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系統識別號 U0026-2007201516152200
論文名稱(中文) 探討消費者使用自助加油服務的影響因素之研究
論文名稱(英文) A Study on Factors Influencing Consumers’ Usage of Self-service Stations
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)
系所名稱(英) Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA)
學年度 103
學期 2
出版年 104
研究生(中文) 施志勇
研究生(英文) Chih-Yung Shih
學號 R07024636
學位類別 碩士
語文別 中文
論文頁數 56頁
口試委員 指導教授-賴孟寬
口試委員-蔡惠婷
口試委員-葉凱莉
中文關鍵字 自助加油服務  價格敏感度  服務便利性  消費者知覺價值  使用自助加油意願 
英文關鍵字 Self-service stations  price sensitivity  service convenience  consumer perceived value  willingness to use self-service stations 
學科別分類
中文摘要 自1987年國內油品市場開放以來,打破長期由國營事業獨佔的局面,更徹底改變了整個油品市場的結構。由於民營加油站數量的急速成長,油品的供給遠大於需求,造成加油站日均發油量降低的趨勢。而另一逐步威脅加油站經營的是,少子化問題形成了勞動力不足的現象,且勞工意識逐漸抬頭,基本薪資不斷的調整更侵蝕了經營成本,加油站刻正面臨了空前未有的挑戰。
鑒於亞洲鄰國日本積極投入自助加油站的建置,迄今全日本自助加油站佔全日本加油站之比例至今已達到24%,其成功的模式堪為國內的標竿學習對象。反觀國內自助加油發展,在台灣中油公司的創新引領下,消費者對自助加油服務的接受度已大為提高。然而,相較於日本自助加油的價格優惠,台灣自助加油優惠價格仍有相當大的運用空間。有鑑於國內勞動力短缺及人力成本增加,國內加油站業者正面臨前所未有的經營瓶頸與挑戰。而加油站消費者之所以會放棄人對人服務而改採自助服務的方式,最主要應該是考量自助服務可節省金錢、具方便性、節省時間及可自我控制等因素。因此,本研究希望能藉由問卷調查,瞭解消費者之基本變項與價格敏感度之關係,並進一步從消費者的立場探討價格敏感度及服務便利性影響其知覺價值及使用自助加油意願的關聯,作為加油站經營者未來推廣自助加油服務策略的參考。
本研究目的為探討在不同的價格敏感度及不同程度的服務便利性下,對消費者知覺價值的感受及影響使用自助加油服務意願的結果。整體的研究架構包含了自變數價格敏感度及服務便利性,中介變數消費者知覺價值及應變數使用自助加油服務意願。其中自變數與中介變數及應變數間可能存在某種因果關係,各自變數也可能有交互作用存在,因此本研究採用多因子實驗設計(factorial experiment design)方式進行資料收集以驗證研究假設。研究假設包含有假設H1不同年齡對價格敏感度有顯著影響;假設H2價格敏感度對消費者知覺價值有正向影響;假設H3服務便利性對消費者知覺價值有正向影響;假設H4消費者知覺價值對使用自助加油服務意願有正向影響;假設H5價格敏感度對使用自助加油意願影響是透過消費者知覺價值中介;假設H6服務便利性對使用自助加油意願影響是透過消費者知覺價值中介。而問卷設計則包含四個部分,第一部分將衡量自變數消費者價格敏感度的高低。第二部分為另一自變數服務便利性之衡量,包括地點及時間的便利性對消費者知覺價值的影響程度。第三部分是衡量消費者對自助加油的知覺價值程度,第四部分則是對使用自助加油意願的衡量,問項皆採李克特的5點量表呈現。最後再蒐集受訪者基本資料,包括性別、年齡、教育程度、每月收入、職業及婚姻狀態,做為假設檢驗的人口統計變數。問卷發放對象以台南市轄區發油量較大之加油站為研究區域,包括成功路加油站等10站,其中含自助加油設備加油站5站,一般人工加油站5站,每站發放35份問卷,並採隨機抽樣方式針對加油之顧客進行問卷調查。
研究結果顯示,消費者的價格敏感度對其知覺價值有顯著正向影響。自助加油的優惠價,將提升高價格敏感度消費者對使用自助加油之知覺價值,進而提升其使用意願。因此,加油站業者必須思考的是,自助加油與人工加油差價對該站消費者的吸引力影響。另外,服務便利性對消費者知覺價值亦呈現顯著正向影響,這意味著自助加油設置地點及使用時間的方便性,也將提升消費者使用自助加油的知覺價值,並進而提升其使用意願。因此,自助加油地點的設置首要滿足消費者加油的方便性,以減少其為加油付出的心力與時間。再者,由於加油人力來源短缺及人工成本增加的趨勢,如可提供較為彈性的服務時間,滿足消費者加油時間上的便利性需求,以降低其付出的時間成本。而有關人口統計變數年齡、教育程度及每月收入金額對價格敏感度之相關性,本研究結果則呈現與價格敏感度間並無特別之顯著關聯。推論其原因在於台灣汽、機車密度甚高,石油已可視為民生必需品,其價格彈性自然比較小,因而產生受訪者對商品價格變動的敏感度較小的情形。且研究樣本多分佈在價格敏感度較低的年輕族群及高教育程度族群,因此,本研究人口統計變數之年齡、教育程度及每月收入與價格敏感度並無顯著關係。
英文摘要 INTRODUCTION
The liberalization of domestic gasoline market since 1987 put an end to government-monopoly gasoline market and changed the structure of gasoline market completely. With the growth of private-owned gasoline stations, the supply of gasoline exceeds the demand which leads to the trend of low daily gasoline consumption. The other threat to the operation of gasoline stations is the problem of low fertility which leads to labor shortage. In addition, raising labor consciousness and the raising minimum wage incurring the operational cost have made the operations of gasoline stations face unprecedented challenges.
