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系統識別號 U0026-2101201812180400
論文名稱(中文) 慢性期複雜型輕度創傷性腦傷患者之心理功能抱怨與神經心理功能探討
論文名稱(英文) Psychological complaints and neuropsychological functions in patients with chronic complicated mild traumatic brain injury
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 健康照護科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Allied Health Sciences
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 蘇倍儀
研究生(英文) Bei-Yi Su
電子信箱 sw0513@gmail.com
學號 TA8991018
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 114頁
口試委員 召集委員-花茂棽
口試委員-周偉倪
口試委員-張哲豪
口試委員-郭進榮
指導教授-郭乃文
中文關鍵字 複雜型輕度創傷性腦傷  復工  腦挫傷  記憶功能  情緒功能  主觀抱怨  蜘蛛網膜下腔出血  執行功能  額葉 
英文關鍵字 Complicated mild traumatic brain injury  contusion  emotion  frontal lobe  memory  return to work  subarachnoid hemorrhage 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景與目的:創傷性腦傷 (traumatic brain injury, TBI)患者大腦組織在遭受直接或間接的強烈衝擊與高速旋轉下,造成患者神經心理功能複雜受損,與後續回歸人生軌道與社會角色之心理社會調適困難。由於TBI患者的大腦傷損有延續的可能,甚至有學者呼籲應視TBI為慢性化疾病歷程。
雖近9成的TBI患者落在輕度範圍,然實證性資料顯示,部份輕度TBI患者依然也與中重度TBI患者一般殘留長期且多面向的後遺症,只是臨床上或生活上經常被視為創傷後的情緒反應。學者呼籲應更細緻區分輕度TBI的不同嚴重程度類型,以便針對相對嚴重且預後不佳者,進行更精確的討論和更妥善的介入。本研究討論三個議題:研究一追蹤傷後兩年具腦損傷影像學證據之複雜型輕度TBI患者復工現況,並進一步討論其主觀記憶與情緒抱怨和腦損傷病灶間的關聯性。研究二針對複雜型輕度Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14至15的TBI患者為對象,討論影響其記憶力抱怨之因子。研究三探討複雜型輕度GCS 14至15的TBI患者心理抱怨與腦損傷證據和神經心理測驗表現間的關係
研究方法:研究一以190名平均受傷兩年的複雜型輕度TBI患者,採病歷回溯的方式蒐集人口學和TBI傷損之相關資料,並以電話訪問追蹤參與者在記憶、情緒、肌力、速度的主觀心智功能抱怨與復工狀況。男性共158人(60.5%),平均年齡為41.6歲,其中95人順利復工(50.0%),60人無法順利復工(31.6%),35人原本即處於無工作的狀態(18.4%)。研究針對不同復工狀態者之人口學和傷損指標與主觀心智功能抱怨間的關係。
研究二共有333名平均受傷已兩年,且在急診和住院階段GCS皆落在14-15的複雜型輕度TBI患者參與此研究。男性共196人(58.86%),平均年齡為41.59歲;參與者中共有133名(39.94%)抱怨殘留記憶問題。採病歷回溯的方式蒐集人口學和TBI傷損之生理與神經學相關資料,另以電話訪問的方式追蹤研究參與者記憶抱怨與排除其它抱怨後的純記憶抱怨,分析人口學和傷損指標與記憶功能受損報告間的關係。
研究三共有71名平均受傷已1.8年,在急診和住院階段GCS皆落在14-15的複雜型輕度TBI患者參與此研究,男性37人(48.05%),平均年齡為31.46歲,電腦斷層掃描資料(computed tomography, CT)顯示15人(21.13%)有腦挫傷,31人(43.66%)有額葉損傷之證據。研究以神經心理工具衡鑑有無腦挫傷、有無額葉損傷,以及有無心理抱怨者之神經心理功能表現。
結果:研究一共有101名(53.16%)抱怨殘留記憶或情緒問題,其中52名(27.37%)扣除肌力和速度抱怨後為純記憶或情緒問題;經分析發現伴隨腦挫傷(contusion)的複雜型輕度TBI患者有較高的可能抱怨記憶或情緒困擾,且在不同復工狀態組皆有此發現,其勝算比(odds ratio, OR)為4.82至13.50。
研究二有46名(13.81%)為純記憶抱怨,而無其它心智功能問題的抱怨;經分析發現CT顯示伴隨有contusion和同時有腦挫傷與蜘蛛網膜下腔(subarachnoid hemorrhage, SAH)出血的複雜型輕度TBI患者有較高的可能於平均傷後兩年抱怨純記憶困擾,其OR分別為2.72和4.05。
研究三有無心理抱怨者在神經心理功能尚無明顯差異;有無腦挫傷證據者,於廣泛性非語文記憶力測驗(Comprehensive Nonverbal Memory test)表現出較低的記憶效能、倫敦塔 (Tower of London)有較多違反規則錯誤數;有無額葉傷損者,在倫敦塔分數較低,且違反規則的錯誤數較多、廣泛性非語文注意力測驗(Comprehensive Nonverbal Attention test)表現出較多的衝動錯誤、在工具性日常生活工作記憶測驗 (Instrumental Verbal Working Memory of Daily Life measured working memory)聽覺工作記憶表現較差,且於語文流暢測驗 (Verbal fluency test)表現較差。
討論與總結:藉由三項子研究顯示複雜型輕度TBI患者於慢性期之心理抱怨與神經心理功能狀況,建議複雜型輕度TBI為臨床上應予以關注之輕度TBI患者之主觀心理抱怨,並尤其針對腦挫傷或額葉損傷者安排神經心理衡鑑,以進行神經-心理-社會之介入。
英文摘要 Background and aims:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading cause of disability, and is recognized as a main health problem. Besides, brain damage has resulted in a condition that may be progressive, which emphasized that TBI should be managed as chronic disease.
