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系統識別號 U0026-2006201814292300
論文名稱(中文) 內部造波流法於三維 Navier-Stokes方程模式之研究
論文名稱(英文) Investigation of Internal Generation of Waves and Currents for 3D Navier-Stokes Equations Model
校院名稱 成功大學
系所名稱(中) 水利及海洋工程學系
系所名稱(英) Department of Hydraulics & Ocean Engineering
學年度 106
學期 2
出版年 107
研究生(中文) 陳彥龍
研究生(英文) Yen-Lung Chen
電子信箱 e8496105@gmail.com
學號 N88021121
學位類別 博士
語文別 英文
論文頁數 126頁
口試委員 指導教授-蕭士俊
口試委員-黃清哲
口試委員-楊瑞源
口試委員-蔡清標
口試委員-謝志敏
口試委員-吳祚任
口試委員-李政賢
中文關鍵字 Navier-Stokes 方程模式  數值海綿層  質量源方程  波浪  浮昇射流  波流交互作用 
英文關鍵字 Navier-Stokes equations model  Numerical sponge layer  Mass source functions  Water waves  Buoyant jets  Wave-current interaction 
學科別分類
中文摘要 本文旨在建立內部造波流法於三維Navier-Stokes方程模式,提升模式探討波-流-結構物交互作用議題之適用性。數值波流水槽的建置研究可分為四個部分:二維造波和消波、三維方向造波、二維和三維造波流以及海洋海岸工程相關議題之應用。本研究採用FLOW-3D數值模式進行內部造波流法之研究。FLOW-3D求解三維Navier-Stokes方程,並以流體體積法(volume of fluid method)計算水面之變化。在波浪水槽建置方法之研究中,探討質量源造波(mass source internal wavemaker)以及數值海綿層(numerical sponge layer)消波方法之成效,進而提出增加適用性的方式。接著,將造波和消波之方法加入造流的功能。透過與實驗或理論值的比對,確認研究提出之方法能用於海洋海岸工程相關議題外,亦針對浮昇圓管射流於波浪場下之運動特性進行細部研究。

在內部造波法的研究中,探討了不同數值海綿層的消波方式,以不同相對水深以及非線性的波浪條件進行二維數值試驗,並提出建議的配置方法。除此之外,將其應用於三維水槽中,亦能得到良好的結果。接著,本研究提出不同波浪條件下,質量源造波擺放位置以及大小的設計方法。利用模擬不同條件的規則波、不規則波以及孤立波並與理論或文獻上的動量源造波結果相比,顯示本研究提出之方法能適用於相當大範圍的相對水深條件。藉由探討不同的三維質量造波配置方法,提出適用於規則波以及孤立波的方式,實現三維的方向造波。更藉由引入鬆弛法的概念,使數值海綿層能兼具消波和造流之功能。最後,透過模擬二維及三維的波浪與結構物之交互作用,比較模擬結果與實驗資料或理論解,確認提出之方法應用於海洋海岸工程議題的適用性。

在浮昇圓管射流於波浪場的研究中,探討一置於距底床半個水深處並以水平方式排放的射流受到反向行進波浪之流場特性。本文探討三種不同密度的射流流出物,與試驗資料進行驗證比對,成功模擬射流速度及濃度擴散之變化,並以數值模擬得到的流場資訊,說明射流於波浪場下振盪的機制。接著,探討波浪的相對水深、波高水深比以及浮昇力對於射流擴散之影響。在本研究的設定條件下,顯示波高水深比對於射流擴散之影響較為顯著。最後,透過數值模擬得到的三維流場,分析射流在橫截面上的擴散行為,並解釋波浪造成射流於勢心區(potential core region)和近域區(near field region)呈現不同擴散情形之原因。

本研究主要是針對三維Navier-Stokes方程模式探討二維和三維波浪以及波流相關議題所需之造波、造流以及消波方法進行研究。提出新的波流水槽建置方法,並透過各種數值試驗,進而瞭解方法的適用性,進一步提出改善的方式,冀望能對未來之相關工程議題能有所助益。
英文摘要 This dissertation presented an investigation on the method of internal generation of waves and currents for three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations models to enhance the model's capacity to simulate wave-current-structure interaction issues. The development of the proposed method could be divided into four steps: wave generation and absorption for two-dimensional (2D) wave tank, generation of directional waves for 3D wave flume, generation of wave-current, and applications for coastal/ocean engineering. The 3D numerical model FLOW-3D which solves the Navier-Stokes type equations and captures the water surface elevation by the volume of fluid method was utilized in this study. FLOW-3D was employed to investigate the mass source internal wavemaker and the numerical sponge layer. Besides, the wave-generating and-absorbing method was extended to generate currents. The problems of wave-structure interactions and wave-current interactions were considered to evaluate the ability of the proposed method. Finally, a buoyant round jet in a wave environment was studied in detail as a topic for the application.

