||Social interaction as mediator between out-of-home trips and health among older adults
||Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
本研究共招募台南市13個都市社區，65歲以上的高齡者為對象，以問卷調查及進行體適能評估的方式進行。問卷調查包含外出進行休閒性身體活動(Leisure-time physical activity, LTPA)和生活性的機能活動(instrumental activity of daily life, IADL)的頻率、自覺健康量表(SF12)及社會互動。社會互動問卷是參考相關問卷發展出相關題項，進行專家效度及信效度分析，篩選題項後使用。統計分析使用結構方程模式(Structural equation modeling)檢視變項間的相關性，另採用Sobel test及Bootstrapping方式檢驗中介效果。
Participation in outdoor activity is an important issue in promoting the health of the elderly. Homebound older adults tend to have more chronic diseases and poor subjective health status than do non-homebound adults. Elderly people engaged in outdoor activities more than once a week would prevent physical disability. Recently several studies found that social interaction may help to increase participation in outdoor activities and maintain health in older adults. Few studies have discussed the relationship between health and social interaction in various purposes of participation. The objective of the present study was to explore the effect of social interaction on the relationship between participation in different outdoor activities and health.
Cross-sectional data were drawn from elderly residents of 13 neighborhoods in southern Taiwan. They were asked to take functional fitness tests and complete a self-reported questionnaires onsite which were social interaction, frequency of outdoor activities and self-reported health. Data on health assessments were obtained by objective (senior functional fitness test) and subjective measures (SF12 survey). Structural equation model was introduced to examine the association between outdoor activities, social interaction, and health. By using the Sobel test and bootstrapping procedure to test the mediation effect of social interaction.
According to our research, social interaction was found to be associated with health status in different outdoor activities. Social interactions partially mediate the association between leisure-time physical activity and health, whereas social interaction acts as a full mediator between instrumental activities of daily living and health. Social interactions exhibiting a meditational effect depended on the purposes of participation in outdoor activities.
Social interaction is therefore a critical factor that encourages older adults to participate in outdoor activities to promote health. Although frequent outdoor activity has been considered as a facilitator in promoting health, social interaction appears to mediate the correlation between participation in outdoor activities and health in the elderly.
Descriptive and univariate analysis...11
Structural equation model...12
Mediation effect in the structural models...15
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