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系統識別號 U0026-2108201708483300
論文名稱(中文) 蓋岩系統內有效阻隔二氧化碳洩漏之層間頁岩厚度評估
論文名稱(英文) Evaluation of Effective Thickness of Shale Layers of Multi-layer Caprock System
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 資源工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Resources Engineering
學年度 105
學期 2
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 邱一庭
研究生(英文) Yi-Ting Chiu
學號 N46044010
學位類別 碩士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 101頁
口試委員 指導教授-謝秉志
口試委員-林再興
口試委員-焦中輝
口試委員-沈建豪
中文關鍵字 多層次蓋岩層系統  定壓力差  前鋒推進方程式  阻隔效益  安全指標 
英文關鍵字 Multilayered caprock system  Frontal advance equation at constant pressure difference  Sealing efficiency  Safety index plot 
學科別分類
中文摘要 為了要減少在大氣中的二氧化碳濃度,有學者提出碳捕獲與封存(Carbon Capture and Storage,簡稱CCS)。對於減緩二氧化碳排放到大氣中,CCS是目前被視為最具潛力的方法。其中地質封存為目前最可行的方法之一,另外飽含鹽水層也被視為最具有封存潛力的儲氣場址。過去,地質封存中的蓋岩層是指位於儲氣窖上方的地層,其特性具有極低滲透率且緻密。單一且很厚的頁岩層常被視為蓋岩層的最好選擇。然而,事實上有很多頁岩層是常常夾帶具滲透的地層,具滲透性的地層像是頁質砂岩或者粉沙,這代表這些地層是由頁岩與其他岩性所組成。本研究稱之為多層次蓋岩層系統。
除了具有極低滲透性的頁岩層之外,具有滲透性的地層仍然有阻隔性,所以本研究的目的是研究多層次蓋岩層系統的阻隔效益。由於多層次蓋岩層系統是由頁岩層夾雜其他具有滲透性的地層,因此此系統的阻隔效益可以視為每層的阻隔效益相加而成的結果。本研究將蓋岩層的厚度與二氧化碳團塊突破時間視為會影響阻隔效益的參數。因此,本研究將利用本研究推導的解析解去計算二氧化碳團塊在蓋岩層中的突破時間。由於本研究認為當二氧化碳在蓋岩層中的突破時間越長代表蓋岩層的阻隔效益越大,因此本研究將藉由計算二氧化碳團塊在蓋岩層的突破時間來獲得此蓋層的阻隔效益。
接著介紹本研究的方法,本研究將Buckley-Leverett理論或稱前鋒推進理論應用在超臨界二氧化碳與水兩相沖排中。由於二氧化碳團塊累積在蓋岩層之下會造成壓力集中,當二氧化碳團塊的壓力大於蓋岩層的門檻壓力時,二氧化碳團塊將會侵入至蓋岩層中。因此,本研究會先推導定壓力差之前鋒推進方程式並運用在二氧化碳移棲於蓋岩層之中。除此之外,本研究利用加拿大CMG-GEM成分模擬器去驗證本研究推導之解析解的正確性。本研究建立兩個基本模型進行驗證,分別為水平基礎模型和垂直基礎模型。在成功驗證之後,本研究嘗試提出由解析解衍生的安全指標圖,此圖可以讓大家方便地獲得蓋岩層的阻隔效益。最後,本研究將解析解與安全指標圖應用在現場案例中,並觀察與討論其結果。
結果顯示本研究所推導的解析解可以用來計算二氧碳團塊在蓋岩層中正確的突破時間。接著,本研究利用本研究推導的突破時間方程式製做安全指標圖,此圖中的SI(安全指數)能夠將計算突破時間的參數整合在一起。由於安全指標圖可以當作查圖法,可以藉由查圖獲得蓋岩層的厚度與突破時間,進而得到蓋岩層的阻隔效益。因此,本研究認為解析法以及安全指標圖皆可以計算出二氧化碳團塊突破時間並獲得多層次蓋岩層系統的阻隔效益。
英文摘要 Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising method of mitigating CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Geological storage is the most feasible way to permanently store CO2. Saline aquifers are thought to have the greatest storage capacity of all geological storage sites. In the past, a caprock with extremely - low permeability and dense stacking was a typical feature above a sealable geological storage reservoir. A single and thick shale layer was usually considered the best option for caprock. However, there are many types of shale layers that are usually interbedded with permeable layers, such as shaly-sand and silt. This means that these formations are composed of shale and other lithology. This is called a multilayered caprock system in this study.
