進階搜尋


   電子論文尚未授權公開,紙本請查館藏目錄
(※如查詢不到或館藏狀況顯示「閉架不公開」,表示該本論文不在書庫,無法取用。)
系統識別號 U0026-2108201816131300
論文名稱(中文) 以碰撞人偶模型對汽機車擦撞事故傷害之評估
論文名稱(英文) Crashworthiness Assessment of Scooter and Car Slight Impact Based on Computer ATD Model
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 機械工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Mechanical Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 謝欣翰
研究生(英文) HSIN-HAN HSIEH
學號 N16051346
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 150頁
口試委員 指導教授-黃才烱
口試委員-黃文敏
口試委員-陳家豪
口試委員-張超群
中文關鍵字 擦撞事故  多體動力學  碰撞人偶  傷害評估  事故鑑定 
英文關鍵字 Slight impact accident  Multi-body dynamics  Crash test dummy  Injury assessment  Accident identification 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來隨著騎乘機車人口不斷上升,在地狹人稠的都市裡與台灣的機車文化中,發生機車事故的機率越來越高,尤其以汽機車碰撞事故對機車騎士的傷害最為嚴重,僅管目前已經有相當多針對機車用路人的權益及安全的法規,但仍不能避免事故發生。
汽車對人體傷害的研究行之有年,使用碰撞人偶無論在傷害評估、試驗方法與生物反應上皆相當成熟,但在機車產業上此做法相對稀少。而機車之安全設計及保護裝置的種類相較於汽車來的少,不但受限於成本因素且現有的裝置大都屬於被動安全式,即在發生意外的情況下,將騎士的傷害程度及風險降至最低,例如採用較圓滑的機車外觀、前撞安全氣囊、安全帽與防摔衣等。在所有汽機車事故中,擦撞事故為最容易發生的事故。因此,本論文在於透過建立一能夠真實模擬汽機車擦撞事故的電腦模型,試圖從模擬來評估機車騎士的傷害。
本研究使用多體動力學分析軟體,對汽機車擦撞事故進行模擬,可分為三個部分。首先根據文獻及開源資料建構出汽車、機車及人偶的電腦模型,接著進行模型的驗證,包含了頭部加速度驗證、膝關節彎曲驗證、踝關節動靜態的驗證,以確保所建立的人偶模型具有高生物擬真性,最後將所有模型結合,進行汽機車擦撞事故的模擬,歸納機車倒地模式與兩車速度差之關係,並說明本論文之研究結果對事故鑑定的參考價值。
英文摘要 In recent years, with the rising population of motorcycle, the probability of motorcycle accident is increasing rapidly in Taiwan. Among all kinds of motorcycle accident, scooter and car collision harms the rider most. Althought there were already lots of regulations on rider’s rights and safety, the number of accident still remain high.
The assessment of human injury in automotive industries has been studied for many years. The use of crash test dummy is quite mature on injury assessment, test method, and biofidelity performance, however it is relatively rare in motorcycle industries. On the other hand, the design of motorcycle safety and protection is way too less than the automobile. The reason for such situation is because of the cost, even there are a lot of motorcycle protective devices on the market, they all act passively, that is to lower the injury of rider in an unavoidable situation. Such motorcycle protective devices include a smooth outfit of motorcycle, airbags, helmets and texile jackets and pants. Slight impact occurs most oftenly in all different types of scooter/Car accident. Therefore, to construct a computer model which is able to simulate scooter/car slight impact is quite important.
In this study, multi-body dynamics software is used to simulate scooter/car slight impact accident, which can devide the process into three parts. First, construct all the model in the accident: car, scooter and dummy, then do the validation test to evaluate the dummy model’s biofidelity compared with cadaver data. Last, simulate the scooter/car accident and assess the dummy’s injury, also summarize the trend of scooter capsize for supporting the accident identification.
論文目次 摘要I
誌謝VII
目錄VIII
表目錄XI
圖目錄XIII
符號與縮寫XIX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.3 研究目的與方法 6
1.4 論文架構 6
第二章 研究背景 9
2.1 人體相關介紹 9
2.1.1 人體構造 10
2.1.2 人體碰撞測試方法 17
2.1.3 碰撞人偶起源與種類介紹 20
2.1.4 Hybrid III介紹 20
2.1.5 人體傷害 22
2.1.6 傷害評估準則 28
2.2 機車相關介紹 30
2.2.1 機車前、後部介紹 30
2.2.2 機車事故分類 31
2.2.3 機車運動模式 34
2.3多 體動力學理論基礎 36
2.3.1 低序號物體陣列 36
2.3.2 多體動力座標系統 38
2.4 碰撞運動學 39
2.5 機車碰撞力學41
第三章 多體動力模型建立 43
3.1 多體動力人體模型之建立 43
3.1.1 人偶模型部位建立 43
3.1.2 人偶模型關節建立 48
3.2 機車與汽車模型建立 58
3.2.1 機車模型 58
3.2.2 汽車模型 64
第四章 人偶之大體試驗規範與驗證結果 65
4.1 大體試驗規範 65
4.1.1 頭頸部大體試驗規範 65
4.1.2 下肢大體試驗規範 69
4.1.3 生物擬真性評定方法 78
4.2 頭頸部驗證結果 80
4.3 膝關節驗證結果 83
4.4 踝關節驗證結果 88
第五章 汽機車擦撞事故模擬 93
5.1 環境設定 93
5.2 機車位於汽車右側模擬情形 96
5.2.1 機車車速大於汽車速度之模擬結果 96
5.2.2 汽車車速大於機車速度之模擬結果 113
5.3 汽機車擦撞事故之騎士保護裝置構想 131
第六章 結論與未來發展 134
6.1 結論與建議 134
6.2 未來發展 135
參考文獻 136
附錄A 踝關節內外翻試驗 141
附錄B 機車騎士傷害評估圖 143
參考文獻 Amirouche, F.M.L., “Computational methods in multibody dynamics.”,1992

