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系統識別號 U0026-2008201916180700
論文名稱(中文) 使用光學雷達感測器做道路邊界及坑洞之檢測
論文名稱(英文) Using LIDAR Sensors to Detect the Boundary and Pit holes of Road
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 工程科學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Engineering Science
學年度 107
學期 2
出版年 108
研究生(中文) 蕭景鴻
研究生(英文) Ching-Hung Hsiao
學號 N96061127
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 54頁
口試委員 指導教授-王明習
口試委員-王宗一
口試委員-侯廷偉
中文關鍵字 自駕車  二維光學雷射  路面偵測  坑洞檢測 
英文關鍵字 Autonomous Car  two-dimensional LIDAR  Road boundary detection  Pit hole detection. 
學科別分類
中文摘要 近年來,全球汽車技術逐漸成熟,許多國家對自動駕駛汽車進行了現場測試。除了在駕駛期間影響車輛的安全性和舒適性的障礙物之外,道路上的坑洞還可能對車輛造成危險。為了減少由不良路況引起的事故,必須準確地檢測道路邊界並檢測道路坑洞或障礙物。因此,在本研究中,應用LiDAR來檢測道路的邊界和坑洞或障礙物。假設道路車道與道路邊界之間存在台階。用於檢測道路邊界的概念是估計激光雷達與光線照射的道路上的點之間的距離。比較LiDAR與道路上兩個連續測量點之間的距離,如果這兩個點距離的差值大於閾值,則這兩個點不在同一水平面上。用於確定路面的兩個點是否位於相同水平面上的方法稱為斷點檢測算法。迭代終點擬合算法適用於適合道路輪廓。在這項研究中,斷點檢測算法擴展到包括找到道路的坑洞或障礙物。實驗結果表明,它可以成功地檢測道路邊界和坑洞。當凹坑孔的寬度大於10厘米時,誤差1.5厘米。
英文摘要 In recent years, global auto technology has gradually matured, and many countries have conducted on-site tests on autonomous vehicles. In addition to obstacles affecting the safety and comfort of the vehicle during driving, the pit hole on the road can also cause dangerous to the vehicle. In order to reduce accidents caused by poor road conditions, it is necessary to accurately detect road boundaries and detect road pit holes or obstacles. Therefore, in this research, LiDAR is applied to detect the boundary and pit hole or obstacles of a road. There is an assumption that there is step existed between the road lane and road boundary. The concept used for detection the boundary of a road is to estimate the distance between the LiDAR and the point on the road the light strike on. Compare the distance between the LiDAR and two continuous strike points on the road, if the difference of these two distance is large than a threshold, then these two points are not located on the same horizontal level. The method used to determine if the two stroked points of the road surface are located on the same horizontal level is called break point detection algorithm. The Iterative End Point Fit algorithm is applied to Fit road contours. In this study, the breakpoint detection algorithm is extended to including find the pit holes or obstacles of the road. Experimental results show it can successfully detect road boundaries and pit hole. When the width of the pit hole are more than 10 cm, the error is less than 1.5 cm respectively.
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 相關研究探討 4
2.1 二維圖像資訊 4
2.2 座標轉換 7
2.3 斷點偵測演算法 9
2.4 跌代端點擬合演算法 11
第三章 研究方法 14
3.1 二維光學雷達 14
3.2 邊緣偵測 16
3.3 線段提取 17
3.4 坑洞檢測 18
3.4.1 坑洞的二維圖像表示 19
3.4.2 坑洞偵測角度 22
3.5 圖像擷取 23
3.5.1 世界座標轉化為相機座標 24
3.5.2 相機座標投影成影像座標 25
3.5.3 影像座標轉像素座標 26
第四章 系統架構與實現 27
4.1 系統架構 27
4.1.1 Arduino 28
4.1.2 伺服器馬達(Servomotor) 29
4.1.3 L298n馬達驅動 30
4.1.4 直流減速馬達(DC gear motor) 32
4.1.5 光學雷達(LiDAR) 32
4.1.6 影像辨識模組Pixy2 35
4.2 設備布置 37
4.3 實驗結果 37
4.3.1 實驗參數 39
4.3.2 實驗環境 40
4.3.3 斷點檢測結果 41
4.3.4 線段提取成果 43
4.3.5 坑洞檢測成果 47
第五章 結論與未來方向 52
5.1. 結論 52
5.2. 未來方向 52

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