA.
55.Hetzer, N. D. (1965). Environment, tourism, culture. Links, 1(3).
56.Hjortsø, C. N., Stræde, S., & Helles, F. (2006). Applying multi-criteria decision-making to protected areas and buffer zone management: A case study in the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of forest economics, 12(2), 91-108.
57.Honey, M. (2008). Ecotourism and sustainable development: Who owns paradise?. Island Press.
58.Hsu, M. J. (1997). Population status and conservation of bats (Chiroptera) in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. Oryx, 31(4), 295-301.
59.Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.
60.Hultman, M., Kazeminia, A., & Ghasemi, V. (2015). Intention to visit and willingness to pay premium for ecotourism: The impact of attitude, materialism, and motivation. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1854-1861
61.Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of travel research, 13(3), 1-7.
62.Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1982). Toward a social psychological theory of tourism motivation: A rejoinder. Annals of tourism research, 9(2), 256-262.
63.Jiang, J. J., Lee, C. L., Fang, M. D., Tu, B. W., & Liang, Y. J. (2014). Impacts of emerging contaminants on surrounding aquatic environment from a youth festival. Environmental science & technology, 49(2), 792-799.
64.Joo, D., Cho, H., & Woosnam, K. M. (2019). Exploring tourists' perceptions of tourism impacts. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 231-235.
65.Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1989). LISREL 7: A guide to the program and applications. Spss.
66.Kim, H., & Stepchenkova, S. (2015). Effect of tourist photographs on attitudes towards destination: Manifest and latent content. Tourism Management, 49, 29-41.
67.Kimmel, J. R. (1999). Ecotourism as environmental learning. The Journal of Environmental Education, 30(2), 40-44.
68.Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?. Trends in ecology & evolution, 19(5), 232-237.
69.Klein, G., & Kantor, J. (2018). How religiosity affects the attitudes of communities towards tourism in a sacred city: The case of Jerusalem. Tourism Management, 69, 167-179.
70.Ko, T. G. (2005). Development of a tourism sustainability assessment procedure: a conceptual approach. Tourism management, 26(3), 431-445.
71.Ku, K. C., & Chen, T. C. (2013). A conceptual process-based reference model for collaboratively managing recreational scuba diving in Kenting National Park. Marine Policy, 39, 1-10.
72.Lane, B. (1994). Sustainable rural tourism strategies: A tool for development and conservation. Journal of sustainable tourism, 2(1-2), 102-111.
73.Lawson, S. R. (2006). Computer simulation as a tool for planning and management of visitor use in protected natural areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(6), 600-617.
74.Leisen, B. (2001). Image segmentation: the case of a tourism destination. Journal of services marketing, 15(1), 49-66.
75.Lin, Y. K., & Nawijn, J. (2019). The impact of travel motivation on emotions: A longitudinal study. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 100363.
76.Lindberg, K., Enriquez, J., & Sproule, K. (1996). Ecotourism questioned: Case studies from Belize. Annals of tourism research, 23(3), 543-562.
77.Liu, J., Qu, H., Huang, D., Chen, G., Yue, X., Zhao, X., & Liang, Z. (2014). The role of social capital in encouraging residents' pro-environmental behaviors in community-based ecotourism. Tourism Management, 41, 190-201.
78.Liu, P. J., Meng, P. J., Liu, L. L., Wang, J. T., & Leu, M. Y. (2012). Impacts of human activities on coral reef ecosystems of southern Taiwan: a long-term study. Marine pollution bulletin, 64(6), 1129-1135.
79.López Hernández, F. A., & de la Santísima Trinidad Mercader, S. (2015). Perceived impact of tourism by the resident population in Torrevieja: national versus non-national residents. European Journal of Tourism Research, 10.
80.MacCallum, R. C., & Hong, S. (1997). Power analysis in covariance structure modeling using GFI and AGFI. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32(2), 193-210.
81.Manning, R. E. (2010). Studies in outdoor recreation: Search and research for satisfaction. Oregon State University Press.
82.Maslow, A. (1954). Maslow Motivation and personality – A general theory of human motivation based upon a synthesis primarily of holistic and dynamic principles Harper & Row, Publishers, NY.
