||Wall Shear Stress Imaging for Human Femoral Artery Based on Ultrafast Ultrasound Vector Velocity Estimation
||Department of BioMedical Engineering
Peripheral artery disease
Wall shear stress imaging
Vector Doppler velocity estimation
在本論文提出了基於超音波向量都普勒影像技術，用於量測活體內股動脈的壁面剪應力。本仿體實驗中，透過不同流速的流管驗證了此技術應用在壁面剪應力上的效果。實驗結果顯示，在不同流速下仿體的收縮期平均管壁剪應力分別是0.55 pa、0.70 pa、0.86 pa。並且設計了一個窄化的仿體以了解壁面剪應力在不對稱管內的分布情形。相對高的壁面剪應力出現在窄化處而相對低的管壁剪應力則出現在窄化的下游地區。在人體實驗中，壁面剪應力影像成功應用在股動脈分岔處，並且得到在股總動脈、股淺動脈、股深動脈的平均壁面剪應力分別為0.41 pa、0.49 pa、0.26 pa。
Peripheral vascular disease (PAD) is a major vascular disease. However, the symptoms of PAD are not obvious at the early stage. Therefore, if the intravascular parameters can be obtained in time, it means a significant for early diagnosis and treatment. Wall shear stress is a kind of friction exerted on the artery wall by the flowing blood, which has been considered as an important parameter in hemodynamics. Excessively high WSS may cause endothelial cell damage, plaque or aneurysm rupture, etc. At present, there are still many problems in measuring the wall shear stress in vivo. For example, only the average value at a fixed position can be obtained, but the WSS is a value that changes with time. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain dynamic wall shear stress information in vivo.
In this study, WSS imaging based on ultrasound vector Doppler velocity estimation was proposed to measure the femoral artery in vivo. In the phantom experiments, the reliability was verified to straight phantom with three different flow velocity. The experimental results show that the average systole WSS of the straight phantom at different flow velocity is 0.55 pa, 0.70 pa, and 0.86 pa, respectively. Moreover, a stenosis phantom has been designed to understand the distribution of non-regular vessel. The relatively high WSS are obtained at the narrowed compare with straight parts of the stenosis phantom. In in vivo experiments, the WSS image was successfully applied to the bifurcation of the femoral artery, and the average systole WSS in the common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery, and deep femoral artery were 0.41 pa, 0.49 pa, and 0.26 pa, respectively.
In this paper, Technique of WSS imaging based on ultrasound vector velocity estimation was proposed, and successfully applied to measure for the human femoral artery.
List of Tables...VII
List of Figures...VIII
Chapter 1 Introduction...1
1.1 Peripheral Arterial Disease...1
1.2 Femoral Artery...3
1.3 Wall Shear Stress...4
1.4 Motivation and Purpose...7
Chapter 2 Theoretical Foundations...8
2.1.1 Fundamental Theory...8
2.1.2 Reflection, Refraction and Attenuation...9
2.1.3 Doppler Effect...11
2.2 Ultrasound Imaging...12
2.2.1 A-Mode Imaging...13
2.2.2 B-Mode Imaging...13
2.2.3 M-Mode Imaging...14
2.3 Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging...15
2.3.1 Plane-Wave Imaging...15
2.3.2 Coherent Plane-Wave compounding...16
2.3.3 Doppler Imaging...17
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods...19
3.1 Experimental Setup and Data Acquisition...19
3.2 Data Processing...21
3.2.1 Particle Enhance Imaging...21
3.2.2 Vector Velocity Estimation...22
3.2.3 Wall Shear Rate Estimation...24
3.2.4 Wall Shear Stress Imaging...25
3.3 In Vitro Phantom Study...26
3.3.1 The Setup of Flow Phantom...26
3.3.2 Straight Phantom under Slow, Medium and Fast Flow...26
3.3.3 Stenosis Phantom...28
3.4 In Vivo Study...28
Chapter 4 Results...29
4.1 In Vitro Phantom Study...29
4.1.1 Straight Phantom...29
4.1.2 Stenosis Phantom...32
4.2 In Vivo Study...34
Chapter 5 Discussion...37
Chapter 6 Conclusion...40
Chapter 7 Future Work...41
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