系統識別號 U0026-2101201615121400
論文名稱(中文) 從神經心理和神經生理角度了解不同運動型態老年人在視覺空間注意力的表現差異
論文名稱(英文) Exercise-Mode-Related Difference in Visuospatial Attention Performance in the Elderly: A Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological Study
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 體育健康與休閒研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
學年度 104
學期 1
出版年 105
研究生(中文) 黃舒妤
研究生(英文) Shu-Yu Huang
學號 RB6021053
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 47頁
口試委員 指導教授-蔡佳良
中文關鍵字 運動型態  視覺空間注意力  大腦事件相關電位  老年人  抑制性控制 
英文關鍵字 exercise mode  visuospatial attention  event-related potential  elderly  inhibitory control 
中文摘要 認知功能會隨著年齡的增長而下降,然而,規律參與運動可以減緩老年人認知功能的退化,但不同運動型態是否對認知功能會帶來不同的影響卻不甚明瞭,因此,本研究主要探討規律參與不同運動型態老年人在視覺空間注意力表現的影響。本研究招募60位年齡65-80歲的老年人,依其參與的運動類型分成開放式運動組(20位)、封閉式運動組(20位)與坐式生活控制組(20位),所有受試者皆執行Posner認知作業,並同時記錄大腦事件相關電位,藉此比較不同運動型態對老年人神經心理與神經生理表現所產生的效果。研究結果發現:在神經心理方面,兩組運動組不論在一致或不一致情境,反應時間皆比未進行規律運動的老人控制組快,而開放式運動組表現出最佳的注意力抑制性控制表現;從神經生理方面來看,兩組運動組的P3振幅皆比控制組大,而開放式運動組雖比封閉式運動組P3振幅大,但只有接近顯著差異。以上結果可說明規律從事運動可提升老年人的視覺空間注意力表現,而參與開放式運動或許會比封閉式運動有較大的神經認知促進效果。
英文摘要 Summary: Additionally, compared to closed-skill exercise, open-skill one could be a more effective physical exercise mode on specific types of executive-control functioning in the elderly. Introduction: Due to aged people increasing, it entered the aging society in the worldwide. Although it has been widely shown that cognitive functions, memory, executive function, attention, and processing speed would decline with aging, engaging physical exercise regularly could prevent or delay such negative influences. However, the effects of different exercise modes on neurocognitive performances still remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different exercise-mode (open-skill exercise and close-skill exercise) on visual-spatial attention in elder adults. According to the defined of researcher, exercises could be categorized into open-skill exercise and close-skill exercise. Open skill sports were defined in which players were required to react in a dynamically changing, unpredictable and externally-paced environment (e.g. tennis, basketball, etc.), in contrast, closed skill sports were defined in which the sporting environment it is relatively highly consistent, predictable, and self-paced for players(e.g. jogging, swimming, running, etc.)We hypothesis the behavior of exercise groups will better than control group, and open-skill group will better than close-skill group. Second, the P3 amplitude of exercise groups will larger than control group, and open-skill group will larger than close-skill group. Third, the ability of inhibitory control of exercise group will better than control group, and open-skill group will better than close-skill group. Methods: Sixty elder adults aged 65-80 years old were recruited and classified those into open-skill exercise (table tennis, badminton, n=20), close-skill exercise (swimming, jogging, n=20) and sedentary control (n=20) groups based on their exercise modes. In this study, we recorded participant’s reaction time, accuracy, and physical characteristics, seven-day physical activity recall, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory II), MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) and VO2max. All participants were additionally required to satisfy the following criteria: the score of BDI should under 13, score of MMSE at least 25, normal or corrected-to- normal vision, no history of neurological disorder. And in the exercise groups, participants at least three times per week for less than 30 min per session and at medium intensity in the past two year, in the sedentary group without regular exercise at least a year. A modified Posner paradigm with concomitant electrophysiological recording was performed in the three groups. The Posner paradigm with two blocks, one block for 90 trails, Posner paradigm including three condition: valid (60%), invalid (30%), and neutral (10%), all trails showed randomly, and equal chance. When target showed in the right side, participant used right hand to press the button “M”, if the target showed in the left side, participant used left hand to press the button “N”. Before test, it will practice few times to make sure participants understand this test. In the experiment participant will be asked for keeping body and head stabilizer and looking the central of the computer monitor. Results and Discussion: There was not significant in the physical characteristics among three groups. The score of VO2max was significant between exercise groups and control group, but there was no significant between open-skill exercise group and close-skill exercise group. The findings revealed that, relative to the control group, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter RTs and larger P3 amplitudes across all conditions. And the reaction time of valid condition was faster the invalid condition. But there was no significant in the accuracy among three groups across all condition, it showed that no effect in accuracy when participant engaged exercise or not. In addition, the open-skill exercise group showed better inhibitory response capabilities than those of the closed-skill and control groups when performing the Posner paradigm. The P3 amplitude approached significance between two exercise groups. In the electrodes, three electrodes (FZ, PZ, CZ) showed significant in the P3 amplitude. The limitation of this study: because the exercise groups of present study was table tennis, badminton, swimming, and jogging only, there are still many exercise excluded in this study, therefore, the result couldn’t be inference to other exercise mode. Conclusion: Overall, regularly participating in physical exercise can improve neurocognitive performances with regard to visuospatial attention in the elderly. Researchers suggested that future experiments could use different cognitive task to study exercise mode in elder people. And people should engaged exercise at least 6 month, because there was a study showed that doing regular physical exercise longer than 6 month could improve cognitive effect. In other side, even though there was no significant in accuracy among three groups, but it proved that present study found no speed and accuracy trade off effect between
reaction time and accuracy.
論文目次 中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
第壹章、緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究目的 7
第三節、研究假設 8
第四節、名詞解釋 8
第五節、研究限制 10
第貳章、文獻探討 11
第一節、運動對老年人認知功能的益處 11
第二節、不同運動型態對認知的影響 12
第三節、視覺空間注意力介紹 14
第四節、運動與視覺空間注意力 15
第五節、運動與抑制控制 16
第六節、總結 17
第參章 研究方法與架構 18
第一節、研究架構 18
第二節、研究對象 18
第三節、研究工具 19
第四節、實驗流程 21
第五節、資料處理與分析 24
第肆章 研究結果 26
第一節 基本資料 26
第二節 神經心理/行為表現 28
第三節 神經生理表現 32
第伍章 討論 34
第陸章、結論與建議 40
第一節 結論 40
第二節 未來建議 40
參考文獻 41

圖 1 視覺空間注意作業 23
圖 2 腦波圖總平均圖 33

表 1 基本資料表 27
表 2 反應時間數值表 30
表 3 正確率數值表 31
表 4 P3振幅表現數值表 33

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