In Taiwan, the primary cause of TBI was motorcycle-related injury, and the vast majority of TBI is classified as mild TBI (mTBI). It is known that, even after mTBI, persistence of psychological complaints, incomplete neuropsychological recovery, and psychosocial maladjustments are highly prevalent. It is common in clinical practice to see patients with mTBI who complain about residual problems after brain injury, which may offer meaningful clinical information and are related to the nature of the disability, treatment needs, and functional outcomes. Nevertheless, the definition of mTBI is heterogeneous with a wide range of possible clinical outcomes, and the consequences of mTBI are often invisible. Thus, exploring the prognosis for subgroups of different severity degrees of mTBI was important.
The dissertation comprises three original studies from this context. First of all, we investigated patients with complicated mTBI and different return to work (RTW) statuses in order to identify the risk factors of memory or emotional complaints. In the second study, we investigated the association between neurological factors and memory complaints in patients with chronic complicated mTBI and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 to 15. In the third study, we investigated the correlations between psychological complaints and brain lesions with neuropsychological functions in patients with chronic complicated mTBI and GCS score of 14 to 15.
Methods:
Study 1: retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted by physicians in a teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan, and complicated mTBI had been identified by means of computed tomography. Psychological complaints, including problems with memory and emotions, were collected by structured telephone interviews, 10–15 minutes long, and were held with subjects who agreed to participate in our study. We used demographic data and neurological factors to predict memory or emotional complaints without muscle power or response speed (MEMR) complaints.
Study 2: medical records were retrospectively analyzed by physicians and clinical neuropsychologists in several teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan. Subjective memory complaints were determined in structured telephone interviews with patients in the chronic stage of complicated mTBI.
Study 3: computerized tomography (CT) scans and medical records were retrospectively analyzed by physicians and neuropsychologists in southern Taiwan. We evaluated all patients’ psychological complaints and EF, including executive attention, working memory, verbal fluency, planning, and flexibility, measured by Comprehensive Nonverbal Attention test (CNAT), Comprehensive Nonverbal Memory Test (CNMT), Serial Verbal Memory Task (SVMT), Instrumental Verbal Working Memory of Daily Life (IVWM), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Landon (Toll), and Stroop test.
Results:
Study 1 showed that only the presence or absence of cerebral contusions predicted memory or emotional complaints without MEMR complaints in different employed status, and the odds ratio was 4.82–13.50 times higher for those with cerebral contusions than for those without.

Study 2 showed that 133 patients (39.94%) complained about memory complaints (MCs), and 46 patients (13.81%) complained about memory complaints only (MCOs). No demographic factors were associated with MCOs. However, brain contusions and mixed types of hemorrhage (brain contusions and subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) showed significant associations with MCOs.
Study 3 showed that 15 patients (21.1%) with brain contusions had much less CL on CMNT (F = 8.544, P < .01, η2 = 0.125), and total number of C errors on the ToL (F = 5.268, P < .05, η2 = 0.076) than those without brain contusions. Thirty-one patients (43.7%) with frontal lesions on CT had significantly lower total ToL scores, more ToL commission errors, more impulsive CNAT errors, lower IVWM auditory scores, and less verbal fluency. Confounding factors were excluded after demographic factors had been controlled for.
Discussions and Conclusions:
The findings of these studies demonstrated that patients with complicated mTBI might have long-term sequelae. Brain contusions or mixed types of hemorrhage might be markers for detecting high-risk patients with subjective complaints. In addition, complicated mTBI with frontal lobe lesions might be also an indicator for predicting poorer EF, even in the chronic stage. In summary, complaints might imply meaningful information rather than represent noise, and brain pathology of mTBI needs more attention in clinical settings when considering prognosis and neuropsychological rehabilitation.
論文目次 摘要 I
SUMMARY VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS XI
LIST OF TABLES XIV
LIST OF FIGURES XV
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN TAIWAN 1
1.2 LONG TERM CONSEQUENCES OF MTBI 3
1.2.1 Psychological complaints 3
1.2.2 Neuropsychological impairments 5
1.3 METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF MTBI 8
1.3.1 The heterogeneity of mTBI 8
1.3.2 The non-injury confounding variables 12
2 STUDY 1 14
2.1 INTRODUCTION 15
2.2 METHODS 17
2.2.1 Participants 17
2.2.2 Procedure 18
2.2.3 Measures 20
2.2.4 Statistical analysis 23
2.3 RESULTS 24
2.3.1 Demographics and Regrouping 24
2.3.2 Patient complaints about functional problems 25
2.3.3 Predictors of MEMR complaints 26
2.4 DISCUSSIONS 33
2.5 CONCLUSION 36
3 STUDY 2 37
3.1 INTRODUCTION 38
3.2 METHODS 41
3.2.1 Participants and procedures 41
3.2.2 Measures 43
3.2.3 Statistical analysis 45
3.3 RESULTS 46
3.3.1 Demographic and neurological characteristics 46
3.3.2 Subjective memory complaints 47
3.3.3 Risk factors of memory complaints 48
3.4 DISCUSSIONS 54
3.5 CONCLUSION 57
4 STUDY 3 58
4.1 INTRODUCTION 59
4.2 METHODS 62
4.2.1 Participants 62
4.2.2 Measures 65
4.2.3 Statistical analysis 69
4.3 RESULTS 71
4.3.1 Demographic and neurological data 71
4.3.2 Group differences in neuropsychological
functions 72
4.3.3 Executive functions in participants based on
impairment criteria 73
4.4 DISCUSSION 83
4.5 CONCLUSIONS 86
5 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 87
5.1 LIMITATION OF STUDIES AND FUTURE AIMS 91
REFERENCE 93
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