||Manufacturing Process and Properties of Alkaline Activated Binders Made from Rice Husk Ash
||Department of Civil Engineering
Rice husk ash
burning rice husk
Annular huge amount of waste rice husk becomes a severe ecology and environment problem that the Vietnam government has to deal with. Rice husk is the byproduct of agricultural paddy milling. Normally, it takes a long time for waste rice husk to decompose at ambient temperature. People in some regions of southern Vietnam, have trouble of lots of waste rice husk dumped arbitrarily in agricultural fields. The amount of waste rice husk is significantly increased after harvesting of crops, limiting the space available to living animals and human beings. Meanwhile, the emission of large amount of carbon dioxide in cement industry could lead to the greenhouse effect on earth. When both ecology and environment problems are taken into account, the feasibility for the replacement of Portland cement by using rice husk in the production of Portland cement binders needs to be investigated in detail. Because high proportion of silica is contained in waste rice husk, it can be used as a raw material in the production of alkaline activated binders. By conducting a series of tests, the most suitable burning temperature for making rice husk ash and the appropriate alkaline activator for producing alkaline activated binders were experimentally obtained. It is found that the burning temperature of 700oC is preferred to make the alkaline activated binder with the highest compressive strength when 100g rice husk is placed inside a sintering furnace with a volume of 0.174 m3. Besides, the most appropriate alkaline activator is AE%= 3.5%, Ms=0.8 and W/C=0.2 while the adequate mixing time is 5 minutes.
Table of Content IV
List of Tables VII
List of Figures IX
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problem statement 1
1.2 Aim of research 3
1.3 Scope of the research 4
1.4 Dissertation outline 5
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Alkaline activated binder 7
2.2 Burning process for rice husk ash 9
2.3 Chemical reaction in burning rice husk with enough oxygen 10
2.4 Chemical reaction in burning rice husk without enough oxygen 11
2.5 Mechanisms of alkaline activated reaction 12
2.5.1 Destruction 12
2.5.2 Condensation 13
2.5.3 Crystallization 14
2.6 Effect of burning method 14
2.7 Alkaline activated reaction 17
2.7.1 Alkaline activated solution 17
2.7.2 Solid ingredient 20
Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 28
3.1. Summary of experiment 28
3.2. Materials and equipment 29
3.2.1 Experimental materials 29
a. Rice husk ash 29
b. Blast-furnace slag 30
c. Sand 30
d. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) 31
e. Sodium hydroxide 31
f. Mixing water 31
3.2.2 Experimental equipment 32
a. High temperature sintering furnace 32
b. Sieves 32
c. Electronic scale 33
d. Electronic mixer 33
e. Cubic Mold 34
f. Mechanical testing machine 34
3.3. Prepare group of sample 34
3.3.1 Alkaline activated specimens from different burning weight of rice husk ash 35
3.3.2. Alkaline activated specimens from different burning temperature of rice husk 36
3.3.3. Alkaline activated specimens from different proportion of rice husk ash 38
3.3.4. Alkaline activated specimens from different mixing time 39
3.3.5. Alkaline activated specimens from different particle size of rice husk 41
3.3.6. Alkaline activated specimens from different AE% 42
3.3.7. Alkaline activated specimens from different W/B 43
3.3.8. Alkaline activated specimens from different Ms 45
3.3.9. Effect of AE% on late compressive strength 46
3.4. Experimental process 47
3.4.1. Preparation of alkaline activator solution 48
3.4.2. Preparation for solid ingredients 49
3.4.3. Manufacture of specimens 49
3.4.4. Compression test 50
Chapter 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 61
4.1. Different burning amount of rice husk 61
4.2. Different burning temperature 64
4.3. Different proportion of RHA 66
4.4. Different mixing time 68
4.5. Different particle size 70
4.6. Different AE% 71
4.7. Different W/B 73
4.8. Different Ms 75
4.9. Effect of AE% on late compressive strength 76
Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION 86
5.1. Conclusions 86
5.1.1 Burning method of rice husk ash 86
5.1.2 Alkaline activated solution 87
5.1.3 Alkaline activated rice husk ash binder 88
5.2. Suggestion for further research 88
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