The successful business in Japan constructing self-service stations could be a good reference for Taiwan gasoline industry. To date, self-service stations account for 24% gasoline stations in Japan. In terms of the development of self-service stations in Taiwan, with the leading of CPC (Chinese Petroleum Corporation), consumers’ acceptance of self-service stations have greatly enhanced. However, compared to the preferential price of self-service stations in Japan, there is still much room for Taiwan to improve. Owing to labor shortage and increasing personnel costs, domestic gasoline industry hits a bottleneck on management. What’s more, because self-service stations are cheap, convenient, time-saving and controllable, consumers are willing to adopt self-service stations instead of the traditional ones. Therefore, this research aimed to find out the relationship between demographic variables and price sensitivity via questionnaires. And this thesis further analyzed the effect of price sensitivity and service convenience to perceived value and willingness to use self-service stations. The results provide a reference for gasoline industry to promote self-service stations in the future.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study proposed to examine consumers’ perceived value and willingness to use self-service stations under different price sensitivity and service convenience. The framework includes two independent variables, price sensitivity and service convenience; a mediator variable, consumers’ perceived value; and an independent variable, willingness to use self-service stations. Nonetheless, independent, mediator and dependent variable may have cause and effect relationship, and the two independent variables may have interaction effects. Thus, this study adopted factorial experiment design to collect data and prove research hypothesis. There are six research hypothesis. H1: Different ages have a significant influence on price sensitivity. H2: Price sensitivity has a positive effect on consumers’ perceived value. H3: Service convenience has a positive effect on consumers’ perceived value. H4: Consumers’ perceived value has a positive effect on willingness to use self-service stations. H5: Consumers’ perceived value is a mediator between price sensitivity and willingness to use self-service stations. H6: Consumers’ perceived value is a mediator between service convenience and willingness to use self-service stations. Furthermore, questionnaire design contains four parts. For the first part, items measure the independent variable, price sensitivity. In the second part, items measure service convenience which includes location and time. In the third part, items measure consumers’ perceived value for self-service stations. Finally, items measure consumers’ willingness to use self-service stations. We employ 5-point Likert scale for all items. In the end, we ask background information of the respondents including gender, age, education, monthly income, occupation and marital status, as demographics variables for hypothesis testing. We focus on 10 stations which have most daily gasoline consumption in Tainan city to distribute questionnaire. Five of them are equipped with self-service stations. Each stations have 35 respondents. Simple random sampling was adopted.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results revealed that consumers’ price sensitivity has a positive effect on perceived value. For price-sensitive consumers, the preferential price of gasoline stations will increase perceived value of the usage of self-service stations and lead to the willingness to use them. Thus, gasoline owners should think about the price difference between self-service stations and the traditional ones. Furthermore, service convenience also has a positive influence on consumer perceived value. It means that service convenience (time and location) will increase consumer’s perceived value to and willingness to use self-service stations. Therefore, the location of self-service stations should satisfy consumers’ need for convenience which means it can save their time and effort while filling fuel. Moreover, due to the trend of labor shortage and increasing personnel cost, if gasoline owners can provide flexible service time, then they can satisfy consumers’ need for convenience and reduce their time cost. In terms of analysis of relationship between demographics variables (age, education and monthly income) and price sensitivity, the results revealed that there is no significant relationship between them. We infer that it may because the car and motorcycle density is high in Taiwan, gasoline can be seen as a daily necessity. Its price elasticity is small and consumers’ price sensitivity toward it is small. What’s more, most respondents belong to young and highly educated population who are low price sensitive. In consequence, demographics variables, age, education, and monthly income in this research have no significant relationship with price sensitivity.
論文目次 目次
摘 要................................................... i
Abstract............................................... iv
誌 謝................................................... viii
第一章 緒論............................................... 1
第一節 研究背景........................................... 1
第二節 研究動機........................................... 3
第三節 研究目的........................................... 5
第四節 研究流程........................................... 6
第二章 文獻探討........................................... 7
第一節 自助服務(Self-Service)............................. 7
第二節 價格敏感度(Price Sensitivity)...................... 11
第三節 服務便利性......................................... 14
第四節 知覺價值(Perceived value).......................... 17
第五節 研究架構........................................... 19
第三章 研究方法........................................... 23
第一節 研究設計........................................... 23
第二節 變數操作性定義及衡量..................................23
第三節 前測..............................................26
第四節 正式問卷................................... ........31
第四章 結果分析與討論....................................... 33
第一節 資料處理........................................... 33
第二節 因素分析、信度與效度檢定.............................. 36
第三節 假設驗證........................................... 39
第五章 結論與建議.......................................... 45
第一節 結論.............................................. 45
第二節 學術貢獻........................................... 46
第三節 研究限制和方向...................................... 48
第六章 參考文獻........................................... 50
附錄一 研究問卷........................................... 54
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