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系統識別號 U0026-2012201713390500
論文名稱(中文) 建構注意力缺陷過動疾患兒童執行注意力功能之新神經生理指標
論文名稱(英文) Constructing New Neurophysiological Indicators of Executive Attention Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 健康照護科學研究所
系所名稱(英) Institute of Allied Health Sciences
學年度 106
學期 1
出版年 106
研究生(中文) 廖御圻
研究生(英文) Yu-Chi Liao
電子信箱 kelvinblueman@gmail.com
學號 TA8011012
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 125頁
口試委員 口試委員-顏正芳
口試委員-黃惠玲
口試委員-楊延光
召集委員-鐘育志
指導教授-郭乃文
中文關鍵字 腦波有效率  執行注意力功能  注意力缺陷過動疾患  神經生理指標  錯誤關聯負波 
英文關鍵字 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)  electroencephalogram valid rate(EEGVR)  error-related negativity(ERN)  executive attention function(EAF)  neurophysiological indicator 
學科別分類
中文摘要 研究背景與目的:執行注意力功能(executive attention function, EAF)缺損為常見注意力缺陷過動疾患(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD)兒童的神經心理/行為功能(neuropsychological/neurobehavioral function)問題。研究也支持ADHD兒童之神經心理功能與神經影像學(neuroimage)表現的缺損皆為內生表現型(endophenotypes)的受損,然仍少探究神經影像與神經心理/行為功能間的關聯。自Franke等(2009)內生表現型內之層級(level)概念,才開始有較多研究放在ADHD的神經生理指標(neurophysiological indicator)與神經心理/行為功能的關係,並嘗試呼應與神經心理病理機制層級之關係。基於此,此論文的兩篇原創性研究以建構神經生理指標,並進行與EAF之關聯,作為後續協助診斷、不同類型的執行注意力困難之指標,並期待以此作為神經心理治療之療效指標,分別探討ADHD兒童的腦波(electroencephalography, EEG)與事件關聯電位(event-related potential, ERP)。雖然在EEG研究中雜訊(artifacts)的處理是標準且常見的,然少研究討論此訊息之意義及與兒童的神經心理功能之關係,故研究一藉由發展腦波有效率(electroencephalogram valid rate, EEGVR)指標,檢驗兒童的EAF。研究二從ERP技術,檢驗ADHD兒童在犯衝動錯誤(impulsive error, IE)時的錯誤關聯負波(error-related negativity, ERN)是否較小,且較小ERN的組別是否有更差的EAF。
研究方法:研究一之參與者為26位ADHD(平均9.8歲,全距8-11.3歲)及24位控制組(平均10.1歲,全距7.8-12歲)。同時進行廣泛性非語文注意力測驗組(Comprehensive Nonverbal Attention Test battery, CNAT)中之4分鐘簡單反應作業(simple reaction time task, SRT)與同步的EEG測量,再取其接受者特徵曲線 (receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC curve)的最大曲線下面積(area under curve, AUC),作為區辨落入ADHD診斷之指標並再分成低有效率(low valid rate, LVR)與高有效率(high valid rate, HVR)組。比較HVR與LVR組CNAT與四個家長填答之EAF功能問卷分數以檢驗指標之效度。研究二為49名ADHD與41名為控制組,收集4分鐘SRT作業時的犯IE時的ERN,作為錯誤覺察(error-awareness)指標。以控制組犯IE時的ERN之AUC作為效標將ADHD兒童再分成ERN不足組(ADHD-less ERN)與足夠ERN組(ADHD-enough ERN)。再分析ADHD組內的客觀EAF(CNAT)與主觀EAF(家長填答EAF功能問卷)。
結果:研究一在75%的EEGVR的切截率時,有.769的敏感度與.792的特異性,且有EAF功能的CNAT,與行為問卷等指標驗證其效果。故EEGVR可作為一種簡單且有效區辨兒童是否有注意力問題的神經生理指標。研究二結果在48%的兒童犯IE,31名(63%)ADHD兒童比率顯著高於12名(29%, P<.001)控制組。ADHD兒童犯IE錯誤的ERN小於控制組,以額葉與中央區為主(P<.01)。ADHD-less ERN與ADHD-enough ERN之父母皆主觀報告EAF困難,然僅ADHD-less ERN較未犯IE錯誤的ADHD兒童於CNAT有較差的客觀EAF表現。此ERN指標可以協助分辨不同神經心理功能表現的ADHD類型,作為支持其有不同次族群(subtypes)之證據,也可作為後續追蹤或治療之指標。
討論與總結:從EEGVR提供證據神經行為證據支持ADHD兒童有處理速度與抑制控制缺損,顯示其具抑制控制的缺損。而ERN of IE in SRT指出ADHD可能有與EAFs抑制困難,且有不穩定的動機相關歷程,顯示有不同的ADHD亞型存在。最後,本研究建構僅需4分鐘SRT同時收集EEG的程序,可用的兩個神經生理指標,且可預測兒童的EAF表現,包括EEGVR與ERN of IE in SRT,甚至用於篩檢是否有注意力缺損過動之問題。以此為基礎,建議將來的研究方向可建立此二內生表現型指標的常模,與進行跨領域的整合性研究發展更多以此內生表現型層次指標之效度與臨床使用性。
英文摘要 Background and aims: Deficit of executive attention function(EAF) is a neuropsychological /neurobehavioral problem in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There are several researches claimed ADHD children have both neuropsychological/neurobehavioral and neuroimagical function impairments as in endophenotypes level. But seldom studies examined the relationship between neurophysiological and neuropsychological/neurobehavioral functions. As Franke et al (2009) mentioned level concept in endophenotypes, more attention was paid on the relation of neurophysiological indicators and neuropsychological/neurobehavioral functions in ADHD, and to discuss the level of neuropsychopathology mechanism. The dissertation comprises two original studies from this context, and construct neurophysiological indicators to find relation with EAFs, help screening attention problems, and hope to be indicators of neuropsychotherapy. We studied ADHD children’s electroencephalography(EEG) and event-related potential(ERP) techniques separately. First of all, although signal artifacts occur often in children, but an electroencephalogram valid rate (EEGVR), constructed by excluding the artifacts, might be meaningful to evaluate children’s neuropsychological functions. So, the aim of first study was to develop an easy screening index, the EEGVR, and to investigate EAFs in children using this index. In the second study, the ERP technique were examined while we want to investigated whether in ADHD children who made impulsive error (IE) would have less error-related negativity (ERN). And if they had less ERN would correlate with poorer EAFs.
