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系統識別號 U0026-2106201112221000
論文名稱(中文) 台灣地區公立托兒所室內空氣品質及其決定因素
論文名稱(英文) Indoor Air Quality and Its Determinants in Taiwan Public Child Care Centers
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 建築學系碩博士班
系所名稱(英) Department of Architecture
學年度 99
學期 2
出版年 100
研究生(中文) 楊武泰
研究生(英文) Wu-Tai Yang
學號 n7894124
學位類別 博士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 138頁
口試委員 指導教授-江哲銘
口試委員-賴榮平
口試委員-張珩
口試委員-周鼎金
口試委員-周家鵬
中文關鍵字 托兒所  室內空氣品質  決定因素  通風條件 
英文關鍵字 Child care centers (CCCs)  Indoor air quality (IAQ)  Determinants  Ventilation strategies 
學科別分類
中文摘要 面對空氣品質日益惡化的室內環境,多數時間生活在托兒所等幼教機構的學齡前兒童,相較於其他年齡層族群承受更高的暴露風險。目前有關兒童健康風險評估的本土研究指出,台灣地區兒童氣喘盛行率呈現逐年遞增的趨勢,但針對托兒所室內空氣品質進行全面性調查的研究仍付之闕如。
本研究以台灣地區公立托兒所為研究對象,選取代表性案例,並分別在自然通風及使用空調條件下進行室內空氣品質現場檢測,以瞭解室內空氣品質特性。此外透過統計分析方式,掌握通風條件對室內空氣品質影響,並判斷室內空氣品質決定因素。
以下從室內空氣品質特性、通風條件對室內空氣品質影響,以及室內空氣品質決定因素三個面向歸納本研究結果。
一、室內空氣品質特性
相較於高緯度國家之相似機構,台灣地區公立托兒所在使用空調條件下,室內溫度、相對濕度、TVOC濃度皆高於北歐等高緯度國家之托兒所,且同樣有換氣率不足及CO2超標的問題;在自然通風條件下,除了室內溫度、相對濕度、TVOC濃度更顯著高於北歐等高緯度國家之托兒所,室內PM10濃度也較高。
二、通風條件對室內空氣品質影響
自然通風條件下,室外熱濕空氣較容易進入室內,室外CO及PM10較容易滲入室內;使用空調條件下,室內換氣率較低,室內CO2及HCHO較容易累積室內。室內TVOC濃度則受到通風條件以外因素的影響。
三、室內空氣品質決定因素
室內CO2濃度決定因素為換氣率及人員密度(使用空調:β = -69.59 and 2751.55, P < 0.1 and P < 0.05),室內CO濃度決定因素為廚房毗鄰程度(自然通風:β = 0.46, P < 0.01),室內PM10濃度決定因素為室外PM10濃度、區位屬性(自然通風:β = 0.40 and 54.73, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01)及窗簾裝設(使用空調:β = 0.01, P < 0.05),室內HCHO濃度決定因素為室外HCHO濃度(自然通風:β = 1.70, P < 0.01;使用空調:β = 0.93, P < 0.05)及窗簾裝設(使用空調:β = 0.01, P < 0.01),室內TVOC濃度決定因素為地板清潔頻率(使用空調:β = 157.30, P < 0.1)。關鍵影響因素依序是室外濃度、區位屬性、廚房毗鄰程度、窗簾裝設、換氣率、人員密度及地板清潔頻率。
英文摘要 Since indoor air quality (IAQ) has been getting worse, children spending most of their daytime in child care centers (CCCs) face greater environmental health risks to indoor pollutants than adults. In Taiwan, there are few reports about IAQ in CCCs although studies on domestic children’s health risk assessment show the prevalence of asthma in school children is increasing year by year.
This study measures indoor pollutants concentrations in Taiwan public CCCs involving representative samples either naturally ventilated (NV) or air-conditioned (AC) to figure out their IAQ problems. In addition, this study finds effect of ventilation strategies on IAQ and evaluates the determinants of IAQ parameters in Taiwan public CCCs with univariate analyses and mutlivariate linear regression analyses.
The results showed that:
1. Environmental and IAQ parameters
Mean indoor temperature, relative humidity, and TVOC concentrations measured in AC CCCs of this study were higher in comparison with those performed in the cold countries although all studies showed inadequate ventilation and excessive indoor CO2 levels. Mean indoor temperature, relative humidity, and TVOC concentrations measured in NV CCCs of this study were much higher in comparison with those performed in the cold countries while indoor PM10 levels were generally higher than those performed elsewhere.
2. Effect of ventilation strategies on IAQ
Hot and humid outdoor air and outdoor pollutants such as CO and PM10.penetrated NV CCCs effortlessly in NV CCCs relative to AC CCCs. The indoor concentrations of air pollutants such as CO2 and HCHO accumulated in AC CCCs easily compared to NV CCCs. Ventilation strategies didn’t contribute dominantly to indoor concentrations of TVOC.
3. Determinants of indoor pollutants
AERs and Occupant density were found to be determinants in the indoor CO2 models (AC: β = -69.59 and 2751.55, P < 0.1 and P < 0.05). In the indoor CO models, only proximity to kitchen was found to be the determinant (NV: β = 0.46, P < 0.01). For indoor PM10, outdoor PM10 concentration, area (NV: β = 0.40 and 54.73, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), and presence of curtains (AC: β = 0.01, P < 0.05) were the determinants. Outdoor HCHO concentration (NV: β = 1.70, P < 0.01; AC: β = 0.93, P < 0.05) and presence of curtains (AC: β = 0.01, P < 0.01) were the determinants for indoor HCHO. Floor cleaning (AC: β = 157.30, P < 0.1) was found to be the determinant for the indoor TVOC models. Critical Factors were outdoor concentration, area, proximity to kitchen, presence of curtains, AERs, occupant density, and floor cleaning in sequence.
論文目次 第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機 1-01
1-2 研究目的 1-04
1-3 研究範圍 1-05
1-4 研究方法 1-06
1-5 研究流程 1-08