Backaitis, S.H., & Mertz, H.J., “Hybrid III : The First Human-like Crash Test Dummy : PT-44”, Society of Automotive Engineers,1993

Cheng, H., Obergefell, L. and Rizer, A. 'Generator of Body Data (GEBOD), Manual', Systems Research Labs INC Dayton OH, 1994.

Cossalter, V., Lot, R. and Massaro, M. Motorcycle Dynamics., 2014

Cowgill, D. W., Vanhaastert, J. A., Sears, W. J. and Stork, R. L. "Evaluation of the Sierra Engineering Company lightweight helmet", 1978

Crandall, J. R., Portier, L., Petit, P., Hall, G. W., Bass, C. R., Klopp, G. S., Hurwitz, S., Pilkey, W. D., Trosseille, X. and Tarrière, C., 'Biomechanical response and physical properties of the leg, foot, and ankle', SAE Technical Paper, Paper NO.962424., 1996

EEVC. 'EEVC Ad-Hoc Group Report - A Review of Motorcycle Safety'. European Experimental Vehicles Committee., 1994

Engín, A. "On the biomechanics of the shoulder complex." Journal of biomechanics Vol.13(7): pp583-590., 1980

GESAC. Biomechanical Repsonse Requirements of the THOR NHTSA Advanced Frontal Dummy', General Engineering and Systems Analysis Company., 2005

Hodgson, V.R.,& Thomas, L.M. “Comparison of head acceleration injury indices in cadaver skull fracture.,”SAE Paper ,Paper No.710854 ,1971

Humanetics ATD. "http://www.humaneticsatd.com/.".

Jarrah, M., Wassem, W., Othman, M. and Gdeisat, M. "Human body model response to mechanical impulse." Medical Engineering and Physics Vol.19(4): pp308-316., 1997

Kajzer, J., Cavallero, C., Bonnoit, J., Morjane, A. and Ghanouchi, S.' Response of the knee joint in lateral impact: Effect of bending moment'. Proceedings of the IRCOBI Conference., 1993

Kajzer, J., Schroeder, G., Ishikawa, H., Matsui, Y. and Bosch, U. “Shearing and bending effects at the knee joint at high speed lateral loading”, SAE Technical Paper, Paper NO.973326., 1997

Kalliske, I. and Friesen, F. 'Improvements to pedestrian protection as exemplified on a standard-sized car'. Experimental Safety Vehicles Conference., 2001

Kuppa, S., Wang, J., Haffner, M. and Eppinger, R.,'Lower extremity injuries and associated injury criteria'. 17th ESV Conference, Paper NO.57., 2001

Manoli, A., Prasad, P. and Levine, R. S. "Foot and ankle severity scale (FASS)." Foot & ankle international, Vol.18: pp.598-602., 1997

Marieb, E. N. and Mallatt, J. 'Human Anatomy Update', Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company., 2002

Matsui, Y. "Biofidelity of TRL Legform Impactor and Injury Tolerance of the Human Leg in Lateral Impact." Stapp car crash journa,l Vol.45: pp.495-510., 2001

Mertz, H. J., Neathery, R. F. and Culver, C. C.'Performance requirements and characteristics of mechanical necks'. Human Impact Response, Springer: pp.263-288., 1973

Mertz, H. J. and Patrick, L. M."Strength and response of the human neck." SAE Transactions: pp.2903-2928., 1971

Mizuno, Y. and Ishikawa, H. 'Summary of IHRA Pedestrian Safety WG Activities (2005)-Proposed test methods to evaluate pedestrian protection afforded by passenger cars'. Proceedings: International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration., 2005

Morgan, R. M., Marcus, J. H. and Eppinger, R. H. 'Correlation of Side Impact Dummy/Cadaver Tests, SAE International, Paper NO.811008., 1981

NHTSA, 'Certification Procedure for the THOR-Lx/Hybrid III Retrofit Version 3.2', National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Vehicle Research and Test Center., 2004

Nieboer, J. J., Wismans, J., Versmissen, A. C. M., Van Slagmaat, M. T. P., Kurawaki, I. and Ohara, N. 'Motorcycle Crash Test Modelling', SAE International, Paper NO.933133., 1993

