||A Study of the Factors of Consumers' Purchase Intentions towards Hybrid Electric Vehicles in New Taipei City
||Institute of International Management (IIMBA--Master)(on the job class)
HEV(hybrid electric vehicles
New product attributes
近年來，全球暖化及氣候變遷是不爭的事實。在2005年於日本簽定的京都議定書正式生效之際，人類文明發展亦正式邁入「受碳限制」的世紀，「節能減碳」已成為世界各國努力的重要課題。根據2008年國內統計資料顯示，運輸部門是僅次於能源及工業部門的第三大溫室氣體排放部門(Brady & Cronin, 2002; 經濟部能源局, 2010d)；在環保意識抬頭下，現行的汽車產業也漸漸開始朝向環境保護的概念發展。油電混合車（Hybrid Electric Vehicle, HEV）是一種結合油電混合動力車兼採內燃機（引擎）及電動馬達之優點，並彌補各自之缺點，能有效減少油耗。此種低污染、低耗能的優異性能將逐漸成為未來車市的主流，因此油電混合車之消費者購買意願因素之分析研究有其必要性。
In recent years, the global warming that has been driving the temperature up is getting more and more serious. When the Kyoto Protocol was signed in Japan and became effective in 2005, the development of human beings’ civilization formally strode into the century of “subject to carbon.” Energy saving and carbon reduction has already become an important and hard task for all of the countries in the world. The transportation department is the third largest department in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in many countries (Bureau of Energy, 2010a). Therefore, based on the eco-awareness gaining ground, the automotive industry nowadays begins to develop vehicles with the concept of environmental protection. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the developments in automotive industry which was based on the concept of environmental protection. The HEV combined two driving powers - fuel and electric, so that it can reduce fuel consumption effectively. The HEV with low pollution and low fuel consumption advantages will gradually become more and more popular in the automobile industry in the future. As such, the study of consumer purchase intention toward HEV is important and imperative.
Moreover, in 2008, the first “Low Carbon Community Development Center” was established in New Taipei City. “Popularizing the transportation with low pollution” is one of the major activities in the “green traffic” plan, which is one of the 4 major carbon reduction plans (Low Carbon Center, 2010). The research studies the factors of consumers’ purchase intention toward HEV in New Taipei City through new product attributes, consumer characteristics, and environment variables. The result of this research is to provide to New Taipei City for policy executing and to vehicle firms for car market spreading.
This research investigates consumers with 20-year-old over and above by questionnaires in New Taipei City. After data analysis, the conclusions are as below,
1.There is obvious difference between new product attributes and consumer purchase intention toward HEV.
2.There is partial difference between consumer characteristics and consumer purchase intention toward HEV.
3.There is obvious difference between environmental variable and consumer purchase intention toward HEV.
This research discovers that reducing new product’s complexity, increasing new product’s compatibility and relative advantage, and high after-sales service quality can improve consumer purchase intention toward HEV. And there is obvious difference between consumers with different life styles and consumer purchase intention toward HEV. Finally, in the environmental variables aspect, there is positive relationship between social support and consumer purchase intention toward HEV.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI
LIST OF TABLES X
LIST OF FIGURES XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background. 1
1.2 Research Motivation. 4
1.3 Research Purpose and Contribution. 5
1.4 Research Scope and Constraints. 5
1.5 Research Flow. 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 International Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction Related Regulations. 8
2.1.1 International. 8
2.1.2 National. 11
2.2 HEV Related Information. 15
2.2.1 The Concept and Theorem of HEVs. 15
2.2.2 HEV Categories. 17
2.2.3 The Benefits of HEVs. 20
2.2.4 The Subsidization of HEVs in Taiwan. 20
2.3 The Concept and Categories of Innovation. 20
2.3.1 The Concept of Innovation. 20
