||Exercise-Mode-Related Difference in Visuospatial Attention Performance in the Elderly: A Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological Study
||Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies
Summary: Additionally, compared to closed-skill exercise, open-skill one could be a more effective physical exercise mode on specific types of executive-control functioning in the elderly. Introduction: Due to aged people increasing, it entered the aging society in the worldwide. Although it has been widely shown that cognitive functions, memory, executive function, attention, and processing speed would decline with aging, engaging physical exercise regularly could prevent or delay such negative influences. However, the effects of different exercise modes on neurocognitive performances still remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different exercise-mode (open-skill exercise and close-skill exercise) on visual-spatial attention in elder adults. According to the defined of researcher, exercises could be categorized into open-skill exercise and close-skill exercise. Open skill sports were defined in which players were required to react in a dynamically changing, unpredictable and externally-paced environment (e.g. tennis, basketball, etc.), in contrast, closed skill sports were defined in which the sporting environment it is relatively highly consistent, predictable, and self-paced for players(e.g. jogging, swimming, running, etc.)We hypothesis the behavior of exercise groups will better than control group, and open-skill group will better than close-skill group. Second, the P3 amplitude of exercise groups will larger than control group, and open-skill group will larger than close-skill group. Third, the ability of inhibitory control of exercise group will better than control group, and open-skill group will better than close-skill group. Methods: Sixty elder adults aged 65-80 years old were recruited and classified those into open-skill exercise (table tennis, badminton, n=20), close-skill exercise (swimming, jogging, n=20) and sedentary control (n=20) groups based on their exercise modes. In this study, we recorded participant’s reaction time, accuracy, and physical characteristics, seven-day physical activity recall, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory II), MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) and VO2max. All participants were additionally required to satisfy the following criteria: the score of BDI should under 13, score of MMSE at least 25, normal or corrected-to- normal vision, no history of neurological disorder. And in the exercise groups, participants at least three times per week for less than 30 min per session and at medium intensity in the past two year, in the sedentary group without regular exercise at least a year. A modified Posner paradigm with concomitant electrophysiological recording was performed in the three groups. The Posner paradigm with two blocks, one block for 90 trails, Posner paradigm including three condition: valid (60%), invalid (30%), and neutral (10%), all trails showed randomly, and equal chance. When target showed in the right side, participant used right hand to press the button “M”, if the target showed in the left side, participant used left hand to press the button “N”. Before test, it will practice few times to make sure participants understand this test. In the experiment participant will be asked for keeping body and head stabilizer and looking the central of the computer monitor. Results and Discussion: There was not significant in the physical characteristics among three groups. The score of VO2max was significant between exercise groups and control group, but there was no significant between open-skill exercise group and close-skill exercise group. The findings revealed that, relative to the control group, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter RTs and larger P3 amplitudes across all conditions. And the reaction time of valid condition was faster the invalid condition. But there was no significant in the accuracy among three groups across all condition, it showed that no effect in accuracy when participant engaged exercise or not. In addition, the open-skill exercise group showed better inhibitory response capabilities than those of the closed-skill and control groups when performing the Posner paradigm. The P3 amplitude approached significance between two exercise groups. In the electrodes, three electrodes (FZ, PZ, CZ) showed significant in the P3 amplitude. The limitation of this study: because the exercise groups of present study was table tennis, badminton, swimming, and jogging only, there are still many exercise excluded in this study, therefore, the result couldn’t be inference to other exercise mode. Conclusion: Overall, regularly participating in physical exercise can improve neurocognitive performances with regard to visuospatial attention in the elderly. Researchers suggested that future experiments could use different cognitive task to study exercise mode in elder people. And people should engaged exercise at least 6 month, because there was a study showed that doing regular physical exercise longer than 6 month could improve cognitive effect. In other side, even though there was no significant in accuracy among three groups, but it proved that present study found no speed and accuracy trade off effect between
reaction time and accuracy.
第參章 研究方法與架構 18
第肆章 研究結果 26
第一節 基本資料 26
第二節 神經心理/行為表現 28
第三節 神經生理表現 32
第伍章 討論 34
第一節 結論 40
第二節 未來建議 40
圖 1 視覺空間注意作業 23
圖 2 腦波圖總平均圖 33
表 1 基本資料表 27
表 2 反應時間數值表 30
表 3 正確率數值表 31
表 4 P3振幅表現數值表 33
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