Nyquist, G. W., 'Injury Tolerance Characteristics of the Adult Human Lower Extremities Under Static and Dynamic Loading', SAE International, Paper NO.861925., 1986

Parenteau, C. S. and Viano, D. C.,'A new method to determine the biomechanical properties of human and dummy joints'. Proceedings of the International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury conference, International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury., 1995

Philippens, M., Cappon, H., Wismans, J., Svensson, M., Sirey, F., Ono, K., Nishimoto, N. and Matsuoka, F., "Comparison of the Rear Impact Biofidelity of BioRID II and RID2." Stapp car crash journal , Vol.46, pp.461-476., 2002

Portier, L., Petit, P., Dômont, A., Trosseille, X., Le Coz, J.-Y., Tarrière, C. and Lassau, J.-P., 'Dynamic Biomechanical Dorsiflexion Responses and Tolerances of the Ankle Joint Complex', SAE International, Paper NO.973330., 1997

Robbins, D., 'Anthropometrically Specifications for Mid-sized Male Dummy Volume 2'. The University of Michigian Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, Tech. Rep. UMTRI-83-53-2., 1983

“Rusty” Haight, W. R. and Eubanks, J. J. 'Trajectory Analysis for Collisions Involving Bicycles and Automobiles', SAE International Paper NO.900368, 1990

Sporner, A., Langwieder, K. and Polauke, J. , 'Risk of Leg Injuries to Motorcyclists: Present Situation and Countermeasures.', 12th International Techanical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles(ESV) Conference. Gotrborg,Sweden., 1989

Thunnissen, J., Wismans, J., Ewing, C. L. and Thomas, D. J. , 'Human Volunteer Head-Neck Response in Frontal Flexion: A New Analysis', SAE International , Paper NO.952721., 1995

Trent, P. S., Walker, P. S. and Wolf, B., "Ligament length patterns, strength, and rotational axes of the knee joint." Clinical orthopaedics and related research Vol.117: pp.263-270., 1976

Wismans, J., Philippens, M., Van Oorschot, E., Kallieris, D. and Mattern, R., "Comparison of human volunteer and cadaver head-neck response in frontal flexion." SAE Transactions: pp.1323-1335., 1987

Wismans, J. and Spenny, C. H., 'Head-Neck Response in Frontal Flexion', SAE International, Paper NO.841666., 1984

Wismans, J., van Oorschot, H. and Woltring, H. J., ' Omni-Directional Human Head-Neck Response', SAE International, Paper NO.861893., 1986

Yang, J., "Review of injury biomechanics in car-pedestrian collisions." International journal of vehicle safety Vol.1(1-3): pp.100-117., 2005

交通部統計處,中華民國統計月報.,台北市,台灣,2018

林志儒,機車事故之電腦模擬,國立臺灣科技大學機械系工程研究所,2005

林志榮,車輛油漆不同方向重複刮痕特性研析與鑑識,國立交通大學運輸科技與管理學研究所碩士論文,2007

施人維.,汽機車同向碰撞行車事故之電腦模擬,國立臺灣科技大學機械工程研究所碩士論文,2012

財團法人車輛研究測試中心,碰撞人偶的能量與應用,財團法人車輛研究測試中心,2009

張超群,"機車倒地方向的力學分析及其在行車事故鑑定之應用",交通學報,第十五卷,第二期: 頁191~頁224., 2015

張超群,機車碰撞倒地方向的簡易判斷方法和其在車禍事故鑑定之應用.,道路交通安全與執法研討會.,台灣,2016

張超群、許哲嘉、彭守道、黃國平,汽車二維碰撞車速計算模型之研究,交通學報,第十一卷,第二期: 頁139~頁162., 2011

許哲嘉、翁榮宏、黃國平、吳宗霖、吳樹遠,討論車輪觸地式與非觸地式試驗對機車刮地痕摩擦係數之影響,道路交通安全與執法研討會.,台灣,2008

陳高村,道路交通事故處理與鑑定. 桃園市,台灣,尚暐印刷事業有限公司, 2004

彭阿全,機車操縱性之研究,國立交通大學機械系工程研究所碩士論文,1990

曾文龍,多體動力人偶應用於腳踏車碰撞之探討,國立成功大學醫療工程研究所碩士論文, 2003

葉孟翰,防止後撞頸椎鞭甩傷害之安全座椅設計研究,國立成功大學機械系工程研究所碩士論文,2005

鄭維仁,真實行人下肢有限元素模型之設計驗證與碰撞傷害評估,國立成功大學機械系工程研究所碩士論文,2014

鄭歷菁、鍾敦輝、陳建行、賴昆城,醫用解剖學,台北市,台灣,合計圖書出版社, 2008

關節示意圖,網站:"http://www.hkpe.net/hkdsepe/human_body/joints.htm."
論文全文使用權限
  • 同意授權校內瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-08-30起公開。
  • 同意授權校外瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,於2023-08-30起公開。


  • 如您有疑問,請聯絡圖書館
    聯絡電話:(06)2757575#65773
    聯絡E-mail:etds@email.ncku.edu.tw