||Factors Affecting Independent Traveler’s Enjoyment with Traveling Activities: Moderating Effects of Social Contextual Concerns
||Factors Affecting Independent Traveler’s Enjoyment with Traveling Activities: Moderating Effects of Social Contextual Concerns
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)
Enjoyment with traveling activities
Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) perspective
This study applies the perspective of Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) to examine the effects of information search behavior, novelty motivation, escape/relax motivation and the length of a trip on independent travelers’ enjoyment with traveling activities. The moderating effects of social contextual factors, including traveling risk and social interaction, are explored as well.
Research results based on a sample collected from 401 international independent travelers show that information search behavior, novelty motivation and escape/relax motivation each revealed a positive effect on travelers’ enjoyment. Moreover, traveling risk negatively moderates the relationship between novelty motivation and travelers’ enjoyment with traveling activities while social interaction positively moderates the relationship between the length of a trip and enjoyment with travelers’ enjoyment with traveling activities. Finally, the length of a trip is insignificantly related with the enjoyment with traveling activities.
The research contributes to the tourism literature by identifying factors affecting independent travelers’ enjoyment with traveling activities under the social contextual concerns. Research implications and future directions and suggestions are discussed as well.
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivations. 1
1.2 Research Contributions and Purpose. 4
1.3 Research Procedure. 5
1.4 Research Structure. 5
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Theoretical Background. 7
2.1.1 Motivation, Opportunity and Ability (MOA). 7
2.2 Definition of Relevant Research Variable. 8
2.2.1 Independent Traveler. 8
2.2.2 Enjoyment with Traveling Activities. 10
2.2.3 Information Search Behavior. 12
2.2.4 Travel Motivation. 13
2.2.5 Length of the Trip. 16
2.2.6 Traveling Risk. 17
2.2.7 Social Interaction. 20
2.3 Interrelationships between Variables. 21
2.3.1 Information Search Behavior and Enjoyment with Traveling Activities. 21
2.3.2 Travel Motivation and Enjoyment with Traveling Activities. 22
2.3.3 Length of the Trip and Enjoyment with Traveling Activity. 23
2.3.4 Traveling Risk as a Moderator. 23
2.3.5 Social Interaction as a Moderator. 24
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 26
3.1 Conceptual Model. 26
3.2 Description of Sample. 27
3.3 Summary of Hypothesis. 29
3.4 Measures and Definition of Variables. 30
3.4.1 Information Search Behaviour. 30
3.4.2 Travel Motivation. 32
3.4.3 Length of the Trip. 34
3.4.4 Traveling Risk. 34
3.4.5 Social Interaction. 35
3.4.6 Enjoyment with Traveling Activities. 37
3.5 Control Variables. 38
3.5.1 Gender. 38
3.5.2 Age. 38
3.5.3 Marital Status. 38
3.5.4 Nationality. 39
3.5.5 Education. 39
3.5.6 Employment Status. 39
3.5.7 Monthly Income. 39
3.5.8 Travel Companion. 39
3.5.9 Spending Budget. 40
3.6 Method of Analysis. 40
3.6.1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis. 40
3.6.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. 40
3.6.3. Reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) and Validity Test. 41
3.6.4 Pearson Correlation Analysis. 41
3.6.5 Hierarchical Multiple Regression. 41
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 43
4.1 Assessing Full Measurement Model. 43
4.2 Reliability and Validity Test. 46
4.3 Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson Correlation. 48
4.4 Hierarchical Regression. 51
4.4 Common Method Variances. 56
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 57
5.1 Discussions and Conclusion. 57
5.1.1 Theoretical Implications. 57
5.1.2 Managerial Implication. 60
5.2 Research Limitation and Suggestion for Future Directions. 61
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