Except for shale with extremely - low permeability, the permeable layers can provide efficient sealing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the sealing efficiency of a multilayered caprock system. Because a multilayered caprock system is shale interbedded with permeable layers, the system’s sealing efficiency is calculated as the sum of the sealing efficiency of each layer. In this study, caprock thickness and ScCO2 (supercritical CO2) plume breakthrough time at the caprock are parameters, that affect sealing efficiency. The ScCO2 plume breakthrough time of was calculated using an analytical method derived in this study.
The analytical method used was the frontal advance equation at constant pressure difference derived from Buckley-Leverett theory in this study. Because the ScCO2 plume accumulates beyond the caprock and thus concentrates the pressure, when the ScCO2 plume pressure is larger than the threshold pressure at the caprock formation, the ScCO2 plume will invade the caprock. Therefore, the frontal advance equation at a constant pressure difference was derived and then initially applied to ScCO2 migration at the caprock. In addition, Computer Modelling Group Ltd.’s (CMG) - GEM compositional simulator (CMG-GEM) was used to verify the correction of the analytical solution mentioned above. Two fundamental models (horizontal and vertical) were built to validate the analytical solution for ScCO2-water two-phase flow, respectively. . After the solution had been validated, we proposed a safety index plot derived from the analytical solution. This plot is convenient for determining the sealing efficiency at the caprock. Finally, we applied the analytical solution and safety index plot in a field case to observe and discuss the results.
We found that our analytical solution could be used to calculate the correct ScCO2 plume breakthrough time at the caprock. Moreover, our proposed safety index plot can be considered a graphical solution, the thickness of the caprock and the ScCO2 breakthrough time can be derived from this plot, and then the sealing efficiency at the caprock can be determined.
論文目次 Abstract I
中文摘要 III
誌謝 V
Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
Nomenclature XIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 Background 1
1-2 Motivation 3
1-3 Purpose 4
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2-1 Two phases fluid frontal advance equation 5
2-2 Multilayered caprock system 7
2-3 CO2 leakage evaluation 7
Chapter 3 Methods 11
3-1 Flooding behavior 12
3-2 Fraction flow equation 13
3-3 Frontal advance equation at a constant pressure difference 17
3-4 Breakthrough time equation 22
Chapter 4 Study process 25
Chapter 5 Building and validating a numerical model 28
5-1 Two-phase ScCO2-water fluid flow in a horizontal model 29
5-2 ScCO2-water two-phase fluid flow in a vertical model 34
Chapter 6 Results 42
Chapter 7 Discussion 46
7-1 Using the safety index plot in a single layer 46
7-2 Using the safety index plot in a multilayered caprock system 49
7-3 Using the safety index plot in case study 55
7-4 Match of saturation profile 66
Chapter 8 Conclusions and Suggestions 69
8-1 Conclusions 69
8-2 Suggestions 69
References 70
Appendix A: Derivation of Buckley-Leverett theory 76
A-1 Buckley-Leverett Theory 76
A-2 Fractional-flow Equation 78
Appendix B: Validating the Buckley-Leverett model 81
B-1 Water-oil model at a constant injection rate 81
B-2 ScCO2-water model in a constant injection rate 86
B-3 Water-oil model at a constant pressure difference 91
Appendix C: Development of safety index plot 97

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