||Pulse train and dual-wavelength dynamics depended on mode competitions in Neodymium-doped solid-state lasers
||Department of Photonics
cylindrical vector beam
本博士論文探討在摻釹固態雷射由模態競爭引發雙波長雷射動力學行為與脈衝行為，並且特別針對1.06 m與1.34 m波長所對應到的兩種能階躍遷路徑引發的雙模態競爭進行研究。我們使用T字型共振腔來研究雙波長雷射，此共振腔優勢在於可單獨調整單一共振腔的雷射參數，以便達成控制單一雷射來觀測另一個雷射的耦合或競爭行為。
我們提供一個製造雙波長脈衝雷射的方法，此方法包含了雷射剛啟動時的脈衝行為(Spiked pulse)與Q開關脈衝(Q-switched pulse)技術，兩者技術所對應到的波長分別為1.34 m與1.06 m，特別是1.34 m共振腔，有別於傳統脈衝雷射需要在共振腔內置入一個開關元件來達成脈衝輸出要件，此共振腔除了無開關元件以外，仍需配合1.06 m共振腔來達成啟動脈衝的條件。此雙波長在雷射增益介質中的光斑大小亦會決定雙波長脈衝是否能達成穩定輸出。在實驗中，我們以Nd:GdVO4晶體與Cr:YAG飽和吸收體為例來達成雙波長脈衝。實驗結果中，11瓦泵源功率可達成穩定雙波長脈衝，脈衝重複頻率為36.5 kHz、1.06 m脈衝寬度為89.5 ns與1.34 m脈衝寬度為427.8 ns.
除此之外，若共振腔內有雙折射介質時，則由ordinary ray與extraordinary ray形成雙模態競爭行為，此現象會在圓柱向量偏振光製造過程中會更為顯著。分開兩個模態的方法可由兩道光的光程差著手，特別是雷射共振腔操作在穩定區邊界時，控制共振腔腔長即可得到某單一模態輸出。在這樣的實驗構想下，我們使用的雷射增益介質為雙折射晶體來達成圓柱向量偏振光，其中我們可在實驗上做出方位角偏振的光源，再來配合被動式鎖模光學元件-半導體飽和吸收鏡與共振腔設計，我們達成低閾值的穩定方位角偏振之連續波鎖模雷射，此雷射也具有對熱的不靈敏特性，操作在高功率可忽略熱效應導致的不穩定行為。連續波鎖模脈衝寬度與重複頻率分別為77 ps與125 MHz。
The dual-wavelength Neodymium-doped laser with mode competition and pulse train behavior has been investigated. Dual wavelengths at 1.06 m and 1.34 m corresponding to two transitions of 4F3/2→4I11/2 and F3/2→4I13/2 have been implemented simultaneously emissions in a single laser gain medium on a T-type cavity configuration which was able to independently control the cavity parameters of single laser wavelength for balancing the competition.
In dual-wavelength pulsed laser, a method for generating a dual-wavelength, dual pulse Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.06 m and 1.34 m is proposed. When the 1.34-m spiking threshold is less than the 1.06-m Q-switched threshold, the generation of a 1.34-m spiking pulse leads a 1.06 μm Q-switched pulse resulting in a dual-wavelength laser. With a pump power of 11 W, the pulse widths are 89.5 and 427.8 ns for 1.06 and 1.34 μm, respectively, with a 36.5-KHz repetition frequency.
To analyze modes competition in dual-wavelength and bipolarized laser, we experimentally demonstrate polarization bistability in a dual-wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.06 μm and 1.34-m by using an intra-cavity electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate (EO PPLN) Bragg modulator to control the loss at 1064 nm. An inverse hysteresis switch was observed between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lasers with orthogonal polarizations by increasing and reducing the loss induced by the EO PPLN. The size of the hysteresis increased with increasing pump power. This dissertation provides an explanation based on cross-gain saturation for the bistable behavior of polarization.
Moreover, the mode competition between ordinary and extraordinary rays can be reduced into single mode oscillation to further generate a cylindrical vector beam based on the optical path difference in birefringence laser crystal when the system was operated in the edge of laser stable region. We have proposed a mode-locked Nd-vanadate laser with azimuthal polarization with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. On the basis of the birefringence of the laser crystal inducing different equivalent lengths for ordinary and extraordinary rays, beams were azimuthally polarized around the edge of a stable cavity region. In Q-switched mode-locking with cavity length approximate 32 cm, at a pump power of 9 W, the repetition rate and width for the Q-switched envelope were 318 kHz and 0.91 μs, and the mode-locked pulse repetition rate and pulse width were 455 MHz and 65 ps, respectively. The degree of polarization was controllable up to 95.4 ± 1.4%. In continuous wave mode-locking with cavity length approximate 118.5 cm, the repetition rate and pulse width for the continuous-wave mode-locked pulse were 125 MHz and 77 ps, respectively, at a pump power of 11 W. The degree of polarization was 90.0% ± 1.9%. Comparing to the method based on the thermal induced birefringence, the continuous wave mode-locked threshold in our study was sufficiently less than that in the previous studies with about the one-tenth ratio.
Table of Contents vii
List of figure x
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Dual-wavelength in Neodymium-doped laser 4
1.1.1 Continuous-wave operation 4
1.1.2 Pulsed operation 5
1.2 Mode-competition 8
1.2.1 Two-mode competition 8
1.2.2 Ordinary and extraordinary ray competition for cylindrical vector beam 10
Chapter 2 Dynamics behavior of dual-wavelength pulses 12
2.1 Laser spiking and relaxation-oscillation frequency 12
2.1.1 Characteristics of laser Spiking 12
2.1.2 Relaxation-oscillation frequency 15
2.2 Experimentally implement 18
2.2.1 T-type cavity configuration 18
2.2.2 Observation of competition behavior on dual-wavelength pulses 20
2.2.3 Stable period one of dual-wavelength pulse train 24
2.3 Numerical simulation of dual-wavelength pulses 26
2.3.1 Spatial-dependence rate equation 26
2.3.2 Discussion on dynamics of dual-wavelength pulses 27
2.3.3 Analysis of period one dual-wavelength pulses 30
2.3.4 Overlapping dual-wavelength pulses 32
2.4 Summary 34
Chapter 3 Dual-wavelength optical bistability from modes competition 35
3.1 Optical bistability based on orthogonal polarization modes 35
3.2 Electro-optical periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator 37
3.3 Experimental investigation of optical bistability 39
3.4 N-mode intensity growth equations 45
3.5 Summary 48
Chapter 4 Azimuthally polarized passive mode-locking 49
4.1 Characteristics of cylindrical vector beam 49
4.1.1 Generation of cylindrical vector beam 49
4.1.2 Pulsed cylindrical vector beam 50
4.2 Q-switched mode locking with azimuthally polarization 52
4.2.1 Ordinary ray preferring to oscillate region 52
4.2.2 Thermal-lens-insensitive cavity configuration 55
4.2.3 Experimental result 56
4.3 Continuous wave mode locking with azimuthally polarization 61
4.3.1 Criterion of Continuous wave mode locking 61
4.3.2 Experimental result 64
4.4 Summary 68
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