This thesis mainly researched on Tongcheng School literates acceptance and influences on “Shiji” in Qing Dynasty, it discussed the literal value of “Shiji”, and how it influenced Tongcheng School’s theory proposal. Via Tongcheng School anthology, single essays, letters and commentaries such writings literature reviews examination and textual in-depth analysis, to induce Tongcheng School 's study of Shiji lineage. It was learned that Tongcheng School literates via learning “Shiji”, proposed classical literature theories including parallel prose and analogy poetry. Furthermore because of their focus on textual criticism and application, hence collated “Shiji” rare book collection, and expanded “Shiji” Yi-Fa’s interpretation and application. Therefore the study of Shiji under the efforts of Tongcheng School literates, continued to change and improve.
Tongcheng School is the final and the greatest literature genre in Chinese classical literature. Its founder Fang Boa, from the “Chun Qiu” and “Shiji” classics, summarized the Yi-Fa theory. The Yi-Fa theory applies historical literature’s “Chun Qiu” calligraphy and historical prose’s writing techniques to classical prose’s literature theories. Fang Boa greatly cited “Shiji” as examples, interpreting classical Yi-Fa, and became the core literature theory in literature school. TongCheng School, literate after Fang Bao, also deemed “Shiji” as a model for classical literature, via methods such as commentaries, notes, essays and monographs, to propose relevant literature theory. Hence the construction of Tongcheng School Literature theory is closely related to “Shiji”.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This thesis mainly adopted “literature review”, “textual in-depth analysis”, “ literal summary commentary” the three research methods, in order to examine Tongcheng School and the Study of “Shiji” inter- influential contents.
Firstly, the “literature review” method was used, calculating the number of types of Tongcheng School literates’ compositions on “Shiji”. In terms of the publication conditions, it included continual publications, and ancient literature collections in several large libraries. While in terms of types, it included books, single articles, commentaries and letters and the likes.
Secondly, “textual in- depth analysis’ method was used for analysis to clarify the relationship between “Shiji” and Tongcheng School literature theories. And targeted on written works on “Shiji” before Qing Dynasty, Tongcheng School literature contents and other descriptions of the study of Shiji in Qing Dynasty, for comparison research, in order to conclude the characteristics and changes of Qing Dynasty Tongcheng School, study of Shiji.
Finally, the “literature summary commentary” method was used to summarize TongCheng School theories’ inner logic under the influence of “Shiji”, to establish the lineage of Tongcheng School’s study of Shiji, and to give the appropriate commentaries.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The term “Yi-Fa” could be divided into order and combination two categories, via which to explain the rhetoric principles and methods of each types of literature. It became the crux of Tongchen School’s Composition Theory. Concerning order, from Shiji’s beauty of symmetry which escaped from classical literature’s odd sentence standards, the theory was proposed and parallel texts were selected into the classical literature anthology, and could harmonize parallel prose. In terms of combination, classical literature Yi- Fa was applied to comment on poetry, poetry was compared with “Shiji”, emphasizing on poetry paragraphing and writing techniques.
Tongcheng School’s “Shiji” study, influenced by the burgeoning of textual criticism in Qing Dynasty, also has textual criticism achievement. For example, Qian Tai Ji’s collation of Shiji, Zhang Wen Hu used it as the Shiji draft for the Jingling Bookstore, became the reliable edition for Shiji. Later Guo Song Tao absorbed Qing Jia textual criticism results, combined with the text criticism results by Zhang Wen Hu, elucidated the method of writing and composition purport for Shiji, resulting in the additional characteristic of the era in Shiji study in Tongcheng School, using textual criticism as Yi- Fa.
In late Qing Dynasty, Tongcheng School’s Shiji Study had learn in order to apply as the objective. Included Wu Ru Lun, Wu Kai Shen, father and son collective criticism on Shiji, Wu Ming Sh’s exposition “ Huo Zhi”, “ He Qu” and “ Feng Shan” three books, all through the interpretation of Tai Shi Gong’s composition purports, the objective of the pursue of statecraft. Lin shu further utilized Yi- Fa to translate Western novels. With the objective of statecraft, Tongchen School Shiji Study further renewed in order to respond to the needs of the era.
The study of Shiji by Tongcheng School in Qing dynasty, originated from “Chun Qiu”, utilizing order and combination, transformed historical annals into Yi Fa Study. Its literature writings harmonized parallel prose, poetic prose; its citation content, referenced textual criticism; its description of composition purport, labeled economics. Hence the characteristics of Shiji Study in terms of its text, its events and its laws, with the efforts of Tongchen School literati, continued to experience new changes.