Methods: In study 1, the EEG was carried out during a 4-min simple reaction time (SRT) task as standard procedure, consisting of 26 with attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; mean age, 9.8 years; range, 8–11.3 years) and 24 without (mean age, 10.1 years; range, 7.8–12 years). An easy index was derived from the EEGVR using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The index was applied to regroup the 50 children into high valid rate (HVR) and low valid rate (LVR) groups, while the Comprehensive Non-verbal Attention Test battery(CNAT) and four behavioral questionnaires were compared between the HVR and LVR groups in order to investigate the validity of this index. In study 2, 49 with ADHD and 41 without ADHD) were investigated by a 4-minute SRT task and simultaneous EEG. When they made IE, the ERN was defined as error-awareness. The average area under curve of ERN in the control group with IEs was used as the proper criterion for regrouping the ADHD children into two groups: ADHD children with enough ERN (ADHD-enough ERN) and those with less ERN (ADHD-less ERN). EAFs from CNAT were used as objective indices, and behavioral questionnaires were used as subjective indices and statistically analyzed within ADHD groups.
Results: Study 1 showed the EEGVR at 75% was optimal to identify HVR and LVR with sensitivity 0.769 and specificity 0.792. The LVR group had significantly lower scores on both CNAT and the behavioral questionnaires, although the demographic variables and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) were similar between the two groups. The EEGVR in a SRT task might be an easy and effective index to screen the EAFs of children, and could consequently contribute to the diagnosis of ADHD. Study 2 showed forty-eight percent of the children made IEs in SRT, ADHD (n=31, 63%) was significantly more than in the control group (n=12, 29%; P<.001). The ADHD group had significant less ERN than did the control group while making IE, especially at frontal and central sites (P<.01). Both ADHD-less ERN and ADHD-enough ERN groups had poorer subjective EAFs on questionnaires. Only the ADHD-less ERN group had significant poorer objective EAFs on the CNAT than did the ADHD without IE. ADHD children had less amplitude especially in frontal and central ERN of IE. And the ERN of IE in ADHD children might help to differentiate subtypes of ADHD with different neuropsychological abilities, and the possibility that ADHD-less ERN children might be confirmed a meaningful subgroup that needs close follow-up, treatments different from standard, or both.
Discussions and Conclusions: The finding of EEGVR supplies with neurobehavioral evidence that ADHD children have both processing speed and lack of inhibition control when the detecting movements is not only goal of task demand. The ERN of IE in SRT presents the fails of inhibition control and motivational factors which relevant with EAFs, also their unstable motivational and reward-related processes are implicated different subtypes of ADHD. We have developed two neurophysiological indicators both only using a 4-minutes SRT during simultaneously EEG recording, as predictors of children’s executive attention functions, including EEGVR and ERN of IE in SRT, even can screen if they had ADHD problems. Future studies should construct norms of these indicators, and integrate with interdisciplinary research to develop indexes of endophenotype level, and examinate the clinical efficacy and validity of them.
論文目次 摘要 III
SUMMARY VI
致謝 X
TABLE OF CONTENTS XI
LIST OF TABLES XIII
LIST OF FIGURES XIV
LIST OF ABBREVIATION XV
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND AND AIMS 1
1.2 THEORY OF EXECUTIVE ATTENTION FUNCTION 2
1.3 ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) 7
1.4 NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN ADHD CHILDREN 10
1.5 AIMS OF RESEARCH 25
2 STUDY 1 26
2.1 BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES 27
2.2 METHODS 28
2.3 RESULTS 36
2.4 DISCUSSIONS 45
3 STUDY 2 48
3.1 BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS 48
3.2 METHODS 51
3.3 RESULTS 59
3.4 DISCUSSIONS 66
3.5 CONCLUSIONS 68
4 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 69
4.1 CONTRIBUTION TO NEUROPSYCHOPATHOLOGY 71
4.2 LIMITATION OF STUDIES AND FUTURE AIMS 73
4.3 NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN NEUROPSYCHOTHERAPY 75
4.4 THE ROLE OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE 78
REFERENCE 80
APPENDIX I 112
APPENDIX II 118
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