第二章 文獻探討
2-1 室內空氣品質與兒童生理健康 2-01
2-1-1 兒童高暴露風險 2-01
2-1-2 室內空氣品質對兒童生理健康影響 2-02
2-1-3 國外托兒所室內空氣品質調查 2-05
2-2 台灣地區托兒所室內空氣品質 2-08
2-2-1 地理氣候特性 2-08
2-2-2 幼托機構概況 2-09
2-2-3 前期調查成果 2-11
2-3 建築通風換氣與室內空氣品質 2-14
2-3-1 建築通風換氣模式 2-14
2-3-2 空氣質量模型 2-16
2-3-3 通風條件對室內空氣品質影響 2-19
2-4 室內空氣品質決定因素 2-22
2-4-1 室內空氣污染物來源 2-22
2-4-2 決定因素判斷模式 2-25

第三章 研究設計與方法
3-1 研究架構 3-01
3-2 研究對象與樣本 3-03
3-3 室內空氣品質檢測 3-07
3-3-1 採樣點數目 3-07
3-3-2 採樣點位置 3-08
3-3-3 採樣時段及時間長度 3-10
3-3-4 檢測項目及方法 3-11
3-4 資料處理 3-16
3-4-1 瞭解室內空氣品質特性 3-16
3-4-2 掌握通風條件對室內空氣品質影響 3-18
3-4-3 判斷室內空氣品質決定因素 3-19

第四章 研究結果與討論
4-1 室內空氣品質特性 4-01
4-1-1 自然通風條件室內空氣品質 4-01
4-1-2 使用空調條件室內空氣品質 4-03
4-1-3 台灣地區托兒所室內空氣品質特性 4-05
4-2 通風條件對室內空氣品質影響 4-08
4-2-1 室內換氣率變化 4-08
4-2-2 室外熱濕空氣進入 4-08
4-2-3 室外空氣污染物滲入 4-09
4-2-4 室內空氣污染物累積 4-10
4-2-5 通風條件以外因素造成的影響 4-11
4-3 室內空氣品質決定因素 4-13
4-3-1 統計分析結果 4-14
4-3-2 綜合討論 4-20

第五章 結論與建議
5-1 結論 5-01
5-2 建議 5-04

參考文獻
中文文獻 Ref-01
日文文獻 Ref-02
英文文獻 Ref-02

附錄
附錄一 建築基本資料調查表 App-01
附錄二 意願參與室內空氣品質檢測之公立托兒所基本資料 App-03
附錄三 室內空氣污染物之現場量測方法 App-13
附錄四 托兒所室內空氣品質現況調查成果與改善建議 App-21
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