83.McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological methods, 7(1), 64.
84.McIntosh, R. W., Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. B. (1995). Tourism: principles, practices, philosophies (No. Ed. 7). John Wiley and Sons.
85.Miller, G., & Twining-Ward, L. (2005). Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition: The challenge of developing and using indicators. Cabi.
86.Moutinho, L. (1984). Vacation tourist decision process. Quarterly Review of Marketing, 9(3), 8-17.
87.Murphy, P., Pritchard, M. P., & Smith, B. (2000). The destination product and its impact on traveller perceptions. Tourism management, 21(1), 43-52.
88.Papadimitriou, D., Kaplanidou, K., & Apostolopoulou, A. (2018). Destination image components and word-of-mouth intentions in urban tourism: A multigroup approach. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(4), 503-527.
89.Park, J., Musa, G., Moghavvemi, S., Thirumoorthi, T., Taha, A. Z., Mohtar, M., & Sarker, M. M. (2019). Travel motivation among cross border tourists: Case study of Langkawi. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 63-71.
90.Pearce, P. L., & Lee, U. I. (2005). Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation. Journal of travel research, 43(3), 226-237.
91.Pearce, P. L. (2013). The social psychology of tourist behaviour: International series in experimental social psychology (Vol. 3). Elsevier.
92.Pearce, P. L. (1982). Perceived changes in holiday destinations. Annals of tourism research, 9(2), 145-164.
93.Pigram, J. J. (1990). Sustainable tourism-policy considerations. Journal of Tourism Studies, 1(2), 2-9.
94.Prayag, G., & Hosany, S. (2014). When Middle East meets West: Understanding the motives and perceptions of young tourists from United Arab Emirates. Tourism Management, 40, 35-45.
95.Reynolds, W. H. (1965). The role of the consumer in image building. California management review, 7(3), 69-76.
96.Rigdon, Ed. (2005). Methodological Alternatives to SEM/CFA.
97.Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999a). Ecotourism: towards congruence between theory and practice. Tourism management, 20(1), 123-132.
98.Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999b). Evaluating ecotourism: the case of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tourism management, 20(6), 673-682.
99.Ross, G. F. (1993). Ideal and actual images of backpacker visitors to Northern Australia. Journal of travel Research, 32(2), 54-57.
100.Russell, C. L. (1999). Problematizing nature experience in environmental education: The interrelationship of experience and story. Journal of Experiential Education, 22(3), 123-137.
101.Schmoll, G. A. (1977). Tourism promotion: Marketing background, promotion techniques and promotion planning methods. Tourism International Press.
102.Selwyn, T. (1996). The tourist image: Myths and myth making in tourism. Wiley.
103.Sharma, P., & Nayak, J. K. (2018). Testing the role of tourists' emotional experiences in predicting destination image, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: A case of wellness tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 28, 41-52.
104.Sheppard, V. A., & Fennell, D. A. (2019). Progress in tourism public sector policy: Toward an ethic for non-human animals. Tourism Management, 73, 134-142.
105.Sirakaya, E., Sasidharan, V., & Sönmez, S. (1999). Redefining ecotourism: The need for a supply-side view. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2), 168-172.
106.Skinner, B. F. (2014). Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis (Vol. 3). BF Skinner Foundation.
107.Stem, C. J., Lassoie, J. P., Lee, D. R., Deshler, D. D., & Schelhas, J. W. (2003). Community participation in ecotourism benefits: The link to conservation practices and perspectives. Society &Natural Resources, 16(5), 387-413.
108.Stronza, A., & Gordillo, J. (2008). Community views of ecotourism. Annals of tourism research, 35(2), 448-468.
109.Swarbrooke, J., & Horner, S. (1999). Consumer behaviour in tourism.Routledge.Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
110.Stylidis, D., & Terzidou, M. (2014). Tourism and the economic crisis in Kavala, Greece. Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 210-226.
111.Tao, T. C., & Wall, G. (2009). Tourism as a sustainable livelihood strategy. Tourism management, 30(1), 90-98.
112.Thomas, J. A. (1964). What makes people travel. ASTA travel news, 1, 169-172.
113.Torres, E. N. (2016). Guest interactions and the formation of memorable experiences: an ethnography. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(10), 2132-2155.