The methodology of a directional wave-current numerical tank for a 3D Navier-Stokes equations model was established. To start with, a mass source wavemaker and a numerical sponge layer were embedded. The capability of the numerical sponge layer was first examined and an optimal layout of the sponge layer was determined based on a series of 2D numerical experiments. The scheme was successfully extended to 3D geometry. Nest, an approach for designing the mass source function was developed. Regular, irregular, and solitary waves were examined. The numerical results were compared with the analytical solutions and some numerical results obtained using the momentum source method, with good agreements observed for a wide range of relative water depths. The proposed method was applied to directional wave cases and various layouts of the source line were discussed. Also, the wave-current generation method is proposed by including the idea of the relaxation method. Finally, the proposed model was applied to simulate 2D and 3D wave-structure interaction problems. Model-data comparisons showed that the proposed method is potentially useful and efficient for examining wave-structure interactions.

The numerical study on the kinematics of buoyant round jets in a wave environment was presented. A buoyant round jet was horizontally discharged at the mid-depth in regular waves. Three kinds of effluent with various densities were used for the jets. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data, with reasonable agreement observed. The mechanism of the jet oscillation under different wave-to-jet momentum ratios was presented. The effects of relative water depth, the ratio of the wave height to the water depth, and buoyancy on jet diffusion were considered. Among them, the ratio of the wave height to the water depth appeared to be the most critical factor on jet diffusion processes under the conditions being considered. Finally, the variations of the jet cross-sectional profiles in the potential core region and the near field region were studied.
論文目次 Abstract i
摘要 iii
致謝 v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Motivation 1
1.2. Literature review 2
1.2.1. Wave generation methods 2
1.2.2. Wave absorption methods 5
1.2.3. Wave-current generation methods 6
1.3. Objectives and overview of the dissertation 8
Chapter 2. Research Method 10
2.1. Governing equations 10
2.2. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations model 11
2.2.1. Free surface boundary conditions 13
2.2.2. Wall boundary conditions 14
2.3. Volume of fluid method 14
2.4. Solid boundary treatment 15
2.5. Wave-current generation and absorption methods 16
2.5.1. Mass source internal wavemaker 16
2.5.2. Wave absorption and current generation 18
Chapter 3. Optimization of Wave-Current Generation and Absorption Methods 20
3.1. 2D wave absorption and generation method 20
3.1.1. Numerical sponge layer 20
3.1.2. Mass source internal wavemaker 28
3.2. 3D wave absorption and generation method 42
3.2.1. Directional regular wave generation 42
3.2.2. Directional solitary wave generation 53
3.3. Wave-current absorption and generation method 65
3.3.1. 2D waves-current interaction 65
3.3.2. 3D oblique waves on a current 66
3.4. Validation of ocean and coastal engineering problems 70
3.4.1. 2D regular waves propagating over submerged breakwater 70
3.4.2. 2D solitary wave propagating over slotted barrier 71
3.4.3. 3D regular waves scattered by vertical cylinder 72
3.4.4. 3D solitary wave runup on conical island 74
Chapter 4. Application to Interactions between Waves and Buoyant Round Jets 80
4.1. Introduction 80
4.2. Numerical model 83
4.2.1. Governing equations 83
4.2.2. Numerical setup 84
4.2.3. Model validation 85
4.3. Results and discussion 88
4.3.1. Effect of wave-to-jet momentum ratio on jet oscillation 88
4.3.2. Characteristics of jets in potential core and near field regions 93
4.3.3. Jet cross-sectional profiles in potential core and near field regions 99
Chapter 5. Conclusion 111
5.1. Summary 111
5.1.1. Generation and absorption method for wave-current 111
5.1.2. Evaluation of a buoyant round jet under regular waves 113
5.2. Recommendation for future study 114
References 117
Vita 124
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