2.3.2 Innovation Categories. 21
2.4 Innovative Products and Consumer Behavior. 22
2.4.1 The Definition of Innovative Products. 22
2.4.2 Innovative-Product-Adoption Process. 22
2.5 New Product Attributes. 24
2.5.1 Complexity. 24
2.5.2 Relative Advantage. 25
2.5.3 Compatibility. 25
2.5.4 Price. 25
2.5.5 Brand. 26
2.5.6 After-sales Service Quality. 27
2.6 Consumer Characteristics. 28
2.6.1 Demographics. 28
2.6.2 Lifestyle Research. 28
2.6.3 Consumer Motivation. 29
2.7 Environmental Variables. 31
2.7.1 Social Support. 31
2.7.2 Information Sources. 31
2.8 Hypothesis Development. 32
2.8.1 New Product Attributes. 32
2.8.2 Consumer Characteristics. 37
2.8.3 Environmental Variables. 39
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 40
3.1 Research Structure and Hypotheses. 40
3.2 Operational Definitions of the Research Variables. 42
3.2.1 New Product Attributes. 42
3.2.2 Consumer Characteristics. 43
3.2.3 Environmental Variables. 43
3.3 Questionnaire Design. 43
3.3.1 Consumers’ Actual Consuming Status, Information Source and Purchase Motivation. 44
3.3.2 Evaluations of New Product Attributes. 44
3.3.3 Evaluation of Lifestyle Variables. 47
3.3.5 The Purchase Intention on Innovative Products. 49
3.3.6 Demographic Characteristics. 49
3.4 Sampling Plan. 50
3.5 Statistical Analysis Methods. 51
3.5.1 Descriptive Statistics. 51
3.5.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis. 51
3.5.3 Multiple Regression Analysis. 53
3.5.4 One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA). 53
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 54
4.1 Descriptive Analysis. 54
4.1.1 Sample Distribution by City-Section. 54
4.1.2 Analysis of Demographic Characteristics. 55
4.1.3 Analysis of Consumers’ HEV Information Sources. 59
4.1.4 Analysis of Reasons for Non-Purchases. 60
4.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability Test. 61
4.2.1 New Product Attributes 61
4.2.2 A.I.O. Lifestyles. 64
4.2.3 Environmental Variable. 66
4.3 Multiple Regression Analysis. 68
4.3.1 The Relationship among New Product Attributes and Consumers’ Purchase Intention towards HEVs. 68
4.3.2 The Relationship among A.I.O. Lifestyles and Consumers’ Purchase Intention towards HEVs. 69
4.3.3 The Relationship among Environmental Variables and Consumers’ Purchase Intention towards HEVs. 69
4.4 Analyses of Variance (ANOVA). 70
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 71
5.1 Conclusion. 71
5.2 Managerial Implications. 73
5.3 Limitations and Future Research Directions. 75
Appendix 1: Questionnaire – Chinese Version. 82
Appendix 2: Questionnaire – English Version. 87
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Ranking Table of Vehicles’ Engine Displacement 12
Table 2-2 The Green Vehicles in 2010 14
Table 2-3 Life Style Research – A.I.O. Measurement 38
Table 3-1 Consumers’ Actual Consuming Status, Information Source and Purchase Motivation 44
Table 3-2 Demographic Characteristics 49
Table 3-3 Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) 52
Table 4-1 Sampling Results by City-Section 55
Table 4-2 Summary of Demographic Characteristics 57
Table 4-3 Consumers’ HEV Purchase Motivation 58
Table 4-4 Consumers’ HEV Information Sources 59
Table 4-5 Reasons Consumers Do Not Purchase HEVs 60
Table 4-6 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test Results – New Product Attributes 62
Table 4-7 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test Results – A.I.O. Lifestyles 65
Table 4-8 Factor Analysis and Reliability Test Results – Environmental Variables 66
Table 4-9 Multiple Regression Analysis Results 68
Table 4-10 One-way ANOVA Results 70
Table 5-1 Result of Proposed Research Hypotheses 71
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1. Atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory 2
Figure 2-1. Energy efficiency label, Taiwan, R.O.C. 13
Figure 2-2. Series parallel hybrid system 18
Figure 2-3. Series hybrid system 18
Figure 2-4. Parallel hybrid system 19
Figure 2-5. Innovative-Product-Adoption process 23
Figure 2-6. Holak’s new product adoption model 24
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