114.Tsaur, S. H., Lin, Y. C., & Lin, J. H. (2006). Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tourism management, 27(4), 640-653.
115.Um, S., & Crompton, J. L. (1990). Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice. Annals of tourism research, 17(3), 432-448.
116.Ullman, J. B., & Bentler, P. M. (2003). Structural equation modeling. Handbook of psychology, 607-634.
117.UNEP, U. (2011). Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.
118.Walmsley, D. J., & Young, M. (1998). Evaluative images and tourism: The use of personal constructs to describe the structure of destination images. Journal of travel research, 36(3), 65-69.
119.Weaver, D. B. (Ed.). (2001). The encyclopedia of ecotourism. CABI.
120.Weaver, D. B., & Lawton, L. J. (2002). Overnight ecotourist market segmentation in the Gold Coast hinterland of Australia. Journal of Travel Research, 40(3), 270-280.
121.Wight, P. (1998). Tools for sustainability analysis in planning and managing tourism and recreation in the destination. Tools for sustainability analysis in planning and managing tourism and recreation in the destination., 75-91.
122.Woodside, A. G., & Lysonski, S. (1989). A general model of traveler destination choice. Journal of travel Research, 27(4), 8-14
123.Woosnam, K. M., Draper, J., Jiang, J. K., Aleshinloye, K. D., & Erul, E. (2018). Applying self-perception theory to explain residents' attitudes about tourism development through travel histories. Tourism Management, 64, 357-368.
124.Wunder, S. (2000). Ecotourism and economic incentives—an empirical approach. Ecological economics, 32(3), 465-479.
125.Wurzinger, S., & Johansson, M. (2006). Environmental concern and knowledge of ecotourism among three groups of Swedish tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 217-226.
126.Wu, S. T., & Chen, Y. S. (2016). Examining eco-environmental changes at major recreational sites in Kenting National Park in Taiwan by integrating SPOT satellite images and NDVI. Tourism Management, 57, 23-36.
127.Yolal, M., Rus, R. V., Cosma, S., & Gursoy, D. (2015). A pilot study on spectators’ motivations and their socio-economic perceptions of a film festival. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism (Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 253-271). Routledge.
128.Young, M. D. (1992). Sustainable investment and resource use: equity, environmental integrity and economic efficiency.
129.Ziffer, K. A. (1989). Ecotourism: The uneasy alliance (No. 1). Conservation International.
貳、中文文獻
1.內政部營建署. (2010). 國家公園法.台北市:內政部營建署.
2.行政院永續發展委員會國土分組. (2005). 生態旅遊白皮書. 臺北市:行政院永續發展委員會.
3.交通部觀光局. (2002). 生態旅遊白皮書. 台北市:交通部觀光局.
4.吳明隆, & 張毓仁. (2010). 結構方程模式-實務應用秘笈. 臺北市:五南圖書出版股份有限公司.
5.邱皓政. (2011). 結構方程模式:LISREL的理論、技術與應用(二版). 臺北市:雙葉書廊.
6.張炎銘. (2014). 1936年,卑南大圳完工及內埔子、蘭潭、龍鑾潭、榮湖、瓊林、東湧等水庫竣工. 水利署電子報.
7.陳鎮東, & 許德惇. (1991). 墾丁國家公園內湖沼、溪流及沿岸水質調查研究(二)龍鑾 潭之水質底泥特性及沿岸水質監控. 保育研究報告第74號. 墾丁國家公園管理處.
8.程建中. (2014). 墾丁國家公園龍鑾潭與南仁湖國家重要濕地生態調查及棲地維護計畫. 墾丁國家公園管理處委託研究計畫報告. 屏東, 238 .
9.黃芳銘.(2007). 結構方程模式理論與應用(五版). 台北:五南.
10.黃信茗. (2008). 龍鑾潭水庫的歷史價值與管理之探討. 屏東文獻, (12), 102-109.
11.墾丁國家公園管理處. (2018). 107年墾丁國家公園遊客人次統計. 屏東:內政部.
12.韓傑. (1998). 現代觀光心理學. 韓傑發行.
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2024-08-21起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2024-08-21起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw